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    Research ppt Research ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Stratified Sampling
      • First we divide the pop by certain characteristics
        • Eg. Gender, age, etc
      • based on key independent variables
      • each sub-population is called stratum
      • Each stratum is mutually exclusive set of elements
    • Cont’d
      • finally using SRS or SS, we sample from each stratum
      • Used to examine the r/ship b/n independent (criteria for stratification) and dependent variable;
      • To make comparisons among sub-pop
      • And used to reduce sampling error
        • * prior information about the pop is required
    • Cont’d
      • Disproportionate Stratified Sampling- equal sample size from each stratum
      • Proportionate Stratified Sampling - proportional sample size from each stratum
      • Note: Use SS only if there is significant difference across the strata
    • Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling
      • For population without exhaustive list (SF)
      • Or when it is impossible to compile a complete list of the elements (SF)
      • Involves sampling of natural clusters
        • Eg. Schools, kebeles, industries, etc
    • Cont’d
      • Followed by selection of elements from the clusters using SRS or SS
        • Eg. Addis Ababa households’ mode of transportation
      • Involves listing and sampling at d/t stage
      • It involves two or more sampling error
    • Stratified Multi-stage Cluster Sampling
      • Involves grouping of clusters with similar characteristics;
      • Then selecting clusters from each group of similar clusters;
        • Eg. Lideta Sub-city poverty study
      • Stratification can take place at each stage of sampling
    • Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) Sampling
      • In most cluster sampling small clusters tend to disproportionately represented
      • To avoid this we give equal chance of selection
      • Method
        • Giving each cluster chance of selection proportionate to its size
        • Then selecting equal sample size from each cluster
    • Cont’d
      • Illustration: suppose we want to sample 1/10 th of 5 clusters, in which the clusters have 50,100, 200, 300 and 400
        • We will give a proportion of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 respectively
      • PPS is used to
        • Permit selection of more clusters
        • Ensure representation of large clusters
        • Equal chance of being selection to the pop
    • Cont’d
      • PPS is applied under 3 conditions:
        • When dealing with unevenly distributed clusters;
        • With large sample size w/c can be broken into clusters; and
        • When we have data on the proportion of each cluster.
    • Sample Size
      • Sample size depends on
        • heterogeneity of the pop, strata or cluster;
        • size of the sub-group
        • precision
          • SEM=sd/√n
          • The larger the sample size the the lower the sampling error
    • Non-probability sampling
      • Purposive or judgmental sampling: Sample selected because of their unique position in the pop understudy;
      • Quota Sampling : selected to represent a certain characteristics or group in a pop.
    • Measurement and Meaning
      • Concept : is a mental image that summarize similar observations, idea,
        • Eg. Poverty, slum, etc
      • Conceptual Definition : specification of the meaning of each concept in a research to enable measurement
        • Eg. Slum is ‘a heavily populated urban
        • area characterized by substandard housing and squalor’.
    • Cont’d
      • Operational Definition: a definition by which we make the concept measurable, using indicators.
        • Eg. Slum- • inadequate access to safe water;
        • • inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure;
        • • poor structural quality of housing;
        • • overcrowding;
        • • insecure residential status.
    • Level of Measurement
      • There are 4 levels to measure variables.
      • Nominal Variable : mutually exclusive categories. With no ordering.
        • Eg. Sex, marital status, etc
      • Ordinal Variable : categories ordered or ranked in sequential manner.
        • Eg. Class rank, social class
      • Interval-Ratio Variable: logical, ordered and defined in terms of a standard unit of
      • measurement.
    • Cont’d
      • Usually have a zero point- i.e. absence
        • Eg. Age, land area, distance from city-center etc
        • Discrete variable- integer number of values
        • eg. Age, family size
        • Continuous Variable- assume a decimal number of values. Eg. Distance, area, etc
        • Note: the statistical analysis that we apply differs to each level of measurement and to the two types of variables.
    • Instrument Design
      • Questionnaires are set of questions or statements which we used to gather data in survey research.
      • There are two types of questions
        • Open-ended- respondent gives his own answer
        • Eg. What is your attitude towards Addis trans?
        • Close-ended- respondents selects from the choices provided
        • Eg. How do you grade urban trans in Addis
        • Good Fair Bad
    • Guide to Question Construction
      • Respondents must be competent to answer
        • Eg. What kind of planning technique should AACA apply?
      • Use vocabulary that respondents can understand.
        • Eg . What issues should be considered in urban
        • development strategy?
      • Make items clear- avoid ambiguous questions.
        • Eg. Do you live near Mekato?
          • How often do you visit a doctor?
    • Cont’d
      • Avoid Negative Items- respondents might agree with the –ve one while they mean +ve one.
        • Eg. Should not the AACA invest on infrastructure development?
      • Avoid Double Barreled Questions- two questions in one question
        • Eg. What is your opinion about the urban policy and its implementation in Ethiopia?
    • Cont’d
      • Format questions in a sequential order and bring together similar questions
        • Eg. SD, Mig. History, family condition, living condition and finally empl’t condition
      • Avoid biased items or labels
        • Eg. Fascist, racist, fundamentalist, etc
      • Contingent questions should be asked to the relevant respondents.
        • Eg. Are you married?
        • If yes, does your spouse have a job?
        • How old are you?
    • Cont’d
      • The purpose of the research should have to be clearly indicated in the beginning of the questionnaire
      • General and specific instruction of the questionnaire should have to be clearly indicated
    • Cont’d
      • There are two types of questionnaires
      • Self-administered – filled by the respondent him/herself;
      • Enumerator administered- filled by an interviewer.
    • Other methods of data collection
      • Sample survey enables us to collect data from large amount of respondents using a representative sample
      • But its broad coverage make to gather shallow data.
      • When we want to collect in-depth information we use:
        • In-depth interview;
        • Focus group Discussion; and other methods
    • In-depth Interview
      • Used to collect detailed information using semi-structured interview guide
      • The guide is set of generic open ended questions and probing questions
      • The guide only lead the flow of the interview
      • Probing is basic tool in this method
          • Eg. What do you know about low cost housing?
              • Probe
              • LCH vis-à-vis affordability
              • LCH vis-à-vis efficiency
              • LCH vis-à-vis quality
    • Cont’d
        • Interviewee is given freedom of expression in his own words
        • Enable to collect depth information on our research topic
        • Usually used with experts, officials, knowledgeable community members, etc
    • Cont’d
      • Taking note and recording the interview is crucial
      • Disadvantage :
        • Heavily influenced by the interviewer skill; and
        • Difficult to compare responses in a rigorous way.
    • Focus Group Discussion
      • Used to gather information from a discussion of a group by giving them a topic of discussion
      • Group interaction b/n respondents will stimulate richer responses
      • The interviewer can observe the discussion and understand their feeling, behaviors, attitudes, etc
      • Usually have 6-12 members and a moderator, but a group size of 8 is preferable
      • The moderator is expected only to raise topic of discussion and facilitate the discussion
    • Cont’d
      • The group should be a homogeneous group and it is better if they are acquainted
      • If the FGD is handled by a skilled moderator it enables to generate detailed and valid data
      • The moderator should control the flow of the discussion using a checklist
      • In FGD also probing is important
      • And the moderator has to take note and use a tape recorder
    • The Research Paper
      • Finding and narrowing the Problem
        • Select the general topic or issue of research (from the literature or from our experience);
        • Review the evidence or literature review
          • Identify the knowledge gap
        • then we make the research problem precise
        • every research report should have to clearly state the research problem in the beginning
        • Research problem is the k’ge gap to be filled by the research not social problem
    • 2. Formulating Research Questions
      • This are question that the research is going to address
      • After clearly setting the RP, we will split the RP into specific answerable research questions
        • Eg. RP- the K. 10 housing condition
          • How is the structural conditions of the houses in the kebele?
          • What services and amenities does the residents receive?
          • How is the provision of basic infrastructure in the kebele?
    • 3. Composing the Paper
      • Academic research report should have to be organized in a manner
        • Introduction-literature review-methods-result-conclusion-recommendation
      • Introduction - describes related research and explains what your work contributes and why it is important.
        • It sketches out the objectives, research questions, hypothesis, scope and organization of the report.
    • Cont’d
      • b) Literature Review - presents the summary of theoretical and empirical findings related with the research topic
      • c) Methods - this section describes each steps that the study applied in collecting and analyzing the data.
        • it presents the methodology used, the survey design, the sampling technique applied, the sample size, the composition of the sample and methods of data analysis.
        • In addition, the characteristics of the population is described.
    • Cont’d
      • Result - should summarize the data and the inferences drawn
        • It should have to answer the research questions raised in the introduction
        • It should include tables and figures to explain the variables understudy
        • The result section should be sub-divided into sub-topics and arranged in an organized manner
        • The result should critically analyzed using other evidences and theories
    • Cont’d
        • Draw the conclusion from your findings and discuss the possible significance of your findings (recommendation)
        • And indicate areas of further research
    • Editing
      • The research report should be readable, therefore we should have to make proper editing work before submitting the report.
      • Word Choice - avoid undefined adjectives.
        • Eg. Deep, wonderful, near, many, little
      • Logical connection with sentences - there should be a logical flow of sentences in a paragraph.
        • - There should have to be coherence b/n sentences.
    • Cont’d
      • Avoid to be & passive voice - verb to be (is, was, were, will be) and passive voice makes our description static.
      • Avoid informal language - conveying our finding in an informal language makes to seem thoughtless.
        • Eg. Really was not upset, didn’t, ain’t, all of a sudden etc
      • Keep your summary, paraphrase and quotation as short as possible and harmonize the quote into your paper
    • Documentation
      • Every works quoted or paraphrased from other sources should be properly cited.
      • We use in-text citation (the new MLA) method.
        • Eg. Modern urban planning has arisen in response to social and econ problems (Neil 56) or
        • According to Neil …(56)
    • Cont’d
      • We can also use Author-Date system
        • Eg. Modern urban … (Neil, 2004:56) or
          • According to Neil … (2004:56)
    • Referencing
      • You should have to enlist every material you used in the bibliography section.
      • Book
        • Neil, William J.V. (2004) Urban planning and Cultural Identity. London: Routledge
      • Books with editor
      • Journal
        • Morello, Jorge (2000)’Urbanization and Ecology’ . In Third World Planning Review , Vol. 22 No. 4, 2000, pp 119-132