Multi-Agency cooperation in major incident

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Control Room Communications Conference at 9th December 2010.

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  • Kimmo Markkanen 27th May 2009 Tetra World Congress
  • Multi-Agency cooperation in major incident

    1. 1. Multi-Agency Cooperation The Sello Mall Shooting Kimmo Markkanen Director of Risk Management Länsi-Uusimaa Department for Rescue Services 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    2. 2. Rescue Services in Finland http://www.pelastustoimi.fi/en/ 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    3. 3. Rescue Services <ul><li>The rescue authorities are responsible for the safety of people in any kind of everyday incident, disaster or war. </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue services mean actions carried out urgently in the event of accident, actions needed to protect and save life, property and the environment, to limit damage and mitigate the consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue services are divided into: </li></ul><ul><li>1) accident and fire prevention </li></ul><ul><li>2) rescue operations </li></ul><ul><li>3) civil defence and preparedness. </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    4. 4. Authorities and Administration <ul><li>State rescue authorities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of the Interior is the supreme authority responsible for organising, coordinating and controlling national rescue services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional State Administrative Agencies are responsible for coordinating and controlling preparedness planning and rescue services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional rescue authorities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Rescue Services is responsible for organising emergency services </li></ul></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    5. 5. Other Authorities <ul><li>By legislation Rescue Services have the overall command responsibility on rescue operations </li></ul><ul><li>Many other authorities are required to take part in rescue services and civil preparedness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Border guard (Coast guard) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defence forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social welfare and health authorities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the offices, institutions and commercial enterprises responsible for agriculture and forestry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental authorities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport authorities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunication authorities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authorities and institutions responsible for radiation and nuclear safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorological services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiply of voluntary organisations also take part in rescue services. </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    6. 6. Rescue Departments (Regional Rescue Services) are responsible for: <ul><li>Fire and accident prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighting and rescue work relating to accidents or natural events (explosion, oil spills, incidents on water, landslides, road accidents, gas or liquid leaks, floods, heavy rain, radiation) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters are multiskilled rescuers. In addition to firefighting and rescue work, they also take part in accident prevention, medical care and ambulance service as well as civil preparedness </li></ul></ul></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    7. 7. Civil Preparedness <ul><li>Civil preparedness means protecting life and property and safeguarding the activities of the authorities, institutions and production plants essential to maintain social function and managing emergency operations in a state of emergency (“civil defence”). </li></ul><ul><li>Civil preparedness is divided into civil preparedness managed by the authorities and self-preparedness. </li></ul><ul><li>The state and municipalities are responsible for the former, companies, institutions, property owners and private individuals for the latter. </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    8. 8. Radiation monitoring <ul><li>A nationwide radiation monitoring network comprising about 300 automatic measuring stations is responsible for radiation surveillance 24 hours a day (using VIRVE-network for communications). </li></ul><ul><li>The network gives a picture of the situation every 15 minutes, making it possible to quickly forecast and calculate radiation developments and to rapidly warn the public. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministry of the Interior acts as the monitoring coordinator in close cooperation with the authorities taking part: the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, the defence forces, the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Institute of Seismology and the Laboratory of Radiochemistry. </li></ul><ul><li>Dose rates at Finland are available in internet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.stuk.fi/sateilytietoa/sateilytilanne/en_GB/sateilytilanne/ </li></ul></ul></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    9. 9. Training <ul><li>Responsibility of the state for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional rescue services training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training civil preparedness leaders and special staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic training is given at the State-owned Emergency Services College in Kuopio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pelastusopisto.fi/pelastus/home.nsf/pages/index_eng </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The basic diplomas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighter-EMT (1.5 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub Officer's Diploma (1 year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Officer's Diploma (3.5 years, a polytechnic degree) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm centres dispatchers Diploma (1.5 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The College has 350 boarding places and a training ground for practical exercises. </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    10. 10. Rescue departments emergency call-outs annually (Finland) <ul><li>Fires in buildings 6,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Forest and wildfires 3,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle fires 2,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Other fires 3,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Incidents caused by dangerous substances 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Floods/natural disasters 2,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil damage 2,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic accidents 13,000 </li></ul><ul><li>First response 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>False alarms 20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency missions, total 100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Medical emergencies (ambulance services) 200,000 </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    11. 11. Three major changes in Fire and Rescue Services in Finland <ul><li>Regionalization of Rescue Services </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pelastustoimi.fi/en/26715/ </li></ul><ul><li>Centralization of Alarm Centres </li></ul><ul><li> Emergency Response Centres (ERC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.112.fi/index.php?langID=2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.112.fi/documents/Hake_112esittely_englanti.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New national digital radio network “VIRVE” for all authorities (TETRA) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.erillisverkot.fi/?lang=en </li></ul><ul><li>VIRVE made other two possible </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    12. 12. Regionalization of Rescue Services <ul><li>PAST (until 2004): </li></ul><ul><li>445 municipalities, each having a fire brigade: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-time (60), Part-time (190), Voluntary (200) </li></ul></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications <ul><li>PRESENT (since January 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>22 regional Fire Departments, consisting of one larger city and several surrounding municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pelastuslaitokset.fi/filewrap.php?c=&f=turvaopas_eng_low.pdf </li></ul>
    13. 13. Centralization of Alarm Centres <ul><li>PAST </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal Alarm Centres for Fire & Rescue & ambulance services (56) </li></ul><ul><li>Separate Alarm Centres for Police (counties) </li></ul><ul><li>Various communication and database systems </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications <ul><li>PRESENT (completed 2007) and Future </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental Emergency Response Centre Department </li></ul><ul><li>Consisting of 15 regional Emergency Response Centres </li></ul><ul><li>Joint centres for Fire and Rescue, Police and Social & Health authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Joint dispatch systems & databases </li></ul><ul><li>More changes in progress (more centralization, data systems) </li></ul>
    14. 14. National digital (radio) Network “VIRVE” for all authorities <ul><li>PAST </li></ul><ul><li>Each authority had their own VHF-radio network </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Open for listening by anyone (not scrambled) </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications <ul><li>PRESENT (completed 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Joint authorities radio network </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage: whole Finland (+ Estonian coast) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital, based on TETRA standard </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities included: Rescue, police, Health & Social Security, Border Guard, Military, Customs, Railroad authorities, Energy … </li></ul><ul><li>FUTURE (2011 … 2015) </li></ul><ul><li>Common Multi-Agency Field Command System (FCS) </li></ul><ul><li>IP backbone connection for Rescue Services (PeIP) </li></ul><ul><li>TETRA Enhanced Data Service (TEDS) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Länsi-Uusimaa Department for Rescue Services www.lup.fi/en 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    16. 16. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications 2. Länsi-Uusimaa Consists of 12 municipalities Central municipal Espoo is second biggest city in Finland, west from Helsinki Other municipalities are: Hanko, Inkoo, Karjalohja, Karkkila, Kauniainen, Kirkkonummi, Lohja, Nummi-Pusula, Raasepori, Siuntio, Vihti.
    17. 17. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications Keski-Uusimaa Dept. for Rescue Services Helsinki Dept. for Rescue Services Kanta-Häme Dept. for Rescue Services Varsinais-Suomi Dept. for Rescue Services <ul><li>Organisationally a part of City of Espoo </li></ul><ul><li>12 municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>app. 425 000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>12 full-time fire stations </li></ul><ul><li>43 voluntary fire brigades </li></ul><ul><li>(+ 4 Lifeboat Associations) </li></ul><ul><li>over. 400 employees </li></ul><ul><li>over 1 000 volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>annual budget 30 M€ (incl. ambulance services 3 M€) </li></ul><ul><li>RAASEPORI DISTRICT </li></ul><ul><li>app. 45 000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>area 1950 km2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 full-time fire stations (Tammisaari, Hanko, Karjaa) </li></ul><ul><li>13 voluntary fire brigades </li></ul><ul><li>ESPOO DISTRICT </li></ul><ul><li>. app. 290 000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>area 683 km2 </li></ul><ul><li>6 full-time fire stations </li></ul><ul><li>17 voluntary fire brigades </li></ul><ul><li>Ambulance services in Espoo, Kirkkonummi and Kauniainen </li></ul><ul><li>LOHJA DISTRICT </li></ul><ul><li>app. 90 000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>area 1607 km2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 full-time fire stations (Lohja, Nummela, Karkkila) </li></ul><ul><li>13 voluntary fire brigades </li></ul>
    18. 18. Länsi-Uusimaa Department for Rescue Services 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications Daily accidents Large scale accidents disasters Exceptional circumtances Fire depts, Police, Emergency Medical Voluntary organisations Civil defence organisations minutes hours days, months
    19. 19. Standard of Rescue Services http://www.pelastustoimi.fi/en/267211/ <ul><li>Rescue Act, 13 §: Regional rescue services make their decision on the standard of service after hearing the opinions of the district’s local authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Region’s risks and resources </li></ul><ul><li>The standard of services of accident prevention, rescue services and civil preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Development plan </li></ul><ul><li>Must be renewed regularly </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    20. 20. Länsi-Uusimaa Dept. for Rescue Services 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications Administration, Head of Administration Paula Kantis Rescue Operations, Director of Rescue Services Olli Pietikäinen Risk Management, Director of Risk Management Kimmo Markkanen Development Teams, named persons Chief Fire Officer (Rescue Director) Veli-Pekka Ihamäki District Fire Officer Stig Granström District Fire Officer Pekka Hynynen District Fire Officer Heikki Kervinen District Board of Management District Board of Management Department`s Board of Management District Board of Management <ul><li>Espoo District </li></ul><ul><li>Service Units </li></ul><ul><li>(3 + 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lohja District </li></ul><ul><li>Service Units </li></ul><ul><li>(3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tammisaari District </li></ul><ul><li>Service Units </li></ul><ul><li>(3 ) </li></ul>Administrative Unit
    21. 21. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications Organisation at Rescue Operations Rescue Unit Rescue Unit (1+3 = 4) P3 Rescue Unit Rescue Unit Rescue Platoon (1+3+10 = 14) State Ministry of the Interior Government Section 2 chief Rescue Unit Rescue Unit Rescue Unit Section 3 chief Rescue Unit Rescue Unit Rescue Unit Länsi-Uusimaa P2 Command Post (P3 +__ ) Section 4 Medic (L4) Ambulance Ambulance Ambulance Rescue Company (7+9+33) = 49) (Section 1 chief) Municipality’s board Pel-Joke (Other Accident Areas ->) Rescue Service Region
    22. 22. Voluntary fire brigades <ul><li>Finland: app. 1 000 voluntary fire brigades </li></ul><ul><li>Important element for rescue services as a reserve </li></ul><ul><li>In rural, sparsely populated areas primary response as well </li></ul><ul><li>Skills, training and number of volunteers vary among brigades </li></ul><ul><li>No public authority status </li></ul><ul><li>Länsi-Uusimaa: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>43 brigades, over 1 000 volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response time 6, 12 or 30 minutes from call (to be changed 2011) </li></ul></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    23. 23. The Sello Mall Shooting 31.12.2009 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications Picture: Ilta-Sanomat
    24. 24. Sello Mall http://www.sello.fi/en/welcome-to-sello/ <ul><li>Over 170 s hops and services </li></ul><ul><li>Total area 102 000 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Car park for 2 900 cars </li></ul><ul><li>At New Year Eve about 3000-4000 customers </li></ul><ul><li>Sello first phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two supermarkets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library, Concert Hall, City of Espoo front office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sello second phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lot of smaller shops: clothing, restaurants, leisure, electronics… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SelloRex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movie theaters, Bowling arena and restaurants… </li></ul></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    25. 25. Fire Station and Voluntary Fire Brigade Library Concert Hall Prisma Supermarket Sello 2-phase Sello 1-phase Sello Rex Railway Station Bus Terminal 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    26. 26. Briefing <ul><li>31th December 2009 after 10 o’clock am. Ibrahim Shkupolli shot four employees of Prisma-Supermarket at Sello Shopping Mall and went out through Library walking calmly </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth victim, Shkupolli’s former ex-girlfriend, were found killed before noon at nearby apartment </li></ul><ul><li>Later afternoon sixth victim were found at apartment about ten kilometres away </li></ul><ul><li>Soon were confirmed that the sixth victim was the shooter, Ibrahim Schupolli </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    27. 27. 10:08 Alram call  First Response Alarm Shots fired, 1 or 2 victims 10:31 Police informed that the location of gunman is unknown 10:31 Units were pulled back 10:24 first units penetrated in Police covers 10:37 Chief on Duty order the Control Room to send a text message alert for City of Espoo and Rescue Services management teams: ” FYI! Shots fired at Sello Shopping Mall, Police is commanding” 14:30 - Press Conference at Police Station 14:50 Confirmation that the shooter is dead 10:27 Automatic Fire Alarm to Sello Overall command at Police station Situation Center 10:40 Rescue Services Chief on Duty went to Police Situation Center 14:19 Police penetrates to shooters apartment Rescue Unit and 2 Emergency Medical teams standby at scene 10:23 Local Voluntary Fire Brigade alarmed for evacuation support <ul><li>10:40 Command Centre were established at Rescue Services HQ </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 Chief Fire Officers and Auxiliary Command Unit crew </li></ul><ul><li>-Resources, other incident </li></ul><ul><li>Situational picture </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>10:15 Rescue Services Control room informs Chief on Duty and Espoo Divisional Officer 10:00-16:30 7 other Fire & Rescue Alarms, one domestic fire 11:00 Auxiliary Emergency Medical Supervisor Unit were established for daily incidents Hospital District orders 2 Emergency Medical teams from Helsinki to Espoo 10:50 Auxiliary Command Unit Were established 4 Voluntary Fire Brigades alarmed to standby 10:18 Emergency Medical Supervisor suspends Non-Critical Emergency Medical Services Other readiness (Rescue Services and Emergency Medic) Sello Incident Rescue and Emergency Medic Police 18:00 Debriefing at Police Station (The Police had a lot of action not described here!)
    28. 28. Timeline <ul><li>10:08 First Emergency Call from Sello Mall, one person shot </li></ul><ul><li>10:10 Länsi-Uusimaa Department for Rescue Services alarmed: E490 (ALS - Advanced Life Support Ambulance), EL4 (Medical Supervisor) ja E51 (Rescue Unit) </li></ul><ul><li>10:11 E193 and E296 alarmed (BLS - Basic Life Support Ambulance) </li></ul><ul><li>10:12 Information about second victim </li></ul><ul><li>10:12 Medical Supervisor order staging at Bus Terminal driveway </li></ul><ul><li>10:13 Rescue Unit E51 at scene, last shots fired </li></ul><ul><li>10:17 Medical Units E490 and L4 at scene </li></ul><ul><li>10:18 Non-Critical ambulance services suspended at Espoo </li></ul><ul><li>10:19 Alarm for another ALS Ambulance E290 </li></ul><ul><li>10:23 ERC informed that Prisma-Supermarket is safe to go in </li></ul><ul><li>10:24 E490, E290 and E51 penetrated in and started medical operations (TRIAGE) </li></ul><ul><li>10:27 Information about more victims </li></ul><ul><li>10:27 Automatic Fire Alarm to Sello </li></ul><ul><li>10:31 Information that the Mall is not secured, units were pulled back </li></ul><ul><li>10:32 Emergency Medical Physician alarmed (Medi-Heli) </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    29. 29. Police Timeline <ul><li>Alarm at 10.08 </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Agency operation under police command </li></ul><ul><li>Operation according Special operations plan started at 10.10 </li></ul><ul><li>Lot of police officers also from nearby districts </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreads of peaple at scene and thousands nearby </li></ul><ul><li>4 dead person at Prisma-Supermarket </li></ul><ul><li>One dead found at 11.40 (ex-girlfriend) </li></ul><ul><li>One dead found at 14.10 (the gunman) </li></ul><ul><li>Press Conference at 14.30 </li></ul><ul><li>Press Conference at 1st January 13.00 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    30. 30. Rescue Services tasks <ul><li>At Sello Mall </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Medical operations </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation of personnel and customers to Library and nearby Fire House </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation of area </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Police and City of Espoo Post-Emergency teams </li></ul><ul><li>Situation Center of Police (Command Center) </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Officer and rescue services spesialist (Chief on duty), also at press conference </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue Services Command Center </li></ul><ul><li>Resources and overlapping cases </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Blueprints of the Mall for police from City of Espoo Building authority </li></ul><ul><li>At region of Länsi-Uusimaa </li></ul><ul><li>Two other related incidents (ex-girlfriend’s and gunman’s homes) </li></ul><ul><li>During 10:08 – 15:00 seven other rescue alarms, including one domestic fire </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards </li></ul><ul><li>Defusing-session for those involved operations at scene </li></ul><ul><li>Later debriefing-sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Report for developing own preparedness and about cooperation </li></ul>
    31. 31. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Common situational picture </li></ul>Police Fire & Rescue Medical & Social Others OWN COMMON COMMUNICATION PUBLIC MEDIA COMMUNITY <ul><li>Role of Emergency Response Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Communication between agencies </li></ul>
    32. 32. Situational Awareness <ul><li>Perception of the environment critical to decision-makers in complex, dynamic areas i.e. command and control of emergency services such as fire fighting and policing </li></ul><ul><li>involves being aware of what is happening around you to understand how information, events, and your own actions will impact your goals and objectives, both now and in the near future </li></ul><ul><li>What about the Management Team of the Mall? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Three Main Aspects <ul><li>Where is the operation managed from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Agencies involved at same place every level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field Commanders (Fire & Rescue, Police, Medical etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Command Center (s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the environment safe enough </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get information about the overall situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it safe to start medical care, extinguishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to announce that to operational units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-Planned and practiced Multi-Agency cooperation i.e. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Athletics World Championship event at 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAR-exercise 7 th October 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(school shootings 7 th November 2007 at Jokela and 23 rd September 2008 at Kauhajoki and Myyrmanni Bomb explosion at 11 th October 2002) </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Impact <ul><li>6 person dead; the suffer of relatives and others </li></ul><ul><li>At Prisma-Supermarket were hundreads of people, evacuation of 2000…3000 persons, secondary impact for hundreads thousands persons </li></ul><ul><li>The Mall was isolated and library were used as an gathering place </li></ul><ul><li>Several hundreads of cars were blocked at parking lot </li></ul><ul><li>Impact for traffic (trains, buses, traffic jams etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of sale (60 000 - 100 000 customer/day) </li></ul><ul><li>Economical losses (shops, individuals, authorities etc.) </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    35. 35. Press Conference <ul><li>http://areena.yle.fi/video/652153 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Finnish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8435994.stm </li></ul><ul><li>http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/europe/12/31/finland.shooting.shopping.mall/index.html?iref=allsearch </li></ul>9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    36. 36. Firefighters at their work… 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    37. 37. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    38. 38. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    39. 39. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    40. 40. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    41. 41. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications
    42. 42. 9th December 2010 Control Room Communications Thank you for your attention ! Serving the community : Länsi-Uusimaa Department for Rescue Services [email_address]

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