ORGANIZATIONS AND THE NEED FOR
• Organization: two or more people work together in a structured
way to achieve a specific goal
• Goal : the purpose that an organization strive to achieve.
i.e. : cricket team has a goal to win the world cup.
• Vision: the long term perspective.
i.e.: what the organization want to achieve in10-20 years.
• Mission: it is for a short period of time i.e. 5 years.
MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS
• Management: The process of planning, organizing, leading and
controlling the work of organization members and of using all
available organizational resources to achieve stated organizational
− In other words it is an art of getting work done by others.
• Managers: People responsible for directing the efforts aimed at
helping organization to achieve their goals.
EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS
• Efficiency: The ability to minimize use of resources in achieving
-“Do the things right” .
• Effectiveness : The ability to determine appropriate objectives.
-“Doing the right things”
• The process of establishing goals and suitable course of action for
achieving those goals.
• Plans are the guides which
1) The organizations obtains and commits the resources to reach its
2) Members of organization are given the responsibility and
procedures for particular goal.
• The process of engaging two or more people in working together in
a structured way to achieve a specific goal or set of goals.
• In other words it is the process of arranging and allocating work,
authority and resources among an organization’s members so they
can achieve the organization’s goal.
• Leading is the process of directing and influencing the task related
activities of group members or an entire organization.
• Leading involves directing, influencing and motivating employee to
perform essential task.
• The process of ensuring the actual activities confirm to planned
• First line managers: managers who are responsible for the work of
operating employees only and do not supervise other managers.
• Middle managers: managers of midrange of organizational
hierarchy, they are responsible for other managers. Middle managers
directs the activity of first line managers.
• Top managers: managers responsible for overall management of
the organization. They composed of small group of people.
TYPE OF MANAGERS
• Functional managers: A manager responsible for just one
organizational activity, such as marketing, finance .
• General managers: The individual responsible for all functional
activities, such as production, for an organization.
• Technical skills: The ability to use the procedure, techniques, and
knowledge of a specified field.
• Human skills: The ability to work with, understand and motivate
other people as an individual or in groups.
• Conceptual skills: The ability to coordinate and integrate all of
organization’s interests and activities