HPI MARKET DATA 2014 FULL CONTENT
This executive summary is just a snapshot of the
expanded data and analysis available in the full edition of
HPI Market Data 2014.
THE 2014 EDITION
This year, hundreds of detailed tables and figures
appear in HPI Market Data 2014. The book contains 100
pages of data, tables, figures and editorial analysis.
MORE THAN THREE DECADES
OF HPI FORECASTING EXPERIENCE
Hydrocarbon Processing has produced an HPI market
report for more than 35 years. HPI leaders, executives
and decision-makers throughout the world have come to
rely upon this analysis and data for valuable strategizing
HPI Market Data 2014 features detailed forecast
breakdowns for capital, maintenance and operating
expenditures in the following major industry areas.
• Natural gas/LNG
• Health, safety and the environment
The information has been compiled by industry
experts from data provided by governments and private
organizations. The data analyzed is broken down by factors
including geographic region, year, and demand and activity
• Capital, maintenance and operating spending
is broken out by geographical regions
• Expanded editorial analysis of worldwide economic,
social and political trends driving HPI activity
across all sectors
• An exploration of the changing markets and demand
within the global HPI, with discussion of growing
Investment and spending
Unconventional natural gas
Middle East and Africa
Olefins and polyolefins
Health and safety developments
to environmental issues
Best practices of 2014
Process control outlook
A guide to chemical products
The 2014 outlook for the global hydrocarbon processing
industry (HPI) is upbeat. This development is a reversal from
previous forecasts. What events and factors orchestrated this
switch? Many trends and market conditions are converging to
support the uplift of the HPI.
Economic growth. The world gross domestic product is rising,
and growth is estimated to average 3.6%/yr in 2013. This increase
is directly related to burgeoning demand for energy, especially
electrical power and transportation fuels, which are primarily
hydrocarbon-based. Over the long term, crude oil, coal and natural
gas will still constitute over 80% of global energy demand. Expanding
economics of non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) nations are driving new energy demand.
China and India will be responsible for nearly half of the future
increase in energy consumption. Renewable energy is growing in
market share, but will still be a minor part of the energy mix.
New manufacturing centers. Increased availability of natural
gas supplies are redefining energy conditions for several nations.
New natural gas reserves are shifting the order for producing
nations. Shale gas reserves, once difficult to extract, are now being
exploited in many regions and countries. New drilling methods
have facilitated the exploration and production of shale formations.
In particular, the development of shale gas is coproducing
shale oil and natural gas liquids (NGLs), which has radically
changed hydrocarbon supply levels. Shale oil is changing the
crude oil market. Non-OPEC nations are increasing their crude oil
production efforts and are altering the crude oil market.
The global HPI is a cyclic business. Demand expands and
contracts at varying rates. The challenging task is planning new
capacity to come online during the uplift in the demand cycle.
The 2008 global economic slowdown pushed back completion
of major HPI projects. It also shifted demand centers. Developed
(OECD) nations will continue to mature in demand for HPI
products. Consequently, existing facilities will be able to meet
local demand with some support by imports. Also, construction
activity will continue to revamp and update worn and outdated
equipment and inefficient process technologies.
The developing (non-OECD) nations are the new consumer
product demand centers and the locations for HPI construction
activity. In particular, China is the dominant economy. Supported
by a growing population, this nation will be the largest economy
and energy-consuming country in the near term.
As shown in Table 1, HPI construction continues in all regions.
Many factors influence the location, type and scale of an HPI
project. As illustrated in Fig. 1, refining and petrochemical projects
exceed gas processing projects on an annual basis. These projects
include revamps and retrofits of existing facilities along with
The costs for designing and constructing downstream HPI
facilities have nearly doubled since 2000, as shown in FIG. 2.
The sharp rise reflects cost inflation on a global basis for HPI
projects and the higher expense for construction projects in highrisk countries. Sharp increases in steel costs drove this recent
surge in construction expenses. Costs for all steel-using projects
have been rising. Equipment costs (reactors, heat exchangers,
distillation columns, etc.) are now more expensive, thus raising
capital costs for HPI facilities on new equipment and replacement
units. Likewise, the complexity of HPI projects is increasing and
Table 1. Worldwide HPI construction projects by region:
June 2009 to June 2013
Worldwide HPI construction projects
Optimism prevails for 2014
Fig. 1. Breakdown of HPI projects by market sector, June 2009 to
Hydrocarbon Processing | HPI Market Data 2013 executive summary 3
contributing to higher costs. More importantly, risk also grows,
adding more cost to the project.
In 2014, the HPI’s capital, maintenance and operating budgets
are expected to exceed $279 billion (B) (TABLES 2 and 3). Capital
spending is projected to reach $77 B; maintenance spending
should reach $82 B; and operating spending is estimated at $119
B. The HPI continues to be more cost-conscious. Core focus areas
for projects include:
1. New grassroots HPI capacity will be constructed in
developing nations, or in nations that are hydrocarbon-rich with
plans to be net exporters.
2. New demand for transportation fuels and petrochemicalbased products are concentrated in developing nations.
3. Possible environmental and safety rules will hinder
investment in HPI facilities, especially in OECD nations. Uncertainty
will contribute to the rationalizations and mergers and acquisitions
(M&A) in the HPI. All regions are affected.
4. The uncertainty in future markets and operating rules by
governments has delayed, if not canceled, HPI projects.
5. The outlook for future markets is changing. HPI companies
are more focused on “time-to-market” projects so that new
capacity is online with increasing demand.
HPI companies will invest in technologies to support their
mission goals, such as improving plant economics, increasing
Table 2. 2014 worldwide HPI spending, billion $
Table 3. 2014 worldwide total spending by budget, billion $
energy efficiency, boosting yields of desired products, eliminating
unwanted byproducts or wastes, and increasing sustainability.
Over the next 10 years, global demand for oil products will
increase; demand will be just below 100 million barrels per day
of oil equivalent (MMbdoe). However, this growth will not be
evenly distributed. As shown in Fig. 3, the total demand for crude
oil (transportation fuels) will increase. However, the demand/
consumption by developed or OECD countries is flattening and
even declining. OECD nations include Western European countries,
the US and Japan. Lower automobile fuel consumption will reduce
oil demand by about 0.5%/yr, thus creating a refining overcapacity
environment in some nations. The situation is completely different in
developing or non-OECD countries. Due to growing economies for
these nations, the GDP is rapidly increasing. For these non-OECD
countries, demand for oil products will rise at the rate of 2%/yr, as
shown in Fig. 3.
China, India, Brazil, and Russia are the nations driving
new demand for refined products. Expanding economies and
populations are the momentum driving higher demand and
consumption of energy. China and India are the dominant nations
responsible for most of the new demand. The US remains the
largest market for refined fuels. However, the US fuels market is
now mature and has flattened out.
The market share of the global refining industry continues to
shift. As shown in Fig. 4, since 1995, the market share of refining
capacity has shifted from North America and Europe to the AsiaPacific region. Over 650 refineries with a combined processing
capacity approaching 93 MMbpd are in operation worldwide.
Present-day refineries vary in complexity, size and age. The
majority of the present distillation capacity uses traditional crude oil
feedstocks. However, looking forward, more refining capacity will be
designed or revamped to process unconventional feeds such as lowAPI-gravity crudes, bitumen and shale oils. Margins are sustained by
unique combinations of complexity and capacity.
Transportation fuel demand is driving new refining capacity
and associated capital investments (Tables 2 and 3). Despite fuel
subsidies affecting refining investments in certain countries, Asia
has successfully attracted investors from other regions. Many crude
oil producers outside Asia view investing in new Asian grassroots
refineries as a secured crude oil offtake. This trend has been
observed in several major refinery investments in China, Vietnam
Liquid fuels demand, MMbpd
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Source: IHS CERA
Fig. 2. Downstream capital costs index, 2000–2012.
4 HPI Market Data 2013 executive summary | HydrocarbonProcessing.com
Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013
Howard Gruenspecht, CNA Panel, May 8, 2013
Fig. 3. Demand for liquid fuels by OECD and non-OECD nations,
2000 to 2040.
The future has arrived. No longer are petrochemical players
debating the reality of shale gas in North America, or if demand will
hold up from unconventional sources such as China and India (Fig. 6).
Europe and Eurasia
Sources: BP Statistical Yearbook; A.T. Kearney analysis
Fig. 4. Refining capacity by percent region, 1965–2010.
Net LNG imports
Fig. 5. Gas supply sources in North America, Europe and China to 2030.
Hydrocarbon Processing | HPI Market Data 2014 executive summary 5
The natural gas market is dominated by upstream development
in shale gas production, particularly in North America, and by
midstream and downstream progress in gas-to-liquids (GTL) and
liquefied natural gas (LNG) technologies and projects. Shale gas
reserves, once difficult to extract, are now being exploited in many
regions and countries around the world. This boom in shale gas
production has coincided with an expansion of global LNG trade
and renewed interest in GTL production, enabling the transport,
storage and processing of both conventional and unconventional
natural gas independently from pipelines.
Globally, gas output is projected to increase by 2%/yr through
2030. Of this growth, 73% is forecast to come from non-OECD
countries. The OECD areas of North America and Australia will also
show strong growth, more than offsetting decreases in European
output. Gas is projected to contribute 21% of energy demand
growth in the power sector and 16% in the transport sector. By
2030, gas will be neck-and-neck with biofuels in the transport
sector as the fastest-growing alternative fuel.
Over the next two decades, North America is likely to become
self-sufficient in energy, and the US is anticipated to become a net
exporter of LNG within the next few years. However, slow economic
growth and continuing interest in renewable energies will act as a
drag on European gas demand. Meanwhile, the development of new
gas resources in the ME, West Africa and Asia-Pacific will support
demand in those regions. China will grow more import-dependent
as its overall energy needs grow. Fig. 5 shows sources of gas supply
through 2030 in North America, the EU and China.
The combination of a significant reduction in gas prices over
the last several years and an escalation in oil prices has led to
a high spread between oil and gas prices. This has drastically
improved economics for GTL, and it has made GTL the most
promising alternative for adding value to natural gas assets in North
Reﬁning capacity by region, %
America. In the US, there is increased interest in mobile processing
technologies, especially for GTL and LNG production.
Globally speaking, LNG output is set to expand through 2030,
making up more than 15% of global gas consumption in that year.
Africa is projected to outpace the ME to become the world’s largest
net LNG exporter, while Australia will overtake Qatar as the world’s
largest single LNG-exporting country as new projects come onstream.
Also, the rapid increase in gas production from shale formations,
along with rising prices for natural gas liquids (NGLs), are
encouraging the construction of additional gas processing facilities
in the US. In particular, rising propane and ethane supplies have
posed infrastructure and market challenges to move these new
supplies to domestic and export markets.
Spending on gas processing projects is forecast to remain high
through 2017, peaking in 2015. Capital investment is ongoing to
construct gas processing capacity as well as new capacity for LNG
imports and exports and capacity for NGLs. Investments reflect
ongoing efforts to retrofit existing plants to meet growing demand
for energy and natural gas products, to improve processing
flexibility, and to comply with environmental and safety regulations.
Gas supply, Bcfd
and Indonesia, where the potential investors are crude producers
from the Middle East (ME), Russia and Venezuela.
In planning for the future, Asian refiners are configuring
refineries to have the flexibility to process heavy crudes. Such
crudes are being consumed at the source by new refining projects in
the ME and Latin America, leaving less oil available for Asia. There is
a mismatch between the expectation and the reality with respect to
heavy crudes availability. Interestingly, light crudes are expected to
be in global surplus largely due to the tight oil revolution in the US.
New shale oil is transforming the energy industry in North America.
This has narrowed the light-heavy differential, which could impact
the return on investment for many upgrading projects.
This renaissance in US refining will have a profound effect on
the European refining industry. Unfortunately, Europe has lower
refinery utilization rates; even worse, this region can expect another
round of capacity rationalization. However, this does not necessarily
translate into opportunities for Asia. The new investments in the
ME and Former Soviet Union (FSU) will better serve the European
markets due to their proximity and competitiveness. From 2012
to 2018, the ME will see eight new grassroots refineries come
onstream with 2.2 MMbpd of total capacity. The region will have
an incremental demand growth of just 1.5 MMbpd. Clearly, the ME
is positioning itself as an export refining center. Similarly, the FSU
region is also embarking on residue upgrading investments to
make its refineries more competitive.
Asia-Pacific regional equivalent
ethylene consumption to reach
76 million metric tons by 2017.
Henry Hub Price
Henry Hub natural gas price, constant $/MMBtu
Henry Hub Price
WTI crude/gas ratio
FIG. 6. Regional ethylene consumption, 1990–2016.
Note: Crude/Gas Price Ratio is the WTI Cushing price in $/Bbl divided by the Henry Hub gas price in $/MMBTU.
FIG. 7. US gas prices compared with crude, 2000–2020.
6 HPI Market Data 2013 executive summary | HydrocarbonProcessing.com
If pipelines are judged to be too risky to the environment, it would
seem the next step would be transporting feedstocks by rail. Indeed,
many downstream players are buying stakes in key North American
rail systems. Some are even creating offloading facilities adjacent
to their plants, such as Tesoro in the state of Washington. But the
rail industry also comes with controversy. In July 2013, the deadly
derailment of a crude-carrying train in Quebec killed 47 people,
prompting Canadian officials to launch a review into rail safety.
Trucks and barges are options in theory, but they are likely too
expensive to work on a larger scale. Thus, for the petrochemical
industry to fully capitalize on the shale revolution, further regulatory
guidance is needed on the pipeline and rail fronts. Another area
where regulatory clarity is needed in the US is on the thorny issue
of natural gas exports. Numerous applications to export gas have
been submitted, but as of September 2013, only three had been
approved. If gas exports occur on a larger scale, that would expose
more international players to the US market, thus raising demand
and, potentially, prices. That scenario could lead to lower margins
for US petrochemical companies in the years ahead, at least relative
to the recent boom years.
While margins relative to feedstock costs are best in North
America, developing countries still possess the advantage of
proximity to demand (Fig. 8). Even with cheap feedstock access
in North America, post-recession demand is not growing quickly
enough to consume the potential supply. As a result, producers
must have domestic or export access to locations such as China,
India and other developing Asia-Pacific countries, where demand
continues to surge. The IEA projects roughly 6% economic growth
for the region in 2014, including about 9% for China and India,
giving incentive to producers to keep operating rates high. Several
expansions are also underway, including Reliance’s massive refinery
petcoke gasification project at Jamnagar, India. The project is the
largest of its kind in the world.
So, what can petrochemical players do to compete globally if they
do not have the built-in advantages of proximity, cheap feedstocks
or high demand? The preferred strategy seems to be integration
between refining and petrochemicals, which can provide synergies
and which gives the ability to hedge market risks. There are several
potential integration types to consider. The first is process integration,
which means innovative designs of downstream petrochemical plants.
The second is utility integration, which includes heat, hydrogen,
water, steam and electricity. The third and final type of integration
is the treatment of fuel gas, such as utilizing the hydrogen and
hydrocarbons present in fuel gas as a petrochemical feedstock. By
region, the ME is the best positioned to execute those plans based on
its newer facilities, according to industry officials. Meanwhile, Western
European sites, which are specialized, could struggle the most.
Ethylene, million metric tons
Regional ethylene consumption, million metric ton
While the market mulled over those issues during recent years, it is
apparent today that these trends are the new market reality.
In 2013 and beyond, the key questions surround what
petrochemical players can do to capitalize on those trends.
For example, how can North American producers best position
themselves logistically to receive maximum quantities of shalederived ethane feedstock? Also, in an increasingly international
marketplace, how can producers near China and India use their
proximity to demand centers to outweigh cost advantages from
US players? And how can producers with none of these geographic
advantages, such as those in Europe, stay afloat?
In the US, shale technology has evolved rapidly and continues
to improve, led by horizontal wells, lower rig cycle times, multiple
fracs and multi-well pads. The technology is also scalable and
transferable to numerous shale plays. Combine that with the
substantial amount of new reserves that are rich in NGLs, and there
appears to be a feedstock haven for petrochemicals. In addition,
the crack spread for gas continues to widen relative to crude
(Fig. 7). That gives midstream producers enough incentive to
continue drilling in shale plays.
To fully take advantage of the shale wave, however, the US
industry awaits key regulatory decisions that will significantly
impact the availability of feedstocks. As of September 2013, the
Obama administration had yet to make a decision on the massive
Keystone XL pipeline proposal from TransCanada—a network that
would bring Canadian crudes to the US Gulf refining belt, which is
largely integrated with petrochemical plants. Critics allege that the
benefits of Keystone XL are outweighed by environmental concerns.
FIG. 8. Ethylene demand in developed, developing countries, 1990–2020.
Index of tables and figures for HPI market data 2014
INVESTMENT AND SPENDING
Table. 1. Worldwide HPI construction projects, 2009–2013
Table 2. Worldwide HPI construction projects by region,
June 2009–June 2013
Table 3. Breakdown of 2013 HPI projects by activity and sector
Table 4. US: HPI construction projects
Table 5. Canada: HPI construction projects
Table 6. Latin America: HPI construction projects
Table 7. Europe: HPI construction projects
Table 8. Africa: HPI construction projects
Table 9. Middle East: HPI construction projects
Table 10. Asia-Pacific: HPI construction projects
Table 11. Brazil: HPI construction projects
Table 12. China: HPI construction projects
Table 13. 2014 worldwide HPI spending, billion $
Table 14. 2014 worldwide total spending by budget, billion $
Table 15. 2014 worldwide HPI capital spending, billion $
Table 16. 2014 worldwide HPI maintenance spending, billion $
Table 17. 2014 worldwide HPI operating spending, billion $
Table 18. World catalyst demand, million $
Fig. 1. Breakdown of HPI projects by market sector,
June 2009–June 2013.
Fig. 2. Total projects by product sector, June 2008–June 2013.
Fig. 3. Breakdown of 2013 HPI projects by activity level.
Fig. 4. US: HPI construction projects.
Fig. 5. Canada: HPI construction projects.
Fig. 6. Latin America: HPI construction projects.
Fig. 7. Europe: HPI construction projects.
Fig. 8. Africa: HPI construction projects.
Fig. 9. Middle East: HPI construction projects.
Fig. 10. Asia-Pacific: HPI construction projects.
Fig. 11. Downstream capital costs index, 2000–2012.
Fig. 12. Complexity risks for ethylene projects, 1976–2016.
Fig. 13. Breakdown of 2014 HPI spending for equipment by
Hydrocarbon Processing | HPI Market Data 2014 executive summary 7
Fig. 1. Demand for liquid fuels by OECD and non-OECD
Fig. 2. Worldwide incremental refined product demand,
Fig. 3. Liquid fuel consumption in the US, China and India,
Fig. 4. Worldwide crude oil demand by OECD vs. non-OECD
Fig. 5. Crude oil demand by EU vs. Former Soviet Union,
Fig. 6. Refining capacity by percent region, 1965–2010.
Fig. 7. Distillation capacity by region in MMbpd, 2005–2012.
Fig. 8. Oil demand growth by region, 2012–2018.
Fig. 9. Cars in use per 1,000 people by nation, 1960–2020.
Fig. 10. Total vehicle population by nation, 1960–2020.
Fig. 11. 2018 global crude oil balance-supply vs. ideal demand.
Fig. 12. New heavy oil upgrading capacity by region,
Fig. 13. Estimated 2012 net cash margins for the regional
Fig. 14. Total energy consumption in China by type, 2009.
Fig. 15. Distribution of China’s major refineries
(capacity exceeding 10 MMtpy).
Fig. 16. Investments in refining capacity in Asia-Pacific,
Fig. 17. India’s opportunity for crude oil exploration.
Fig. 18. Demand and supply balance for the Indian refining
Fig. 19. Location and capacity of India’s refineries.
Fig. 20. Growth rate for India’s refining industry, 2003–2017.
Fig. 21. Investments in heavy oil grading capabilities,
Fig. 22 Indian product demand, 2012–2022.
Fig. 23. India’s refining and petrochemical industries feature
very deep integration to maximize the value of feedstocks
and end products; waste-free facilities is the goal.
Fig. 24. HPI facilities in Saudi Arabia, including refineries,
petrochemical complexes, and ports and terminals.
Fig. 25. New capacity additions for Middle Eastern refineries
and product balance, 2012–2018.
Fig. 26. HPI spending budget for Brazil, 2010–2015.
Fig. 27. Major planned expansion of Brazilian refining capacity,
Fig. 28. US refining capacity by PADD as of January 2012.
Fig. 29. US gasoline demand and prices, 2000–2012.
Fig. 30. Light-duty vehicle efficiencies, 2010–2030.
Fig. 31. US distillate demand, 2010–2025.
Fig. 32. US gasoline supply trends, including ethanol usage,
Fig. 33. US shale oil production, 2009–2020.
Fig. 34. Breakdown of refineries in Europe.
Fig. 35. Crude oil qualities for selected oils, sulfur content,
Fig. 36. Global refinery additions by region, 2010–2015.
Fig. 37. Refinery utilization rates by region, 2002–2012.
Fig. 38. Biofuel demand on a regional basis, 2010–2050.
Fig. 39. US renewable fuel standard volumes, 2009–2022.
Fig. 40. Production of renewable fuels, 2010–2020.
Fig. 41. Regional biodiesel demand, 2011–2020.
Table 1. Crude oil demand by region, 2005–2012, MMbpd
Table 2. Distillation capacity by region, 2005–2012, MMbpd
Table 3. Global and regional demand outlook, 2010–2020
Table 4. Distillation throughput capacity by region,
Table 5. World’s largest refineries, over 400,000-bpd capacity
Table 6. Chinese refineries with capacities exceeding 10 MMtpy
Table 7. Major proposed new refinery projects and upgrades
Table 8. Refineries operating in India
Table 9. Projected Indian refining capacity during
the 12th Five Year Plan, 2012–2017
Table 10. New refining projects in Saudi Arabia
Table 11. HPI facilities in Saudi Arabia
Table. 12. Additional Middle Eastern projects
Table 13. Refineries for sale or idle
Table 14. Commercialization status of main biofuel
Table 15. Refining projects, 2009–2013
Table 16. Estimated 2014 refining spending budgets
Fig. 1. Gas supply sources in North America, Europe and China
Fig. 2. Gas consumption per capita worldwide, 2012.
Fig. 3. Projected growth in global LNG exports through 2030.
Fig. 4. Pipeline gas and LNG trade flows, 2012.
Fig. 5. EIA-assessed shale gas and oil basins around the world,
Fig. 6. Distribution of unconventional gas resources in North
Fig. 7. Distribution of unconventional gas resources in Europe,
Fig. 8. Short-term outlook for US natural gas consumption.
Fig. 9. Short-term outlook for US natural gas production and
Fig. 10. Projected US gas output by source, 1990–2040.
Fig. 11. US historical and projected LNG import volumes.
Fig. 12. Locations of proposed US LNG export terminals, 2013.
Fig. 13. Distribution of unconventional gas resources in China,
Fig. 14. Australian gas reserves and planned/proposed LNG
Fig. 15. Digital rendering of Shell’s Prelude FLNG platform.
Photo courtesy of Shell.
Fig. 16. LNG import terminals under construction as of 2013.
Fig. 17. LNG export terminals under construction as of 2013.
Fig. 18. The GTL process.
Table. 1. Top 10 countries with proven natural gas reserves
Table 2. Top 10 countries with technically recoverable
shale gas reserves
Table 3. Total worldwide gas processing projects
Table 4. Commercial-scale GTL projects in operation
around the world
Table 5. Estimated 2014 gas processing spending
Fig. 1. Regional ethylene consumption, 1990–2016.
Fig. 2. US gas prices compared with crude, 2000–2020.
Fig. 3. Ethylene demand in developed, developing countries,
Fig. 4. Expected GDP growth in Asia-Pacific, 2012–2020.
Fig. 5. On-purpose propylene projects, 2000–2016.
Fig. 6. China’s refining and ethylene production facilities.
Fig. 7. Middle East capacity additions, 2007–2017.
Fig. 8. Western Europe ethylene market outlook, 2007–2017.
8 HPI Market Data 2013 executive summary | HydrocarbonProcessing.com
Fig. 9. Expected GDP growth around the world, 2012–2020.
Fig. 10. LPG consumption as a chemical feedstock, 2006–2016.
Fig. 11. US exports of LPG by destination, 2003–2012.
Fig. 12. Margin outlook for US ethylene, 2005–2015.
Fig. 13. Ethane cracking value compared with naphtha,
Fig. 14. Ethylene demand by end use, 2000–2017.
Fig. 15. An integrated refinery/petrochemical complex.
Fig. 16. Block diagram of an ethane-based olefins unit.
Fig. 17. Block diagram of a naphtha-based olefins unit
integrated with a refinery.
Fig. 18. Petrochemical value chain.
Fig. 19. Chinese growth in coal-based feedstock projects,
Fig. 20. Reduced co-product volumes when cracking ethane.
Table 1. Total worldwide petrochemical/chemical
Table 2. Estimated 2014 petrochemical/chemical spending
HEALTH, SAFTEY AND ENVIRONMENT
Fig. 1. The operational excellence triangle can help improve
performance in critical areas.
Fig. 2. Consequence of failure calculation.
Fig. 3. US environmental expenditures since 1990 by sector.
Fig. 4. Spending on the environment per business sector,
Fig. 5. 2011 environmental expenditures by medium.
Fig. 6. Primary CO2 emission sources within refineries.
Table 1. Major items of HPI spending for environmental control
MAINTENANCE AND EQUIPMENT
Table 1. Pumps used in HPI processes
Table 2. World demand for pumps 2006–2021, million $
Table 3. European pump sales, million $
Table 4. Compressor types and applications
Table 5. Common valve types
Fig. 1. Composition of new capital investment by asset type.
Fig. 2. Causes of large losses by percent.
Fig. 3. Equipment involved in HPI losses by percent.
Fig. 4. Sales breakdown of total compressors in oil and gas
application in North America during 2011.
Fig. 5. Market overview of compressors in North America, 2011.
Fig. 6. End-user industry share of market, 2012 vs. 2013
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Tél.: +33 (0)1 30 47 92 51
Fax: +33 (0)1 30 47 92 40
ITALY, Eastern Europe
Mediapoint & Communications SRL
Phone: +39 (010) 570-4948
Fax: +39 (010) 553-0088
Anik International & Co. Ltd.
Phone: +7 (495) 628-10-333
Northern Belgium, The netherlands
Phone: +44 161 440 0854
Mobile: +44 79866 34646
Sales Offices—Other Areas
Phone: +61 (8) 9332-9839
Fax: +61 (8) 9313-6442
Phone: +86 13802701367, (China)
Phone: +852 69185500, (Hong Kong)
Phone/Fax: 11 23 37 42 40
Mobile: 11 85 86 52 59
Phone: +91-22-2837 7070/71/72
Fax: +91-22-2822 2803
Mobile: +91-98673 67374
INDONESIA, MALAYSIA, SINGAPORE,
Publicitas Singapore Pte Ltd
Phone: +65 6836-2272
Fax: +65 6634-5231
Pacific Business Inc.
Phone: +81 (3) 3661-6138
Fax: +81 (3) 3661-6139
Jes Media, Inc.
Phone: +82 (2) 481-3411/3
Fax: +82 (2) 481-3414
S. E. Ahmed
Phone: +92 (21) 663-4795
Fax: +92 (21) 663-4795
Rhonda Brown, Foster Printing Service
Phone: +1 (866) 879-9144 ext. 194