Breeding devices
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Breeding devices

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    Breeding devices Breeding devices Presentation Transcript

    • Breeding DevicesBreeding Devices
    •  The devices in which breeding activitiesThe devices in which breeding activities of fishes are carried out are called asof fishes are carried out are called as ‘Breeding devices’.‘Breeding devices’.  Various breeding devices used areVarious breeding devices used are • Cloth hapa/Breeding hapaCloth hapa/Breeding hapa • BundhsBundhs • Circular spawning poolCircular spawning pool
    • Breeding/Cloth HapaBreeding/Cloth Hapa  Box shaped rectangular containerBox shaped rectangular container provided with ropesprovided with ropes at its four top and bottom corners for tying withat its four top and bottom corners for tying with bamboo poles.bamboo poles.  All theAll the sides of the hapa are stitched and closedsides of the hapa are stitched and closed except the upper horizontal wallexcept the upper horizontal wall, through which the, through which the injected breeders are introduced into the hapa.injected breeders are introduced into the hapa.  The breeding hapa is made out ofThe breeding hapa is made out of fine meshedfine meshed mosquito net clothmosquito net cloth which allows the proper circulationwhich allows the proper circulation of water through it & will not cause suffocation to theof water through it & will not cause suffocation to the breeders.breeders.  The meshes of cloth for the breeding hapa should notThe meshes of cloth for the breeding hapa should not be so big that the laid eggs & milt might escapebe so big that the laid eggs & milt might escape through them & aquatic insects and copepods maythrough them & aquatic insects and copepods may get access into the hapa and damage the eggs.get access into the hapa and damage the eggs.
    • Breeding hapa
    •  Various sizesVarious sizes of breeding hapa may be made according to theof breeding hapa may be made according to the breeding of different size groups of fishes. They arebreeding of different size groups of fishes. They are • 3.5 x 1.5 x 1.0 m3.5 x 1.5 x 1.0 m for breeders weighing overfor breeders weighing over 5kg5kg.. • 3.0 x 1.5 x 1.0 m3.0 x 1.5 x 1.0 m for breeders weighing formfor breeders weighing form 3-5 kg3-5 kg.. • 2.5 x 1.2 x 1.0 m2.5 x 1.2 x 1.0 m for breeders weighing formfor breeders weighing form 1-3 kg1-3 kg.. • 1.8 x 0.9 x 0.9 m1.8 x 0.9 x 0.9 m for breeders weighing formfor breeders weighing form below 1 kgbelow 1 kg..  The hapa isThe hapa is tied to four bamboo poles by means of ropestied to four bamboo poles by means of ropes at itsat its four upper & bottom corners & fixed either in afour upper & bottom corners & fixed either in a pond, channel,pond, channel, nullah, river or jheelnullah, river or jheel which should not get inundated (filled)which should not get inundated (filled) quickly with a heavy showerquickly with a heavy shower, because with the rapid increase in, because with the rapid increase in depth of water, the hapa is submerged.depth of water, the hapa is submerged.  While fixing, the hapa is kept in a stretched condition & in suchWhile fixing, the hapa is kept in a stretched condition & in such a way that abouta way that about 15-20 cm of it remains above the water15-20 cm of it remains above the water..  The hapa should also be fixed carefully so that itsThe hapa should also be fixed carefully so that its lowerlower horizontal flap is not in contact with the muddy pond bottomhorizontal flap is not in contact with the muddy pond bottom..
    • BundhsBundhs  Bundhs areBundhs are special type of perennial or seasonal tanksspecial type of perennial or seasonal tanks or impoundments located at the slope of vastor impoundments located at the slope of vast catchment area.catchment area.  After aAfter a heavy showerheavy shower, the bundhs, the bundhs receive largereceive large quantities of rain water with washings from theirquantities of rain water with washings from their extensive catchment areasextensive catchment areas and whereinand wherein riverineriverine conditions are simulated.conditions are simulated.  TheThe vast shallow marginal areas serve as spawningvast shallow marginal areas serve as spawning grounds for the fish.grounds for the fish.  Majority of such bundh type tanks are located in theMajority of such bundh type tanks are located in the districts ofdistricts of midnapore and bankura in West Bengal andmidnapore and bankura in West Bengal and in the state of Madhya Pradeshin the state of Madhya Pradesh
    •  The bundhs are of two typesThe bundhs are of two types i) Wet bundhsi) Wet bundhs ii) Dry bundhii) Dry bundh i) Wet bundhsi) Wet bundhs  A typical wet bundh is aA typical wet bundh is a perennial pond/tankperennial pond/tank situated in thesituated in the slopeslope of a vast catchment area of undulating terrain.of a vast catchment area of undulating terrain.  It has anIt has an extensive shallow area which dries up during theextensive shallow area which dries up during the summersummer but thebut the actual pond/tank reservoir retains wateractual pond/tank reservoir retains water throughout the year, where an adequate stock of natural broodthroughout the year, where an adequate stock of natural brood carp is maintained.carp is maintained.  After a heavy monsoon shower, freshwater from the upland areasAfter a heavy monsoon shower, freshwater from the upland areas rushes into the bundh and the tank/reservoirs may even over flowrushes into the bundh and the tank/reservoirs may even over flow and the major portion of the tank bed gets submerged.and the major portion of the tank bed gets submerged.  The excess water drains out through the outlet which is guardedThe excess water drains out through the outlet which is guarded by bamboo fencing (locally termed asby bamboo fencing (locally termed as “Chhera”“Chhera”) or by a suitable) or by a suitable wire mesh net so that eggs do not get washed off.wire mesh net so that eggs do not get washed off.
    • A typical wet bundh
    •  The shallow gradual sloping areas of the bundh calledThe shallow gradual sloping areas of the bundh called “Moans”“Moans” in West Bengal are the main spawningin West Bengal are the main spawning grounds.grounds.  As soon as the monsoon rain starts, and the wet bundhAs soon as the monsoon rain starts, and the wet bundh gets inundated, the stimulated spawners and milters ingets inundated, the stimulated spawners and milters in the bundh migrate from the deeper part to the shallowthe bundh migrate from the deeper part to the shallow marginal area, and start breeding.marginal area, and start breeding.  IfIf breeding grounds are shallow with a gradual slopebreeding grounds are shallow with a gradual slope the breeding is more intense and egg collectionthe breeding is more intense and egg collection becomes easybecomes easy, whereas from the, whereas from the deeper portion itdeeper portion it becomes difficult and a good quantity of eggs is thusbecomes difficult and a good quantity of eggs is thus lost.lost.  However, experience has shown thatHowever, experience has shown that bigger-sized catlabigger-sized catla generally breeds in the deeper side of the catchmentgenerally breeds in the deeper side of the catchment area as compared to mrigal and rohu, which breed inarea as compared to mrigal and rohu, which breed in the shallow area.the shallow area.
    • ii) Dry bundhii) Dry bundh  A dry bundh has been described asA dry bundh has been described as shallow depression enclosed byshallow depression enclosed by an earthen wall (locally known as bundh) on three sides whichan earthen wall (locally known as bundh) on three sides which impound fresh rain water from the catchment area during theimpound fresh rain water from the catchment area during the monsoon season.monsoon season.  Such impoundmentSuch impoundment remains more or less dry during the greaterremains more or less dry during the greater part of the year.part of the year.  Gravid carps from the perennial ponds are transferredGravid carps from the perennial ponds are transferred to theto the breeding bundh. Generally, the ratio of male and female spawnersbreeding bundh. Generally, the ratio of male and female spawners is maintained atis maintained at 1:1 by weight and 2:1 by number1:1 by weight and 2:1 by number,, but sometimesbut sometimes this proportion is not strictly followed.this proportion is not strictly followed. TheThe spawners are allowed tospawners are allowed to remain for 10–12 hours in order to get acclimatisedremain for 10–12 hours in order to get acclimatised to theto the environment.environment.  The selected female breeders are taken out of the hapas andThe selected female breeders are taken out of the hapas and injected intramuscularly with hormone for breeding.injected intramuscularly with hormone for breeding.  Sympathetic breeding responseSympathetic breeding response  In one such bundh 5–6 breeding operations can be taken up inIn one such bundh 5–6 breeding operations can be taken up in one seasonone season, subject to availability of spawners and fresh water., subject to availability of spawners and fresh water.  Before starting the next breeding operationBefore starting the next breeding operation in the same bundh,in the same bundh, thethe water is completely drained out and it is allowed to dry.water is completely drained out and it is allowed to dry.
    • Collection of eggs from bundhsCollection of eggs from bundhs  Egg collection starts as soon as the embryo starts twitchingEgg collection starts as soon as the embryo starts twitching movements.movements.  To collect eggs, theTo collect eggs, the water level of the bundh should be loweredwater level of the bundh should be lowered by opening the outlet.by opening the outlet.  Eggs are generally netted byEggs are generally netted by a piece of thin cotton clotha piece of thin cotton cloth (gamcha)(gamcha) oror a piece of mosquito netting cloth.a piece of mosquito netting cloth.  In such areasIn such areas a series of earthen pits are constructed witha series of earthen pits are constructed with water flow facilitieswater flow facilities..  Fertilized eggs are allowed to hatch in these pitsFertilized eggs are allowed to hatch in these pits and theand the spawn are collected after three days.spawn are collected after three days.  Spawn are usually sold at the bundh site.Spawn are usually sold at the bundh site.
    • Wet Bundh Dry bundh 1. Perennial tank, small or large or irrigation reservoir having suitable topography for breeding. 1. Seasonal small pond/tank. 2. Uncontrolled and difficult to manage. 2. Controlled and can be easily managed. 3. Egg collection is difficult. 3. Egg collection is easy. 4. Mixed type of spawn is produced. 4. Desired quality of spawn can be produced. 5. Breeding is not controlled and is mostly once a year. 5. Can be operated 3-4 times or more in the season. 6. Less economical as compared to a dry bundh. 6. Much more economical than a wet bundh.
    • Circular Spawning PoolCircular Spawning Pool  It is aIt is a circular masonary/concrete poolcircular masonary/concrete pool with anwith an inside diameter of 8 m.inside diameter of 8 m.  It hasIt has 50 cubic metres of water holding capacity50 cubic metres of water holding capacity..  TheThe inside depth at the periphery is 1.20 m. which slopes down to theinside depth at the periphery is 1.20 m. which slopes down to the centre at 1.50m.centre at 1.50m.  AA water supply line is laid along the outside of the wallwater supply line is laid along the outside of the wall, and the inlet to, and the inlet to the pond is provided at 14-16 places equally spaced and fixed at anthe pond is provided at 14-16 places equally spaced and fixed at an angle of 45° to the radius of the tank using a 20 mm. diameter pipe withangle of 45° to the radius of the tank using a 20 mm. diameter pipe with a nozzle mouth, all arranged in one direction.a nozzle mouth, all arranged in one direction.  These are fixed to the vertical wall and the nozzle mouth is flush withThese are fixed to the vertical wall and the nozzle mouth is flush with cement plaster face and near the bottom along the periphery of thecement plaster face and near the bottom along the periphery of the pond.pond.  It isIt is fitted with a valve at the centre, on opening the valve, fertilizedfitted with a valve at the centre, on opening the valve, fertilized eggs along with water are transferred into incubation pond for hatching.eggs along with water are transferred into incubation pond for hatching.  TheThe Water flow in the spawning pool creates an artificial riverineWater flow in the spawning pool creates an artificial riverine condition for the fish to breed.condition for the fish to breed.  TheThe showers at the top are useful to increase the dissolved oxygen.showers at the top are useful to increase the dissolved oxygen. AboutAbout 70 kg of males and 70 kg of females can be kept in the spawning70 kg of males and 70 kg of females can be kept in the spawning tank which can yield 10 millions of eggs in one breeding operation.tank which can yield 10 millions of eggs in one breeding operation.