Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Research ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Research ppt


Published on

Published in: Technology

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Stratified Sampling
    • First we divide the pop by certain characteristics
      • Eg. Gender, age, etc
    • based on key independent variables
    • each sub-population is called stratum
    • Each stratum is mutually exclusive set of elements
  • 2. Cont’d
    • finally using SRS or SS, we sample from each stratum
    • Used to examine the r/ship b/n independent (criteria for stratification) and dependent variable;
    • To make comparisons among sub-pop
    • And used to reduce sampling error
      • * prior information about the pop is required
  • 3. Cont’d
    • Disproportionate Stratified Sampling- equal sample size from each stratum
    • Proportionate Stratified Sampling - proportional sample size from each stratum
    • Note: Use SS only if there is significant difference across the strata
  • 4. Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling
    • For population without exhaustive list (SF)
    • Or when it is impossible to compile a complete list of the elements (SF)
    • Involves sampling of natural clusters
      • Eg. Schools, kebeles, industries, etc
  • 5. Cont’d
    • Followed by selection of elements from the clusters using SRS or SS
      • Eg. Addis Ababa households’ mode of transportation
    • Involves listing and sampling at d/t stage
    • It involves two or more sampling error
  • 6. Stratified Multi-stage Cluster Sampling
    • Involves grouping of clusters with similar characteristics;
    • Then selecting clusters from each group of similar clusters;
      • Eg. Lideta Sub-city poverty study
    • Stratification can take place at each stage of sampling
  • 7. Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) Sampling
    • In most cluster sampling small clusters tend to disproportionately represented
    • To avoid this we give equal chance of selection
    • Method
      • Giving each cluster chance of selection proportionate to its size
      • Then selecting equal sample size from each cluster
  • 8. Cont’d
    • Illustration: suppose we want to sample 1/10 th of 5 clusters, in which the clusters have 50,100, 200, 300 and 400
      • We will give a proportion of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 respectively
    • PPS is used to
      • Permit selection of more clusters
      • Ensure representation of large clusters
      • Equal chance of being selection to the pop
  • 9. Cont’d
    • PPS is applied under 3 conditions:
      • When dealing with unevenly distributed clusters;
      • With large sample size w/c can be broken into clusters; and
      • When we have data on the proportion of each cluster.
  • 10. Sample Size
    • Sample size depends on
      • heterogeneity of the pop, strata or cluster;
      • size of the sub-group
      • precision
        • SEM=sd/√n
        • The larger the sample size the the lower the sampling error
  • 11. Non-probability sampling
    • Purposive or judgmental sampling: Sample selected because of their unique position in the pop understudy;
    • Quota Sampling : selected to represent a certain characteristics or group in a pop.
  • 12. Measurement and Meaning
    • Concept : is a mental image that summarize similar observations, idea,
      • Eg. Poverty, slum, etc
    • Conceptual Definition : specification of the meaning of each concept in a research to enable measurement
      • Eg. Slum is ‘a heavily populated urban
      • area characterized by substandard housing and squalor’.
  • 13. Cont’d
    • Operational Definition: a definition by which we make the concept measurable, using indicators.
      • Eg. Slum- • inadequate access to safe water;
      • • inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure;
      • • poor structural quality of housing;
      • • overcrowding;
      • • insecure residential status.
  • 14. Level of Measurement
    • There are 4 levels to measure variables.
    • Nominal Variable : mutually exclusive categories. With no ordering.
      • Eg. Sex, marital status, etc
    • Ordinal Variable : categories ordered or ranked in sequential manner.
      • Eg. Class rank, social class
    • Interval-Ratio Variable: logical, ordered and defined in terms of a standard unit of
    • measurement.
  • 15. Cont’d
    • Usually have a zero point- i.e. absence
      • Eg. Age, land area, distance from city-center etc
      • Discrete variable- integer number of values
      • eg. Age, family size
      • Continuous Variable- assume a decimal number of values. Eg. Distance, area, etc
      • Note: the statistical analysis that we apply differs to each level of measurement and to the two types of variables.
  • 16. Instrument Design
    • Questionnaires are set of questions or statements which we used to gather data in survey research.
    • There are two types of questions
      • Open-ended- respondent gives his own answer
      • Eg. What is your attitude towards Addis trans?
      • Close-ended- respondents selects from the choices provided
      • Eg. How do you grade urban trans in Addis
      • Good Fair Bad
  • 17. Guide to Question Construction
    • Respondents must be competent to answer
      • Eg. What kind of planning technique should AACA apply?
    • Use vocabulary that respondents can understand.
      • Eg . What issues should be considered in urban
      • development strategy?
    • Make items clear- avoid ambiguous questions.
      • Eg. Do you live near Mekato?
        • How often do you visit a doctor?
  • 18. Cont’d
    • Avoid Negative Items- respondents might agree with the –ve one while they mean +ve one.
      • Eg. Should not the AACA invest on infrastructure development?
    • Avoid Double Barreled Questions- two questions in one question
      • Eg. What is your opinion about the urban policy and its implementation in Ethiopia?
  • 19. Cont’d
    • Format questions in a sequential order and bring together similar questions
      • Eg. SD, Mig. History, family condition, living condition and finally empl’t condition
    • Avoid biased items or labels
      • Eg. Fascist, racist, fundamentalist, etc
    • Contingent questions should be asked to the relevant respondents.
      • Eg. Are you married?
      • If yes, does your spouse have a job?
      • How old are you?
  • 20. Cont’d
    • The purpose of the research should have to be clearly indicated in the beginning of the questionnaire
    • General and specific instruction of the questionnaire should have to be clearly indicated
  • 21. Cont’d
    • There are two types of questionnaires
    • Self-administered – filled by the respondent him/herself;
    • Enumerator administered- filled by an interviewer.
  • 22. Other methods of data collection
    • Sample survey enables us to collect data from large amount of respondents using a representative sample
    • But its broad coverage make to gather shallow data.
    • When we want to collect in-depth information we use:
      • In-depth interview;
      • Focus group Discussion; and other methods
  • 23. In-depth Interview
    • Used to collect detailed information using semi-structured interview guide
    • The guide is set of generic open ended questions and probing questions
    • The guide only lead the flow of the interview
    • Probing is basic tool in this method
        • Eg. What do you know about low cost housing?
            • Probe
            • LCH vis-à-vis affordability
            • LCH vis-à-vis efficiency
            • LCH vis-à-vis quality
  • 24. Cont’d
      • Interviewee is given freedom of expression in his own words
      • Enable to collect depth information on our research topic
      • Usually used with experts, officials, knowledgeable community members, etc
  • 25. Cont’d
    • Taking note and recording the interview is crucial
    • Disadvantage :
      • Heavily influenced by the interviewer skill; and
      • Difficult to compare responses in a rigorous way.
  • 26. Focus Group Discussion
    • Used to gather information from a discussion of a group by giving them a topic of discussion
    • Group interaction b/n respondents will stimulate richer responses
    • The interviewer can observe the discussion and understand their feeling, behaviors, attitudes, etc
    • Usually have 6-12 members and a moderator, but a group size of 8 is preferable
    • The moderator is expected only to raise topic of discussion and facilitate the discussion
  • 27. Cont’d
    • The group should be a homogeneous group and it is better if they are acquainted
    • If the FGD is handled by a skilled moderator it enables to generate detailed and valid data
    • The moderator should control the flow of the discussion using a checklist
    • In FGD also probing is important
    • And the moderator has to take note and use a tape recorder
  • 28. The Research Paper
    • Finding and narrowing the Problem
      • Select the general topic or issue of research (from the literature or from our experience);
      • Review the evidence or literature review
        • Identify the knowledge gap
      • then we make the research problem precise
      • every research report should have to clearly state the research problem in the beginning
      • Research problem is the k’ge gap to be filled by the research not social problem
  • 29. 2. Formulating Research Questions
    • This are question that the research is going to address
    • After clearly setting the RP, we will split the RP into specific answerable research questions
      • Eg. RP- the K. 10 housing condition
        • How is the structural conditions of the houses in the kebele?
        • What services and amenities does the residents receive?
        • How is the provision of basic infrastructure in the kebele?
  • 30. 3. Composing the Paper
    • Academic research report should have to be organized in a manner
      • Introduction-literature review-methods-result-conclusion-recommendation
    • Introduction - describes related research and explains what your work contributes and why it is important.
      • It sketches out the objectives, research questions, hypothesis, scope and organization of the report.
  • 31. Cont’d
    • b) Literature Review - presents the summary of theoretical and empirical findings related with the research topic
    • c) Methods - this section describes each steps that the study applied in collecting and analyzing the data.
      • it presents the methodology used, the survey design, the sampling technique applied, the sample size, the composition of the sample and methods of data analysis.
      • In addition, the characteristics of the population is described.
  • 32. Cont’d
    • Result - should summarize the data and the inferences drawn
      • It should have to answer the research questions raised in the introduction
      • It should include tables and figures to explain the variables understudy
      • The result section should be sub-divided into sub-topics and arranged in an organized manner
      • The result should critically analyzed using other evidences and theories
  • 33. Cont’d
      • Draw the conclusion from your findings and discuss the possible significance of your findings (recommendation)
      • And indicate areas of further research
  • 34. Editing
    • The research report should be readable, therefore we should have to make proper editing work before submitting the report.
    • Word Choice - avoid undefined adjectives.
      • Eg. Deep, wonderful, near, many, little
    • Logical connection with sentences - there should be a logical flow of sentences in a paragraph.
      • - There should have to be coherence b/n sentences.
  • 35. Cont’d
    • Avoid to be & passive voice - verb to be (is, was, were, will be) and passive voice makes our description static.
    • Avoid informal language - conveying our finding in an informal language makes to seem thoughtless.
      • Eg. Really was not upset, didn’t, ain’t, all of a sudden etc
    • Keep your summary, paraphrase and quotation as short as possible and harmonize the quote into your paper
  • 36. Documentation
    • Every works quoted or paraphrased from other sources should be properly cited.
    • We use in-text citation (the new MLA) method.
      • Eg. Modern urban planning has arisen in response to social and econ problems (Neil 56) or
      • According to Neil …(56)
  • 37. Cont’d
    • We can also use Author-Date system
      • Eg. Modern urban … (Neil, 2004:56) or
        • According to Neil … (2004:56)
  • 38. Referencing
    • You should have to enlist every material you used in the bibliography section.
    • Book
      • Neil, William J.V. (2004) Urban planning and Cultural Identity. London: Routledge
    • Books with editor
    • Journal
      • Morello, Jorge (2000)’Urbanization and Ecology’ . In Third World Planning Review , Vol. 22 No. 4, 2000, pp 119-132