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Research ppt

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  • 1. Stratified Sampling
    • First we divide the pop by certain characteristics
      • Eg. Gender, age, etc
    • based on key independent variables
    • each sub-population is called stratum
    • Each stratum is mutually exclusive set of elements
  • 2. Cont’d
    • finally using SRS or SS, we sample from each stratum
    • Used to examine the r/ship b/n independent (criteria for stratification) and dependent variable;
    • To make comparisons among sub-pop
    • And used to reduce sampling error
      • * prior information about the pop is required
  • 3. Cont’d
    • Disproportionate Stratified Sampling- equal sample size from each stratum
    • Proportionate Stratified Sampling - proportional sample size from each stratum
    • Note: Use SS only if there is significant difference across the strata
  • 4. Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling
    • For population without exhaustive list (SF)
    • Or when it is impossible to compile a complete list of the elements (SF)
    • Involves sampling of natural clusters
      • Eg. Schools, kebeles, industries, etc
  • 5. Cont’d
    • Followed by selection of elements from the clusters using SRS or SS
      • Eg. Addis Ababa households’ mode of transportation
    • Involves listing and sampling at d/t stage
    • It involves two or more sampling error
  • 6. Stratified Multi-stage Cluster Sampling
    • Involves grouping of clusters with similar characteristics;
    • Then selecting clusters from each group of similar clusters;
      • Eg. Lideta Sub-city poverty study
    • Stratification can take place at each stage of sampling
  • 7. Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) Sampling
    • In most cluster sampling small clusters tend to disproportionately represented
    • To avoid this we give equal chance of selection
    • Method
      • Giving each cluster chance of selection proportionate to its size
      • Then selecting equal sample size from each cluster
  • 8. Cont’d
    • Illustration: suppose we want to sample 1/10 th of 5 clusters, in which the clusters have 50,100, 200, 300 and 400
      • We will give a proportion of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 respectively
    • PPS is used to
      • Permit selection of more clusters
      • Ensure representation of large clusters
      • Equal chance of being selection to the pop
  • 9. Cont’d
    • PPS is applied under 3 conditions:
      • When dealing with unevenly distributed clusters;
      • With large sample size w/c can be broken into clusters; and
      • When we have data on the proportion of each cluster.
  • 10. Sample Size
    • Sample size depends on
      • heterogeneity of the pop, strata or cluster;
      • size of the sub-group
      • precision
        • SEM=sd/√n
        • The larger the sample size the the lower the sampling error
  • 11. Non-probability sampling
    • Purposive or judgmental sampling: Sample selected because of their unique position in the pop understudy;
    • Quota Sampling : selected to represent a certain characteristics or group in a pop.
  • 12. Measurement and Meaning
    • Concept : is a mental image that summarize similar observations, idea,
      • Eg. Poverty, slum, etc
    • Conceptual Definition : specification of the meaning of each concept in a research to enable measurement
      • Eg. Slum is ‘a heavily populated urban
      • area characterized by substandard housing and squalor’.
  • 13. Cont’d
    • Operational Definition: a definition by which we make the concept measurable, using indicators.
      • Eg. Slum- • inadequate access to safe water;
      • • inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure;
      • • poor structural quality of housing;
      • • overcrowding;
      • • insecure residential status.
  • 14. Level of Measurement
    • There are 4 levels to measure variables.
    • Nominal Variable : mutually exclusive categories. With no ordering.
      • Eg. Sex, marital status, etc
    • Ordinal Variable : categories ordered or ranked in sequential manner.
      • Eg. Class rank, social class
    • Interval-Ratio Variable: logical, ordered and defined in terms of a standard unit of
    • measurement.
  • 15. Cont’d
    • Usually have a zero point- i.e. absence
      • Eg. Age, land area, distance from city-center etc
      • Discrete variable- integer number of values
      • eg. Age, family size
      • Continuous Variable- assume a decimal number of values. Eg. Distance, area, etc
      • Note: the statistical analysis that we apply differs to each level of measurement and to the two types of variables.
  • 16. Instrument Design
    • Questionnaires are set of questions or statements which we used to gather data in survey research.
    • There are two types of questions
      • Open-ended- respondent gives his own answer
      • Eg. What is your attitude towards Addis trans?
      • Close-ended- respondents selects from the choices provided
      • Eg. How do you grade urban trans in Addis
      • Good Fair Bad
  • 17. Guide to Question Construction
    • Respondents must be competent to answer
      • Eg. What kind of planning technique should AACA apply?
    • Use vocabulary that respondents can understand.
      • Eg . What issues should be considered in urban
      • development strategy?
    • Make items clear- avoid ambiguous questions.
      • Eg. Do you live near Mekato?
        • How often do you visit a doctor?
  • 18. Cont’d
    • Avoid Negative Items- respondents might agree with the –ve one while they mean +ve one.
      • Eg. Should not the AACA invest on infrastructure development?
    • Avoid Double Barreled Questions- two questions in one question
      • Eg. What is your opinion about the urban policy and its implementation in Ethiopia?
  • 19. Cont’d
    • Format questions in a sequential order and bring together similar questions
      • Eg. SD, Mig. History, family condition, living condition and finally empl’t condition
    • Avoid biased items or labels
      • Eg. Fascist, racist, fundamentalist, etc
    • Contingent questions should be asked to the relevant respondents.
      • Eg. Are you married?
      • If yes, does your spouse have a job?
      • How old are you?
  • 20. Cont’d
    • The purpose of the research should have to be clearly indicated in the beginning of the questionnaire
    • General and specific instruction of the questionnaire should have to be clearly indicated
  • 21. Cont’d
    • There are two types of questionnaires
    • Self-administered – filled by the respondent him/herself;
    • Enumerator administered- filled by an interviewer.
  • 22. Other methods of data collection
    • Sample survey enables us to collect data from large amount of respondents using a representative sample
    • But its broad coverage make to gather shallow data.
    • When we want to collect in-depth information we use:
      • In-depth interview;
      • Focus group Discussion; and other methods
  • 23. In-depth Interview
    • Used to collect detailed information using semi-structured interview guide
    • The guide is set of generic open ended questions and probing questions
    • The guide only lead the flow of the interview
    • Probing is basic tool in this method
        • Eg. What do you know about low cost housing?
            • Probe
            • LCH vis-à-vis affordability
            • LCH vis-à-vis efficiency
            • LCH vis-à-vis quality
  • 24. Cont’d
      • Interviewee is given freedom of expression in his own words
      • Enable to collect depth information on our research topic
      • Usually used with experts, officials, knowledgeable community members, etc
  • 25. Cont’d
    • Taking note and recording the interview is crucial
    • Disadvantage :
      • Heavily influenced by the interviewer skill; and
      • Difficult to compare responses in a rigorous way.
  • 26. Focus Group Discussion
    • Used to gather information from a discussion of a group by giving them a topic of discussion
    • Group interaction b/n respondents will stimulate richer responses
    • The interviewer can observe the discussion and understand their feeling, behaviors, attitudes, etc
    • Usually have 6-12 members and a moderator, but a group size of 8 is preferable
    • The moderator is expected only to raise topic of discussion and facilitate the discussion
  • 27. Cont’d
    • The group should be a homogeneous group and it is better if they are acquainted
    • If the FGD is handled by a skilled moderator it enables to generate detailed and valid data
    • The moderator should control the flow of the discussion using a checklist
    • In FGD also probing is important
    • And the moderator has to take note and use a tape recorder
  • 28. The Research Paper
    • Finding and narrowing the Problem
      • Select the general topic or issue of research (from the literature or from our experience);
      • Review the evidence or literature review
        • Identify the knowledge gap
      • then we make the research problem precise
      • every research report should have to clearly state the research problem in the beginning
      • Research problem is the k’ge gap to be filled by the research not social problem
  • 29. 2. Formulating Research Questions
    • This are question that the research is going to address
    • After clearly setting the RP, we will split the RP into specific answerable research questions
      • Eg. RP- the K. 10 housing condition
        • How is the structural conditions of the houses in the kebele?
        • What services and amenities does the residents receive?
        • How is the provision of basic infrastructure in the kebele?
  • 30. 3. Composing the Paper
    • Academic research report should have to be organized in a manner
      • Introduction-literature review-methods-result-conclusion-recommendation
    • Introduction - describes related research and explains what your work contributes and why it is important.
      • It sketches out the objectives, research questions, hypothesis, scope and organization of the report.
  • 31. Cont’d
    • b) Literature Review - presents the summary of theoretical and empirical findings related with the research topic
    • c) Methods - this section describes each steps that the study applied in collecting and analyzing the data.
      • it presents the methodology used, the survey design, the sampling technique applied, the sample size, the composition of the sample and methods of data analysis.
      • In addition, the characteristics of the population is described.
  • 32. Cont’d
    • Result - should summarize the data and the inferences drawn
      • It should have to answer the research questions raised in the introduction
      • It should include tables and figures to explain the variables understudy
      • The result section should be sub-divided into sub-topics and arranged in an organized manner
      • The result should critically analyzed using other evidences and theories
  • 33. Cont’d
      • Draw the conclusion from your findings and discuss the possible significance of your findings (recommendation)
      • And indicate areas of further research
  • 34. Editing
    • The research report should be readable, therefore we should have to make proper editing work before submitting the report.
    • Word Choice - avoid undefined adjectives.
      • Eg. Deep, wonderful, near, many, little
    • Logical connection with sentences - there should be a logical flow of sentences in a paragraph.
      • - There should have to be coherence b/n sentences.
  • 35. Cont’d
    • Avoid to be & passive voice - verb to be (is, was, were, will be) and passive voice makes our description static.
    • Avoid informal language - conveying our finding in an informal language makes to seem thoughtless.
      • Eg. Really was not upset, didn’t, ain’t, all of a sudden etc
    • Keep your summary, paraphrase and quotation as short as possible and harmonize the quote into your paper
  • 36. Documentation
    • Every works quoted or paraphrased from other sources should be properly cited.
    • We use in-text citation (the new MLA) method.
      • Eg. Modern urban planning has arisen in response to social and econ problems (Neil 56) or
      • According to Neil …(56)
  • 37. Cont’d
    • We can also use Author-Date system
      • Eg. Modern urban … (Neil, 2004:56) or
        • According to Neil … (2004:56)
  • 38. Referencing
    • You should have to enlist every material you used in the bibliography section.
    • Book
      • Neil, William J.V. (2004) Urban planning and Cultural Identity. London: Routledge
    • Books with editor
    • Journal
      • Morello, Jorge (2000)’Urbanization and Ecology’ . In Third World Planning Review , Vol. 22 No. 4, 2000, pp 119-132