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Social groups and Social organization

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Sociology Lecture~ I just want to share my powerpoints here .. Thanks

Sociology Lecture~ I just want to share my powerpoints here .. Thanks

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  • 1. SOCIAL GROUPS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS © MTCJennBau
  • 2. SOCIAL GROUP  Unit of interacting personalities with interdependence of roles and statuses existing between and among themselves.  Collection of people where members interact on a regular basis, guided by structure and agreements, defined by roles and responsibilities.
  • 3. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION  Type of collectivity established for the pursuit of specific aims or goals.  Characterized by a formal structure of rules, authority relations, a division of labor and limited membership or admission.
  • 4. OTHER COLLECTIONS NOT CONSIDERED AS SOCIAL GROUPS  AGGREGATES  COLLECTIVITY  SOCIAL CATEGORY
  • 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL GROUP  Group members interact on a fairly regular basis through communication.  Members should develop a structure where each member assumes a specific status and adopts a particular role.  Certain orderly procedures and values are agreed upon.  The members of the group feel a sense of identity.
  • 6. TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPS According to Social Ties Primary Group • It is the most fundamental unit of human society. • A long-lasting group • Characterized by strong ties of love and affection. • Do’s and Don’ts of behavior are learned here. Examples: Families, Gangs, Cliques, Play Groups, Friendship Groups
  • 7. SECONDARY GROUPS  Groups with which the individual comes in contact later in life.  Characterized by impersonal, business-like, contractual, formal and casual relationship.  Usually Large in size, not very enduring and limited relationships.  People needed other people for the satisfaction of their complex needs. Examples: Industrial Workers; business associates, Faculty Staff, Company Employees
  • 8. ACCORDING TO SELF-IDENTIFICATION  IN-GROUP  a social unit in which individuals feel at home and with which they identify.  OUT-GROUP  a social unit to which individuals do not belong due to differences in social categories and with which they do not identify.  REFERENCE/PSYCHOLGICAL GROUP  groups to which we consciously or unconsciously refer when we evaluate our life situations and behavior but to which we do not necessarily belong.  It serve a comparison function  It has a normative function
  • 9. ACCORDING TO PURPOSE  Special Interest Groups  groups which are organized to meet the special interest of the members.  Task Group  groups assigned to accomplish jobs which cannot be done by one person.  Influence or Pressure Groups  groups organized to support or influence social actions.
  • 10. ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND DEGREE OR QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIP  Gemeinschaft  A social system in which most relationships are personal or traditional.  It is a community of intimate, private and exclusive living and familism.  Culture is homogeneous and tradition-bound.  Gesselschaft  A social system in which most relationships are impersonal, formal, contractual or bargain-like.  Relationship is individualistic, business-like, secondary and rationalized  Culture is heterogeneous and more advanced.
  • 11. ACCORDING TO FORM OF ORGANIZATION  Formal Groups  Social organization  Deliberately formed and their purpose and objectives are explicitly defined.  Their goals are clearly stated and the division of labor is based on member’s ability or merit Bureaucracy  an administrative structure w/c is aimed to enable members meet their goals.  A hierarchical arrangement in large scale formal organizations in w/c parts are ordered in the manner of a pyramid based on a division of function and authority.  Formal, rationally organized social structure
  • 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY  Positions and offices are clearly defined  The hierarchical arrangement of authority, rights and obligations is specifically drawn and clear-cut  The personnel are selected on the basis of technical or professional qualification and expert training and competence through competitive examination  Definite rules govern official behavior  Security of tenure and the pursuit of a career with promotion in the hierarchy are assured
  • 13.  Informal Groups  Arises spontaneously out of the interactions of two or more persons.  It is unplanned  Has no explicit rules for membership and does not have specific objectives to be attained.  It has the characteristics of primary groups and members are bound by emotion and sentiments.  Relationship Groups  Groups organized to fulfill the feeling of companionship.
  • 14. ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE GROUP FUNCTIONING  Democratic or “participate” leadership is employed.  Flexible patterns of communication are used.  A cooperative problem-solving approach to discussion is employed rather than a competitive “win-lose” approach.  Members deal openly and candidly with one another.  Decision techniques which favor a sharing of responsibility via protection of the individual rights are used rather than techniques which place the responsibility clearly in the hands of but a portion of a group.
  • 15. FACTORS OR FORCES AFFECTING GROUP DYNAMICS
  • 16. LEADERSHIP, QUALITIES OF A LEADER, STYLE OF LEADERSHIP
  • 17.  The process of influencing the activities of individuals in a group towards the attainment of group goals in a given situation.  It implies the existence of particular influence relationship between two or more persons.
  • 18. QUALITIES OF A LEADER They have traits such as • Intelligence • Dominance • Charisma • Enthusiasm • Courage • Determination • Self-confidence • High sense of integrity • Tact • Diplomacy • Involvement
  • 19. Groups needed leaders for two basic purposes :  To direct various tasks  Provide support to group members Task Leadership  the act of directing a group toward its goal. Socio-Emotional Leadership  the act of maintaining good spirits.
  • 20. STYLES OF LEADERSHIP  Functional Leadership  Status Leadership  Task-Oriented Leadership  Relationship or person-oriented Leadership  Transactional Leadership  Authoritarian Leadership  Democratic Leadership  Tradition-oriented Leadership  Development-oriented Leadership