Unit of interacting personalities with
interdependence of roles and statuses existing
between and among themselves.
Collection of people where members interact on
a regular basis, guided by structure and
agreements, defined by roles and
Type of collectivity established for the pursuit of
specific aims or goals.
Characterized by a formal structure of rules,
authority relations, a division of labor and limited
membership or admission.
OTHER COLLECTIONS NOT CONSIDERED AS
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL GROUP
Group members interact on a fairly regular
basis through communication.
Members should develop a structure where
each member assumes a specific status and
adopts a particular role.
Certain orderly procedures and values are
The members of the group feel a sense of
TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPS
According to Social Ties
• It is the most fundamental unit of human society.
• A long-lasting group
• Characterized by strong ties of love and affection.
• Do’s and Don’ts of behavior are learned here.
Families, Gangs, Cliques, Play Groups, Friendship Groups
Groups with which the individual comes in contact later in life.
Characterized by impersonal, business-like, contractual,
formal and casual relationship.
Usually Large in size, not very enduring and limited
People needed other people for the satisfaction of their
Industrial Workers; business associates, Faculty Staff,
ACCORDING TO SELF-IDENTIFICATION
a social unit in which individuals feel at home and with which
a social unit to which individuals do not belong due to
differences in social categories and with which they do not
groups to which we consciously or unconsciously refer when
we evaluate our life situations and behavior but to which we do
not necessarily belong.
It serve a comparison function
It has a normative function
ACCORDING TO PURPOSE
Special Interest Groups
groups which are organized to meet the special interest of
groups assigned to accomplish jobs which cannot be
done by one person.
Influence or Pressure Groups
groups organized to support or influence social actions.
ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND
DEGREE OR QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIP
A social system in which most relationships are personal or
It is a community of intimate, private and exclusive living and
Culture is homogeneous and tradition-bound.
A social system in which most relationships are impersonal,
formal, contractual or bargain-like.
Relationship is individualistic, business-like, secondary and
Culture is heterogeneous and more advanced.
ACCORDING TO FORM OF ORGANIZATION
Deliberately formed and their purpose and objectives are
Their goals are clearly stated and the division of labor is based
on member’s ability or merit
an administrative structure w/c is aimed to enable
members meet their goals.
A hierarchical arrangement in large scale formal
organizations in w/c parts are ordered in the manner of a
pyramid based on a division of function and authority.
Formal, rationally organized social structure
CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY
Positions and offices are clearly defined
The hierarchical arrangement of authority, rights and
obligations is specifically drawn and clear-cut
The personnel are selected on the basis of technical
or professional qualification and expert training and
competence through competitive examination
Definite rules govern official behavior
Security of tenure and the pursuit of a career with
promotion in the hierarchy are assured
Arises spontaneously out of the interactions of two or more
It is unplanned
Has no explicit rules for membership and does not have specific
objectives to be attained.
It has the characteristics of primary groups and members are
bound by emotion and sentiments.
Groups organized to fulfill the feeling of companionship.
ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE GROUP
Democratic or “participate” leadership is employed.
Flexible patterns of communication are used.
A cooperative problem-solving approach to discussion is
employed rather than a competitive “win-lose” approach.
Members deal openly and candidly with one another.
Decision techniques which favor a sharing of
responsibility via protection of the individual rights are
used rather than techniques which place the
responsibility clearly in the hands of but a portion of a
QUALITIES OF A LEADER,
STYLE OF LEADERSHIP
The process of influencing the activities of individuals in a
group towards the attainment of group goals in a given
It implies the existence of particular influence relationship
between two or more persons.
QUALITIES OF A LEADER
They have traits such as
• High sense of integrity
Groups needed leaders for two basic purposes :
To direct various tasks
Provide support to group members
the act of directing a group toward its goal.
the act of maintaining good spirits.