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# Research ppt

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### Transcript

• 1. Stratified Sampling
• First we divide the pop by certain characteristics
• Eg. Gender, age, etc
• based on key independent variables
• each sub-population is called stratum
• Each stratum is mutually exclusive set of elements
• 2. Cont’d
• finally using SRS or SS, we sample from each stratum
• Used to examine the r/ship b/n independent (criteria for stratification) and dependent variable;
• To make comparisons among sub-pop
• And used to reduce sampling error
• * prior information about the pop is required
• 3. Cont’d
• Disproportionate Stratified Sampling- equal sample size from each stratum
• Proportionate Stratified Sampling - proportional sample size from each stratum
• Note: Use SS only if there is significant difference across the strata
• 4. Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling
• For population without exhaustive list (SF)
• Or when it is impossible to compile a complete list of the elements (SF)
• Involves sampling of natural clusters
• Eg. Schools, kebeles, industries, etc
• 5. Cont’d
• Followed by selection of elements from the clusters using SRS or SS
• Eg. Addis Ababa households’ mode of transportation
• Involves listing and sampling at d/t stage
• It involves two or more sampling error
• 6. Stratified Multi-stage Cluster Sampling
• Involves grouping of clusters with similar characteristics;
• Then selecting clusters from each group of similar clusters;
• Eg. Lideta Sub-city poverty study
• Stratification can take place at each stage of sampling
• 7. Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) Sampling
• In most cluster sampling small clusters tend to disproportionately represented
• To avoid this we give equal chance of selection
• Method
• Giving each cluster chance of selection proportionate to its size
• Then selecting equal sample size from each cluster
• 8. Cont’d
• Illustration: suppose we want to sample 1/10 th of 5 clusters, in which the clusters have 50,100, 200, 300 and 400
• We will give a proportion of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 respectively
• PPS is used to
• Permit selection of more clusters
• Ensure representation of large clusters
• Equal chance of being selection to the pop
• 9. Cont’d
• PPS is applied under 3 conditions:
• When dealing with unevenly distributed clusters;
• With large sample size w/c can be broken into clusters; and
• When we have data on the proportion of each cluster.
• 10. Sample Size
• Sample size depends on
• heterogeneity of the pop, strata or cluster;
• size of the sub-group
• precision
• SEM=sd/√n
• The larger the sample size the the lower the sampling error
• 11. Non-probability sampling
• Purposive or judgmental sampling: Sample selected because of their unique position in the pop understudy;
• Quota Sampling : selected to represent a certain characteristics or group in a pop.
• 12. Measurement and Meaning
• Concept : is a mental image that summarize similar observations, idea,
• Eg. Poverty, slum, etc
• Conceptual Definition : specification of the meaning of each concept in a research to enable measurement
• Eg. Slum is ‘a heavily populated urban
• area characterized by substandard housing and squalor’.
• 13. Cont’d
• Operational Definition: a definition by which we make the concept measurable, using indicators.
• • poor structural quality of housing;
• • overcrowding;
• • insecure residential status.
• 14. Level of Measurement
• There are 4 levels to measure variables.
• Nominal Variable : mutually exclusive categories. With no ordering.
• Eg. Sex, marital status, etc
• Ordinal Variable : categories ordered or ranked in sequential manner.
• Eg. Class rank, social class
• Interval-Ratio Variable: logical, ordered and defined in terms of a standard unit of
• measurement.
• 15. Cont’d
• Usually have a zero point- i.e. absence
• Eg. Age, land area, distance from city-center etc
• Discrete variable- integer number of values
• eg. Age, family size
• Continuous Variable- assume a decimal number of values. Eg. Distance, area, etc
• Note: the statistical analysis that we apply differs to each level of measurement and to the two types of variables.
• 16. Instrument Design
• Questionnaires are set of questions or statements which we used to gather data in survey research.
• There are two types of questions
• Open-ended- respondent gives his own answer
• Close-ended- respondents selects from the choices provided
• 17. Guide to Question Construction
• Respondents must be competent to answer
• Eg. What kind of planning technique should AACA apply?
• Use vocabulary that respondents can understand.
• Eg . What issues should be considered in urban
• development strategy?
• Make items clear- avoid ambiguous questions.
• Eg. Do you live near Mekato?
• How often do you visit a doctor?
• 18. Cont’d
• Avoid Negative Items- respondents might agree with the –ve one while they mean +ve one.
• Eg. Should not the AACA invest on infrastructure development?
• Avoid Double Barreled Questions- two questions in one question
• Eg. What is your opinion about the urban policy and its implementation in Ethiopia?
• 19. Cont’d
• Format questions in a sequential order and bring together similar questions
• Eg. SD, Mig. History, family condition, living condition and finally empl’t condition
• Avoid biased items or labels
• Eg. Fascist, racist, fundamentalist, etc
• Contingent questions should be asked to the relevant respondents.
• Eg. Are you married?
• If yes, does your spouse have a job?
• How old are you?
• 20. Cont’d
• The purpose of the research should have to be clearly indicated in the beginning of the questionnaire
• General and specific instruction of the questionnaire should have to be clearly indicated
• 21. Cont’d
• There are two types of questionnaires
• Self-administered – filled by the respondent him/herself;
• Enumerator administered- filled by an interviewer.
• 22. Other methods of data collection
• Sample survey enables us to collect data from large amount of respondents using a representative sample
• But its broad coverage make to gather shallow data.
• When we want to collect in-depth information we use:
• In-depth interview;
• Focus group Discussion; and other methods
• 23. In-depth Interview
• Used to collect detailed information using semi-structured interview guide
• The guide is set of generic open ended questions and probing questions
• The guide only lead the flow of the interview
• Probing is basic tool in this method
• Eg. What do you know about low cost housing?
• Probe
• LCH vis-à-vis affordability
• LCH vis-à-vis efficiency
• LCH vis-à-vis quality
• 24. Cont’d
• Interviewee is given freedom of expression in his own words
• Enable to collect depth information on our research topic
• Usually used with experts, officials, knowledgeable community members, etc
• 25. Cont’d
• Taking note and recording the interview is crucial
• Heavily influenced by the interviewer skill; and
• Difficult to compare responses in a rigorous way.
• 26. Focus Group Discussion
• Used to gather information from a discussion of a group by giving them a topic of discussion
• Group interaction b/n respondents will stimulate richer responses
• The interviewer can observe the discussion and understand their feeling, behaviors, attitudes, etc
• Usually have 6-12 members and a moderator, but a group size of 8 is preferable
• The moderator is expected only to raise topic of discussion and facilitate the discussion
• 27. Cont’d
• The group should be a homogeneous group and it is better if they are acquainted
• If the FGD is handled by a skilled moderator it enables to generate detailed and valid data
• The moderator should control the flow of the discussion using a checklist
• In FGD also probing is important
• And the moderator has to take note and use a tape recorder
• 28. The Research Paper
• Finding and narrowing the Problem
• Select the general topic or issue of research (from the literature or from our experience);
• Review the evidence or literature review
• Identify the knowledge gap
• then we make the research problem precise
• every research report should have to clearly state the research problem in the beginning
• Research problem is the k’ge gap to be filled by the research not social problem
• 29. 2. Formulating Research Questions
• This are question that the research is going to address
• After clearly setting the RP, we will split the RP into specific answerable research questions
• Eg. RP- the K. 10 housing condition
• How is the structural conditions of the houses in the kebele?
• What services and amenities does the residents receive?
• How is the provision of basic infrastructure in the kebele?
• 30. 3. Composing the Paper
• Academic research report should have to be organized in a manner
• Introduction-literature review-methods-result-conclusion-recommendation
• Introduction - describes related research and explains what your work contributes and why it is important.
• It sketches out the objectives, research questions, hypothesis, scope and organization of the report.
• 31. Cont’d
• b) Literature Review - presents the summary of theoretical and empirical findings related with the research topic
• c) Methods - this section describes each steps that the study applied in collecting and analyzing the data.
• it presents the methodology used, the survey design, the sampling technique applied, the sample size, the composition of the sample and methods of data analysis.
• In addition, the characteristics of the population is described.
• 32. Cont’d
• Result - should summarize the data and the inferences drawn
• It should have to answer the research questions raised in the introduction
• It should include tables and figures to explain the variables understudy
• The result section should be sub-divided into sub-topics and arranged in an organized manner
• The result should critically analyzed using other evidences and theories
• 33. Cont’d
• Draw the conclusion from your findings and discuss the possible significance of your findings (recommendation)
• And indicate areas of further research
• 34. Editing
• The research report should be readable, therefore we should have to make proper editing work before submitting the report.
• Word Choice - avoid undefined adjectives.
• Eg. Deep, wonderful, near, many, little
• Logical connection with sentences - there should be a logical flow of sentences in a paragraph.
• - There should have to be coherence b/n sentences.
• 35. Cont’d
• Avoid to be & passive voice - verb to be (is, was, were, will be) and passive voice makes our description static.
• Avoid informal language - conveying our finding in an informal language makes to seem thoughtless.
• Eg. Really was not upset, didn’t, ain’t, all of a sudden etc
• Keep your summary, paraphrase and quotation as short as possible and harmonize the quote into your paper
• 36. Documentation
• Every works quoted or paraphrased from other sources should be properly cited.
• We use in-text citation (the new MLA) method.
• Eg. Modern urban planning has arisen in response to social and econ problems (Neil 56) or
• According to Neil …(56)
• 37. Cont’d
• We can also use Author-Date system
• Eg. Modern urban … (Neil, 2004:56) or
• According to Neil … (2004:56)
• 38. Referencing
• You should have to enlist every material you used in the bibliography section.
• Book
• Neil, William J.V. (2004) Urban planning and Cultural Identity. London: Routledge
• Books with editor
• Journal
• Morello, Jorge (2000)’Urbanization and Ecology’ . In Third World Planning Review , Vol. 22 No. 4, 2000, pp 119-132