History of induced breeding final
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History of induced breeding final

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History of induced breeding final History of induced breeding final Presentation Transcript

  • History of Induced BreedingHistory of Induced Breeding && Hypophysation TechniquesHypophysation Techniques
  •  TheThe concept of fish breeding by pituitaryconcept of fish breeding by pituitary hormone injectionhormone injection is traced from theis traced from the experiments ofexperiments of HoussayHoussay of Argentinaof Argentina,, who reported thatwho reported that intra-peritonealintra-peritoneal injection of pituitary extracts from theinjection of pituitary extracts from the donor fish caused egg laying in thedonor fish caused egg laying in the catfish.catfish.  Brazilian scientistBrazilian scientist Von IheringVon Ihering and hisand his co-workersco-workers conducted successful fishconducted successful fish breeding experiments with variousbreeding experiments with various hormones in 1934.hormones in 1934.
  •  In 1937, theIn 1937, the Russian ScientistRussian Scientist Gerbil’skiiGerbil’skii attainedattained success in induced breeding ofsuccess in induced breeding of sturgeons.sturgeons.  Silver carp and grass carpSilver carp and grass carp were bred for thewere bred for the first time in Russia only in 1961first time in Russia only in 1961  Mass production of the fryMass production of the fry of these species wasof these species was achieved inachieved in 19631963  Later, a large number of investigation onLater, a large number of investigation on • Physiology of the pituitary gland,Physiology of the pituitary gland, • Its role in reproduction andIts role in reproduction and • Experiments of the pituitary treatment on fishesExperiments of the pituitary treatment on fishes have been successfully carried in Brazil, Russia,have been successfully carried in Brazil, Russia, U.S.A., Germany, Taiwan, Japan, China etc.U.S.A., Germany, Taiwan, Japan, China etc.
  • IndiaIndia  TheThe first experiment in induced breedingfirst experiment in induced breeding of fish in Indiaof fish in India was made bywas made by Hamid KhanHamid Khan in 1937in 1937 when Khan tried towhen Khan tried to induce spawn Mrigal by the injection ofinduce spawn Mrigal by the injection of mammalianmammalian pituitary gland.pituitary gland.  Attempt however proved fruitlessAttempt however proved fruitless. He was. He was successful insuccessful in strippingstripping the female but thethe female but the eggs could not beeggs could not be fertilized.fertilized.  Further no attempts in this line were made till 1955Further no attempts in this line were made till 1955  LaterLater H.L. ChaudhariH.L. Chaudhari succeeded in induced spawningsucceeded in induced spawning onon small carp species,small carp species, Esomus danricusEsomus danricus byby administering theadministering the intra-peritoneal injection of Catlaintra-peritoneal injection of Catla pituitary gland.pituitary gland.  Ramaswami and Sunderraj were successful in breedingRamaswami and Sunderraj were successful in breeding catfishes, Singhi and Magur by injection of fish pituitarycatfishes, Singhi and Magur by injection of fish pituitary extracts.extracts.
  •  TheThe first success in induced breeding of Indian Majorfirst success in induced breeding of Indian Major CarpsCarps ((L. rohitaL. rohita andand C. mrigalaC. mrigala))  By administeringBy administering fish pituitary glandfish pituitary gland  In the yearIn the year 19571957 byby H.L Chaudhari and K. H.H.L Chaudhari and K. H. AlikunhiAlikunhi at Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute,at Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, substation, Cuttack (Orissa).substation, Cuttack (Orissa).  Exotic carps in the year 1962Exotic carps in the year 1962  Since then remarkable work has been done in India inSince then remarkable work has been done in India in the field of reproductive endocrinologythe field of reproductive endocrinology • Bundh BreedingBundh Breeding • Multiple carp spawningMultiple carp spawning with the use of proper Broodstockwith the use of proper Broodstock management practicesmanagement practices
  • HYPOPHYSATION TECHNIQUESHYPOPHYSATION TECHNIQUES  IMC and Exotic carps –IMC and Exotic carps – Riverine spawnersRiverine spawners  Confined water –Confined water – No BreedingNo Breeding  Pituitary glandPituitary gland – Gonadotropins– Gonadotropins Gonadotropic hormones secreted by the pituitary glandGonadotropic hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and which play an important role in the process of maturationand which play an important role in the process of maturation and spawning are not released in sufficient quantities from theand spawning are not released in sufficient quantities from the pituitary gland (hypophysis) to the general blood circulation sopituitary gland (hypophysis) to the general blood circulation so as to trigger spawning. Therefore, for induced spawning, theas to trigger spawning. Therefore, for induced spawning, the hypophyseal hormones extracted from the pituitary of donorhypophyseal hormones extracted from the pituitary of donor fish are injected into the sexually matured fish underfish are injected into the sexually matured fish under favourable water and climatic conditions during the monsoonfavourable water and climatic conditions during the monsoon season.season.
  • Pineal glandPineal gland Hypothalamus (Brain) Neural inputs Hypothalamic peptides Releasing hormones (GnRH) Pituitary gland Gonadotropins (GTH) Gonads Gametes formation, Sec. Sexual characters Sex steroids (Androgens, Estrogens) Rainfall Temperature Photoperiod Light sensitive neuroendocrine structure with photoreceptor cells, in the anterior brain which secrete hromone melatonin which further acts on anterior hypothalamus
  • Particulars of donor fishParticulars of donor fish  Donor fishDonor fish –– The fish from which P.G is collectedThe fish from which P.G is collected  Success of breeding experiments depends onSuccess of breeding experiments depends on • Species of fishSpecies of fish • Sexual maturity/Stage of maturitySexual maturity/Stage of maturity • General conditionGeneral condition • Length & Weight of fishLength & Weight of fish
  • Stage of maturity of Donor fishStage of maturity of Donor fish  Breeding seasonBreeding season – Fully ripe gonads– Fully ripe gonads  Potency of Pituitary gland is also more just priorPotency of Pituitary gland is also more just prior to spawningto spawning  Immature or spent fishesImmature or spent fishes -- -ve-ve  Spawned fishSpawned fish (within 6-8hrs)(within 6-8hrs) -- +ve+ve  In India, Breeding season – May, June, JulyIn India, Breeding season – May, June, July  Cyprinus carpioCyprinus carpio – Universal donor– Universal donor
  • Condition of Donor fishCondition of Donor fish  Live fishLive fish is the best donoris the best donor  If not available,If not available, fresh dead specimensfresh dead specimens OrOr  SpecimensSpecimens preserved in ice upto 24 hrs at 1-preserved in ice upto 24 hrs at 1- 33oo cc can be usedcan be used
  • Source of Pituitary glandSource of Pituitary gland  Pituitary gland of any fish species or coldPituitary gland of any fish species or cold blooded animal can doblooded animal can do  No distinction regarding sexNo distinction regarding sex of the fish speciesof the fish species  Closely related species or same species areClosely related species or same species are preferredpreferred • Same species -Same species - HomoplasticHomoplastic • Other species –Other species – HeteroplaticHeteroplatic  Common carp- Universal donorCommon carp- Universal donor
  • Collection & Preservation of glandCollection & Preservation of gland  CollectionCollection  Dissection and removing a portion of scalpDissection and removing a portion of scalp  Through foramen magnumThrough foramen magnum  PreservationPreservation  Absolute alcoholAbsolute alcohol  Acetone FreezingAcetone Freezing  Immediate freezingImmediate freezing  Preparation of solution for injectionPreparation of solution for injection  Storage of extractStorage of extract  In water & GlycerineIn water & Glycerine  In propylene glycolIn propylene glycol  In Trichloro acetic acidIn Trichloro acetic acid
  • Preservation in Absolute alcoholPreservation in Absolute alcohol  Most preferred in IndiaMost preferred in India  All other methods require refrigeratorAll other methods require refrigerator  In this method, gland can be kept atIn this method, gland can be kept at room temperatureroom temperature
  • Pituitary glandPituitary gland Immediately after removal the gland is kept in vial containingImmediately after removal the gland is kept in vial containing absolute alcoholabsolute alcohol for 24 hrsfor 24 hrs AfterAfter 24 hrs, gland is washed in absolute alcohol and kept24 hrs, gland is washed in absolute alcohol and kept again in vial with fresh absolute alcoholagain in vial with fresh absolute alcohol Care has to be taken that theCare has to be taken that the gland is stored in a cool area with shadegland is stored in a cool area with shade at room temp.at room temp. Vial should be airtight and alcohol should be changed fromVial should be airtight and alcohol should be changed from time to timetime to time Absolute alcohol dehydrates and defattens the glandAbsolute alcohol dehydrates and defattens the gland Pure Absolute alcohol should be used as hormones arePure Absolute alcohol should be used as hormones are soluble in watersoluble in water
  •  Not suitable in IndiaNot suitable in India  Refrigeration is requiredRefrigeration is required  Mostly practised in U.S.A and RussiaMostly practised in U.S.A and Russia Preservation in AcetonePreservation in Acetone
  • Pituitary glandPituitary gland Immediately after removal the gland is kept in vial containingImmediately after removal the gland is kept in vial containing fresh or ice chilledfresh or ice chilled acetoneacetone The vial with acetone and gland is kept in refrigerator for 36-The vial with acetone and gland is kept in refrigerator for 36- 48 hrs48 hrs Care has to be taken that during this period after 8-12 hrs the acetoneCare has to be taken that during this period after 8-12 hrs the acetone should be changed 2-3 timesshould be changed 2-3 times Acetone dehydrates and defattens the glandAcetone dehydrates and defattens the gland
  • Preservation by Immediate freezingPreservation by Immediate freezing  Fresh glands are immediately frozenFresh glands are immediately frozen after collection by keeping themafter collection by keeping them refrigerators or insulated cans havingrefrigerators or insulated cans having dry icedry ice
  • Preparation of solution for injectionPreparation of solution for injection  Pituitary gland is taken out of the vialPituitary gland is taken out of the vial  Kept for 1-2 min of a piece of filter paper so that theKept for 1-2 min of a piece of filter paper so that the alcohol evapouratesalcohol evapourates  If acetone preserved- No needIf acetone preserved- No need  Gland is taken inGland is taken in Tissue homogenizerTissue homogenizer withwith littlelittle quantity of D.W or 0.3% Salt solutionquantity of D.W or 0.3% Salt solution andand maceratedmacerated properly (0.6% for Chinese carp)properly (0.6% for Chinese carp)  Dilution of suspension @ 2-3 mg of p.g. in 0.1 ml ofDilution of suspension @ 2-3 mg of p.g. in 0.1 ml of mediamedia  Max. dose – 1 ml and min. dose – 0.1 mlMax. dose – 1 ml and min. dose – 0.1 ml  Now the suspension is taken in a centrifuge tube andNow the suspension is taken in a centrifuge tube and centifuged and clear supernatent is takencentifuged and clear supernatent is taken
  • Dose of Pituitary extractDose of Pituitary extract  Proper dose is essentialProper dose is essential  Low dose – No effectLow dose – No effect  High dose –High dose – Premature release of ovaPremature release of ova  Female 2 injectionsFemale 2 injections  I - 2-3 mg/kgI - 2-3 mg/kg  II – 5-8 mg/kgII – 5-8 mg/kg  Male 1 injectionMale 1 injection  I – 2-3 mg/kgI – 2-3 mg/kg  Knock out dose to females (Sometimes)Knock out dose to females (Sometimes)
  • Methods of InjectionMethods of Injection  Intra-muscularIntra-muscular  Intra- PeritonealIntra- Peritoneal  Intra-cranialIntra-cranial
  • Identification of male and femaleIdentification of male and female breedersbreeders  Carps are sexually dimorphicCarps are sexually dimorphic  Identification on the basis ofIdentification on the basis of Secondary Sexual characters whichSecondary Sexual characters which are prominent in their breeding seasonare prominent in their breeding season
  • Characters Male Female Scale Rough with sandy texture Smooth and silky Pectoral fin Rough with sandy touch particularly on the dorsal side. Fins are slightly stouter and longer Smooth and slippery Fins are smaller in length Abdomen Round, firm and not soft Bulging and soft Vent Elongated slit introvert (concave). White in colour Round slit extrovert (convex). Fleshy and pinkish in colour Pressure if applied on abdomen Milky white fluid runs out of vent Slight yellowish ova oozes out of the vent
  • Selection of breeders for breedingSelection of breeders for breeding  Success of experiment – SuitableSuccess of experiment – Suitable breedersbreeders  MaleMale –– Fully ripe with oozing miltFully ripe with oozing milt  FemaleFemale –– Soft, round, bulgingSoft, round, bulging abdomen with pinkish swollen ventabdomen with pinkish swollen vent  Age groupAge group –– 2-4 years2-4 years  WeightWeight -- 1 kg to 5 kg1 kg to 5 kg  Medium sized breeders are preferredMedium sized breeders are preferred i) Easy to handlei) Easy to handle ii) High fecundityii) High fecundity
  • Collection of breeders & InjectionCollection of breeders & Injection  Collection with hand netCollection with hand net  WeighingWeighing  Brought on the field tableBrought on the field table  Hormonal suspension is preparedHormonal suspension is prepared  As per the weight of brooders,As per the weight of brooders, suspension is injected in the body of thesuspension is injected in the body of the fish with the help offish with the help of hypodermic syringehypodermic syringe
  • Inducing appliancesInducing appliances
  • Air Driven Vaccinating GunAir Driven Vaccinating Gun
  • Kaycee FishjectorKaycee Fishjector
  • Socorex injectorsSocorex injectors
  • Socorex Twin injectorsSocorex Twin injectors
  • RalGun Pellet Injector
  • Glass Syringes Disposable Syringes
  • Breeding devicesBreeding devices  Once the fishes are injected, they are introduced intoOnce the fishes are injected, they are introduced into the Breeding devicesthe Breeding devices  Different breeding devices evolved over the period ofDifferent breeding devices evolved over the period of 50 years are50 years are  Breeding hapaBreeding hapa  Bundh/Bundh breedingBundh/Bundh breeding • Wet bundhWet bundh • Dry bundhDry bundh  Spawning poolSpawning pool of Chinese Circular Hatcheryof Chinese Circular Hatchery
  • Breeding hapaBreeding hapa  Box shaped rectangular containerBox shaped rectangular container  All the sides are stitched except topAll the sides are stitched except top  Cloth – Mosquito net clothCloth – Mosquito net cloth  Ropes at corners for tying to the bamboo polesRopes at corners for tying to the bamboo poles  Lace system/Loop systemLace system/Loop system  Can be erected in pond/river/Jheel etc.Can be erected in pond/river/Jheel etc. (15-20 cm(15-20 cm above water)above water)
  • Breeding hapaBreeding hapa
  • Breeding hapaBreeding hapa  Size of hapa for different age group of fishesSize of hapa for different age group of fishes Size of Hapa Weight of fish 3.5 x 1.5 x 1.0 m > 5 kg 3.0 x 1.5 x 1.0 m 3-5 kg 2.5 x 1.2 x 1.0 m 1-3 kg 1.8 x 0.9 x 0.9 m 1 kg
  •  Injected breeders are introduced in the hapaInjected breeders are introduced in the hapa  One set of fishOne set of fish (1 females : 2 males)(1 females : 2 males)  Weight of 2 male brooders should beWeight of 2 male brooders should be ≥≥ 1 female1 female  2 males are introduced2 males are introduced - Increases competition- Increases competition - Greater extent of spawning- Greater extent of spawning - Higher fertilization percentage- Higher fertilization percentage - Better chance of synchronization of shedding- Better chance of synchronization of shedding the gametes at the same timethe gametes at the same time Breeding hapaBreeding hapa
  •  DisadvantagesDisadvantages  OnlyOnly one pair of fish can be introducedone pair of fish can be introduced  InconvenienceInconvenience in transferring the eggsin transferring the eggs  LabourLabour  High recurring costHigh recurring cost compared tocompared to short durabilityshort durability Breeding hapaBreeding hapa
  • BundhsBundhs  BundhBundh is a small, shallow, pond like depressionis a small, shallow, pond like depression in the middle, bounded on four sides by highin the middle, bounded on four sides by high earthen embankmentsearthen embankments  Situated at theSituated at the gradient slope of a vast rainfallgradient slope of a vast rainfall encatchmentencatchment  Fourth side kept open,Fourth side kept open, Serves asServes as outletoutlet forfor surplus watersurplus water  Shape –Shape – Square/Rectangular/IrregularSquare/Rectangular/Irregular  Size –Size – 0.1-10 ha0.1-10 ha
  • Types of BundhsTypes of Bundhs  The bundhs are of two typesThe bundhs are of two types  Wet bundhWet bundh (perennial bundhs)(perennial bundhs)  Dry bundhDry bundh (seasonal bundhs)(seasonal bundhs)
  •  A typical wet bundh is aA typical wet bundh is a perennial pond/tankperennial pond/tank situated in the slope of a vast catchment areasituated in the slope of a vast catchment area of undulating terrain with proper embankmentof undulating terrain with proper embankment and having an inlet towards the upland and anand having an inlet towards the upland and an outlet on the opposite side.outlet on the opposite side.  It has anIt has an extensive shallow area which dries upextensive shallow area which dries up during the summerduring the summer  The actualThe actual pond/tank reservoir retains waterpond/tank reservoir retains water throughout the yearthroughout the year, where an, where an adequate stockadequate stock of natural brood carp is maintained.of natural brood carp is maintained. Wet BundhsWet Bundhs
  • Heavy showerHeavy shower Freshwater with washings from the upland areas rushes into the bundh and the tank/reservoirs may even over flow and the major portion of the tank bed gets submerged. The excess water drains out through the outlet which is guarded by bamboo fencing (locally termed as “Chhera”) or by a suitable wire mesh net so that eggs do not get washed off. The shallow gradual sloping areas of the bundh called “Moans” in West Bengal are the main spawning grounds. It stimulates the spawners and milters in the bundh and they migrate from the deeper part to the shallow marginal area, and start breeding at suitable breeding grounds.
  •  A dry bundh is aA dry bundh is a shallow depressionshallow depression enclosed by an earthen wall (locallyenclosed by an earthen wall (locally known as bundh) on three sides whichknown as bundh) on three sides which impound fresh rain water from theimpound fresh rain water from the catchment area during the monsooncatchment area during the monsoon season.season.  Such impoundment remainsSuch impoundment remains more or lessmore or less dry during the greater part of the year.dry during the greater part of the year. Dry BundhsDry Bundhs
  • Dry Bundh
  •  TheThe topography of the land has a great role in thetopography of the land has a great role in the location and distribution of dry bundhs.location and distribution of dry bundhs.  TheThe undulating landundulating land which provides awhich provides a large catchmentlarge catchment area for quick filling of the bundh even with short rainarea for quick filling of the bundh even with short rain and at the same timeand at the same time quick and easy drainage,quick and easy drainage, provides aprovides a suitable environment for dry bundhsuitable environment for dry bundh breeding.breeding.  Such areas in West Bengal are concentrated mostly inSuch areas in West Bengal are concentrated mostly in the districts ofthe districts of MidnapurMidnapur andand BankuraBankura and otherand other adjoining areas, where at present as many as 1400adjoining areas, where at present as many as 1400 bundhs exist.bundhs exist.  The soil of the dry bundhs in these two districts has aThe soil of the dry bundhs in these two districts has a favourable character for bundh breeding and is mostlyfavourable character for bundh breeding and is mostly red lateritered laterite. It is. It is hard in the dry seasonhard in the dry season andand becomesbecomes sticky during the rains.sticky during the rains. Dry BundhsDry Bundhs
  •  Other provices other than West Bengal areOther provices other than West Bengal are • Western parts of IndiaWestern parts of India which havewhich have large undulatinglarge undulating and forest areas providing suitable topography forand forest areas providing suitable topography for bundh breeding and also possess large areas withbundh breeding and also possess large areas with laterite soillaterite soil.. • e.g.e.g. Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, southern andMadhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, southern and eastern districts of Maharashtraeastern districts of Maharashtra • Dry bundh (West Bengal) - Smaller (0.1 to 0.3 ha)Dry bundh (West Bengal) - Smaller (0.1 to 0.3 ha) • Dry bundh (Madhya Pradesh) - Bigger (0.2 to 2 ha).Dry bundh (Madhya Pradesh) - Bigger (0.2 to 2 ha). Dry BundhsDry Bundhs
  •  There is also an important observationThere is also an important observation that in Bankura and other districts ofthat in Bankura and other districts of West BengalWest Bengal  Sympathetic breeding responseSympathetic breeding response Dry BundhsDry Bundhs
  • Sympathetic breeding responseSympathetic breeding response  Gravid carps from the perennial ponds are transferred to theGravid carps from the perennial ponds are transferred to the breeding bundh.breeding bundh.  Ratio of male : female -Ratio of male : female - 1:11:1  TheThe spawners are allowed to remain forspawners are allowed to remain for 10–12 hours10–12 hours in order toin order to getget acclimatisedacclimatised to the environment.to the environment.  AA few sets of males and females are then selectedfew sets of males and females are then selected and taken outand taken out from the bundh andfrom the bundh and placed in separated mosquito net hapas.placed in separated mosquito net hapas.  The selected female breeders are taken out of the hapas andThe selected female breeders are taken out of the hapas and injected intramuscularly with fresh pituitary extract.injected intramuscularly with fresh pituitary extract.  The injected spawners are thenThe injected spawners are then released into the breeding bundh.released into the breeding bundh.  ThenThen inlets and outlets of the bundh are lifted to allow the entry ofinlets and outlets of the bundh are lifted to allow the entry of a steady flow of water from the reservoir into the breeding bundha steady flow of water from the reservoir into the breeding bundh soon after breeding takes place.soon after breeding takes place.
  • Distinguishing features of Wet and Dry BundhsDistinguishing features of Wet and Dry Bundhs Wet Bundh Dry bundh 1. Perinnial tank, small or large or irrigation reservoir having suitable topography for breeding. 1. Seasonal small pond/tank. 2. Uncontrolled and difficult to manage. 2. Controlled and can be easily managed. 3. Egg collection is difficult. 3. Egg collection is easy. 4. Mixed type of spawn is produced. 4. Desired quality of spawn can be produced. 5. Breeding is not controlled and is mostly once a year. 5. Can be operated 3-4 times or more in the season. 6. Less economical as compared to a dry bundh. 6. Much more economical than a wet bundh.
  • Collection of eggs from bundhsCollection of eggs from bundhs  Egg collection startsEgg collection starts as soon as theas soon as the embryo startsembryo starts twitching movements.twitching movements.  To collect eggs, theTo collect eggs, the water level of the bundh should bewater level of the bundh should be lowered by opening the outlet.lowered by opening the outlet.  Eggs are generally netted by a piece of thin cotton clothEggs are generally netted by a piece of thin cotton cloth ((gamchagamcha) or a piece of mosquito netting cloth.) or a piece of mosquito netting cloth.  In such areas aIn such areas a series of earthen pits are constructedseries of earthen pits are constructed with water flow facilities.with water flow facilities.  Fertilized eggs are allowed to hatch in these pitsFertilized eggs are allowed to hatch in these pits andand thethe spawn are collected after three days.spawn are collected after three days.  Spawn are usually sold at the bundh site.Spawn are usually sold at the bundh site.
  • What actually stimulates the fish toWhat actually stimulates the fish to breed in Bundhs ?breed in Bundhs ?  The lateritic soil,The lateritic soil,  Sufficient rainfall,Sufficient rainfall,  Current of the running water,Current of the running water,  Optimum temperature,Optimum temperature,  Change in pH,Change in pH,  High dissolved oxygen,High dissolved oxygen,  Sudden decrease in specific conductivitySudden decrease in specific conductivity
  • Shooting net A new design of gamcha for automatic sieving of spawn
  • Bangla BundhBangla Bundh  Dry type of cemented bundhDry type of cemented bundh tank with specifiedtank with specified slopes at sides and bottom.slopes at sides and bottom.  Masonry structure with arrangement of proper outletMasonry structure with arrangement of proper outlet for excess water and complete drainage.for excess water and complete drainage.  TheThe side slopes of the tankside slopes of the tank are eitherare either brick-pitched andbrick-pitched and entirely plastered with cement mortar.entirely plastered with cement mortar.  The tank bed is evenly covered with aThe tank bed is evenly covered with a layer of coarselayer of coarse sand 10-15 cm thick.sand 10-15 cm thick.  AfterAfter 2 or 3 continuous breeding operations2 or 3 continuous breeding operations thethe oldold sand is removed, cleaned and sun-dried for its re-usesand is removed, cleaned and sun-dried for its re-use,, otherwiseotherwise fresh sand is spreadfresh sand is spread..  TheThe sand layer at the bottom may or may not besand layer at the bottom may or may not be required if the bottom of the bundh is cemented.required if the bottom of the bundh is cemented.
  •  AdvantageAdvantage –– Can be constructed on any type of soil.Can be constructed on any type of soil.  Ideal ShapeIdeal Shape -- Trapezoidal or rectangularTrapezoidal or rectangular (although the square(although the square or irregular pools are also do).or irregular pools are also do).  Advantages of the trapezoid shape areAdvantages of the trapezoid shape are::  The gradual spread of the water from the narrower diagonalThe gradual spread of the water from the narrower diagonal side wall to the opposite broader side wall of the tankside wall to the opposite broader side wall of the tank slowsslows down the water flow into adown the water flow into a feeble current,feeble current,  TheThe interaction with the two longitudinal flow of waterinteraction with the two longitudinal flow of water (one(one formed due to slope gradient of the tank bottom and the otherformed due to slope gradient of the tank bottom and the other created artificially and simultaneously from the oppositecreated artificially and simultaneously from the opposite direction) tends todirection) tends to rotate the water in a circular pattern,rotate the water in a circular pattern, although the surface water appears to be a laminar flow only,although the surface water appears to be a laminar flow only, andand  TheThe longitudinal shape of the bundh provides the long run to thelongitudinal shape of the bundh provides the long run to the fishes during their breeding activity, resulting in prolongedfishes during their breeding activity, resulting in prolonged spawning.spawning. Bangla BundhBangla Bundh
  •  Ideal SizeIdeal Size ––  Length – 20-25 m WLength – 20-25 m W  Width 5-8 mWidth 5-8 m  Avg. size of 0.01-0.02 hAvg. size of 0.01-0.02 h  Can accommodateCan accommodate 15-25 brood females of15-25 brood females of total weight of 40-50kgtotal weight of 40-50kg andand 20-30 mature20-30 mature males of total weight of 40-60 kg in everymales of total weight of 40-60 kg in every successful operationsuccessful operation and can produceand can produce 4-84-8 million eggs at a timemillion eggs at a time.. Bangla BundhBangla Bundh
  •  AboutAbout 60% of the area of the bundh, i.e., the60% of the area of the bundh, i.e., the narrower part is shallownarrower part is shallow and theand the rest is deeprest is deep and broad.and broad.  TheThe zone nearer the outlet is deepestzone nearer the outlet is deepest forfor complete drainage of water by the gravitationalcomplete drainage of water by the gravitational force.force.  TheThe longitudinal and transverse slopes of thelongitudinal and transverse slopes of the floor of the tank are so constructed as to createfloor of the tank are so constructed as to create and maintain feeble currentand maintain feeble current of water by theof water by the gravitational forcegravitational force  The depths of the bundh at different zones isThe depths of the bundh at different zones is different - Individual fishes of different size anddifferent - Individual fishes of different size and speciesspecies Bangla BundhBangla Bundh
  •  AA lacustrine environment is providedlacustrine environment is provided by maintaining anby maintaining an inflow of waterinflow of water at a speed ofat a speed of 2-3 m/sec with the help of2-3 m/sec with the help of a 5 H.P. pump set.a 5 H.P. pump set.  TheThe inlet pipe with arrangement of controlled sluiceinlet pipe with arrangement of controlled sluice valve is fitted near the top corner dyke at the deepestvalve is fitted near the top corner dyke at the deepest zone.zone.  TheThe outlet drainage pipe fitted with a controlled sluiceoutlet drainage pipe fitted with a controlled sluice valve is placed down below the inlet on the floor of thevalve is placed down below the inlet on the floor of the tanktank so as to facilitate immediate complete drainage ofso as to facilitate immediate complete drainage of the water within a very short time.the water within a very short time.  This system provides advantages in the collection of theThis system provides advantages in the collection of the fertilized eggsfertilized eggs Bangla BundhBangla Bundh
  •  The showering system may preferably beThe showering system may preferably be kept along the transverse side walls orkept along the transverse side walls or over the tank for oxygenation & coolingover the tank for oxygenation & cooling the water.the water. Bangla BundhBangla Bundh
  •  Deeper zones filled with clean and clear water prior toDeeper zones filled with clean and clear water prior to the experimentthe experiment  Selected breeders are kept sexwise in two separateSelected breeders are kept sexwise in two separate hapas (fixed in a pond or pool) for conditioning andhapas (fixed in a pond or pool) for conditioning and emptying their digestive tract in the deeper water for 4emptying their digestive tract in the deeper water for 4 hrs.hrs.  In the evening the stored water is drained out & theIn the evening the stored water is drained out & the fresh water is introduced again at the time of the firstfresh water is introduced again at the time of the first dose of injectiondose of injection  Finally the bundh is filled up only a few minutes beforeFinally the bundh is filled up only a few minutes before the second (i.e., final) injection to the breeders whichthe second (i.e., final) injection to the breeders which are released directly there for spawning.are released directly there for spawning.   Ratio of male: female – 10:12Ratio of male: female – 10:12 Bangla Bundh (Breeding operations)Bangla Bundh (Breeding operations)
  •  Chinese Circular HatcheryChinese Circular Hatchery  The Chinese spawning and hatching systemsThe Chinese spawning and hatching systems are based onare based on continuous flow of water bycontinuous flow of water by gravity to breed carps and hatch the eggs.gravity to breed carps and hatch the eggs.  In India also, the Chinese hatchery system isIn India also, the Chinese hatchery system is now considered to benow considered to be highly suitable for thehighly suitable for the production of quality fish seed.production of quality fish seed.  One can breed the fishes, incubate and hatchOne can breed the fishes, incubate and hatch the eggs in the same unitthe eggs in the same unit Circular Spawning poolCircular Spawning pool
  •  The 4 main components areThe 4 main components are  Overhead water storage tankOverhead water storage tank,,  Spawning/ breeding tankSpawning/ breeding tank,,  Incubation tankIncubation tank andand  Spawn receiving pond/SpawnerySpawn receiving pond/Spawnery.. Components of Circular Circular HatcheryComponents of Circular Circular Hatchery
  • Layout of Chinese Circular HatcheryLayout of Chinese Circular Hatchery
  •  The floor of the tank should beThe floor of the tank should be 2.6m. above2.6m. above ground level.ground level.  The inside dimension should be 5.5 x 2.7 xThe inside dimension should be 5.5 x 2.7 x 2.2m and it should have a2.2m and it should have a 30,000 liters30,000 liters capacity.capacity.  Water supply to the overhead tank should beWater supply to the overhead tank should be arranged by pumping water from anarranged by pumping water from an open wellopen well or a deep tube-well.or a deep tube-well.  TheThe overhead tank is used to supply sufficientoverhead tank is used to supply sufficient water for the spawning, incubation and storagewater for the spawning, incubation and storage tanks.tanks. Overhead water storage tankOverhead water storage tank
  •  It is aIt is a circular masonary/concrete poolcircular masonary/concrete pool with an insidewith an inside diameter ofdiameter of 8 m.8 m.  Cylindroconical in shape.Cylindroconical in shape.  Water Holding Capacity :Water Holding Capacity : 50 cubic metres50 cubic metres  The insideThe inside depth at the peripherydepth at the periphery -- 1.20 m1.20 m. which. which slopes down to the centre atslopes down to the centre at 1.50m.1.50m.  AA water supply line is laid along the outside of the wallwater supply line is laid along the outside of the wall,, and the inlet to the pool is provided atand the inlet to the pool is provided at 14-16 places14-16 places equally spaced andequally spaced and fixed at an angle of 45°fixed at an angle of 45° to theto the radius of the tankradius of the tank using a 20 mm. diameter pipeusing a 20 mm. diameter pipe with awith a nozzle mouth,nozzle mouth, all arranged in one directionall arranged in one direction..  These areThese are fixed to the vertical wall and the nozzlefixed to the vertical wall and the nozzle mouth is flush with cement plaster face and near themouth is flush with cement plaster face and near the bottom along the periphery of the pond.bottom along the periphery of the pond. Spawning pool / Breeding tankSpawning pool / Breeding tank
  •  It is fitted with anIt is fitted with an valve at the centrevalve at the centre, on, on opening the valve, fertilized eggs along withopening the valve, fertilized eggs along with water are transferred into incubation pond forwater are transferred into incubation pond for hatching.hatching.  TheThe Water flow in the spawning pool creates anWater flow in the spawning pool creates an artificial riverine condition for the fish to breed.artificial riverine condition for the fish to breed.  TheThe showers at the topshowers at the top are useful toare useful to increaseincrease the dissolved oxygenthe dissolved oxygen..  AboutAbout 70 kg. of males70 kg. of males andand 70 kg. of females70 kg. of females can be kept in the spawning tank which cancan be kept in the spawning tank which can yield 10 millions of eggs in one breedingyield 10 millions of eggs in one breeding operation.operation.
  •  There areThere are two circular incubation pools each of 3.6 m. internaltwo circular incubation pools each of 3.6 m. internal diameter.diameter.  There areThere are 2 chambers in each pool.2 chambers in each pool.  The diameter of the outer chamber is 4 m. having an outerThe diameter of the outer chamber is 4 m. having an outer masonry/ concrete wall.masonry/ concrete wall.  Another circular wall with a fixed nylon screen is provided at 0.76Another circular wall with a fixed nylon screen is provided at 0.76 m. clear distance from the outer wall.m. clear distance from the outer wall.  These tanks are about 1 metre in depth with 9-12 cubic metres ofThese tanks are about 1 metre in depth with 9-12 cubic metres of water holding capacity.water holding capacity.  They hold 70,000 eggs/cubic metre.They hold 70,000 eggs/cubic metre.  The inner chamber is provided with 10 cm. diameter vertical outletThe inner chamber is provided with 10 cm. diameter vertical outlet in the form of PVC pipe for taking out excess of water of thein the form of PVC pipe for taking out excess of water of the incubation pond.incubation pond.  The spawn along with water, flows from these ponds to spawnThe spawn along with water, flows from these ponds to spawn collection pond (Spawnery).collection pond (Spawnery). Incubation poolIncubation pool
  •  8 number of nozzles are fitted in the floor8 number of nozzles are fitted in the floor of theof the incubation pond, with each outlet having duck mouthincubation pond, with each outlet having duck mouth opening fixed at anopening fixed at an angle of 45° towards inner wall.angle of 45° towards inner wall.  All the nozzles are fixed in one direction only.All the nozzles are fixed in one direction only.  There is anThere is an outlet of 7.5 cm. diameter through whichoutlet of 7.5 cm. diameter through which the spawn pass into the spawn receiving pond.the spawn pass into the spawn receiving pond.  This opening is also used for complete dewateringThis opening is also used for complete dewatering ofof the outer chamber of the incubation pool.the outer chamber of the incubation pool.  Desired water movement is aboutDesired water movement is about 0.2-0.3 m/sec.0.2-0.3 m/sec. Incubation poolIncubation pool
  •  This is aThis is a rectangular masonry concrete tank.rectangular masonry concrete tank.  The inside dimensions -The inside dimensions - 4 x 2.5 x 1.2 m.4 x 2.5 x 1.2 m.  Located at a lower elevationLocated at a lower elevation than thethan the incubation pond so as to drain out the waterincubation pond so as to drain out the water from it by gravity.from it by gravity.  Water supply from the overhead tank isWater supply from the overhead tank is provided by a 7.5 cm. dia pipe lineprovided by a 7.5 cm. dia pipe line,, bifurcatedbifurcated into 3 numbers of 3 cm. diameter pipelinesinto 3 numbers of 3 cm. diameter pipelines.. These pipelines are arranged so as to provideThese pipelines are arranged so as to provide thethe spray for aerationspray for aeration..  From each of the incubation ponds 7.5 cm.From each of the incubation ponds 7.5 cm. diameter pipes are provided for transferringdiameter pipes are provided for transferring and regulating spawn intake into the spawnand regulating spawn intake into the spawn Spawn receiving pond/SpawnerySpawn receiving pond/Spawnery
  •  Hooks are fixed in two opposite side wallsHooks are fixed in two opposite side walls of the pond for fixing the net for theof the pond for fixing the net for the collection of spawn.collection of spawn.  StepsSteps are also provided for getting intoare also provided for getting into the pond for the collection of spawn.the pond for the collection of spawn.  TheThe overflow from this pond is dischargedoverflow from this pond is discharged into an open drain and suitably utilized ininto an open drain and suitably utilized in the earthen ponds, if possible.the earthen ponds, if possible. Spawn Receiving Pond/SpawnerySpawn Receiving Pond/Spawnery
  • Operation of the Chinese hatcheryOperation of the Chinese hatchery