Nightingale's Theory Presentation


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Nightingale's Theory Presentation

  1. 1. Nightingale’s Nursing Philosophy By: Anna Sierre & Kimberly Nemecek
  2. 2. Theory and Practice • “The systematic accumulation of knowledge is essential to progress in any profession… however theory and practice must be constantly interactive. Theory without practice is empty and practice without theory is blind” (Cross, 1981, p.110). • Nightingale’s vision of nursing: – Care of sick is based on knowledge of persons and their surroundings – a different from knowledge base than used by physicians in their practice. – Nightingale (1992) wrote, “No man, not even a doctor, ever gives any other definition of what a nurse should be than this--’devoted and obedient.’ This definition would do just as well for a porter. It might even do for a horse. It would not do for a policeman” (as cited in Finkelman & Kenner, 2013, ¶7).
  3. 3. Florence Nightingale • The founder of modern nursing. • She lived and worked in the Victorian era during the Industrial Revolution. This time period did not have women of her class (upper class) work outside the home (Finkelman & Kenner, 2013, ¶8). • Chinn (2001) states that Nightingale had “…a strong conviction that women have the mental abilities to achieve whatever they wish to achieve: compose music, solve scientific problems, create social projects of great importance” (as cited in Finkelman & Kenner, 2013, ¶9).
  4. 4. Florence Nightingale • First practicing nurse epidemiologist. • Nightingale’s work recognized through the many awards received from her own and other countries. • Used inductive reasoning to extract laws of health, disease, and nursing from her observations and experiences. • Nightingale’s theory focused on the environment of the patient. The environmental “…factors are especially significant when one considers that sanitation conditions in hospitals of the mid-1800s were extremely poor…” (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 100).
  5. 5. Major Concepts and Definitions of Environmental Theory • Ventilation and warming – source of disease and recovery. “Keep the air he breathes as pure as the external air, without chilling him” (Nightingale, 1969, p.12). • Light – direct sunlight is particular needs of patients. “Light has quite as real and tangible effect upon the human body…” (Nightingale, 1969, pp.84-85). • Cleanliness Daily bath, clean floors, walls, bed linens, proper handling and disposal of bodily excretions and sewage. • Diet RN to meet patient’s nutritional needs.
  6. 6. One of the Nightingale’s Models
  7. 7. Major Concepts and Definitions of Environmental Theory • NoiseCruel and irritating to the patient. • Petty managementProtect patient from disruptions of sleep, receiving upsetting news from visitors who could negatively affect recovery.
  8. 8. Major Assumptions Nursing I. Nightingale believed that every woman at one time in her life would be a nurse. I. Nightingale’s Notes on Nursing book provided women with guidelines for caring for their loved ones at home and to give advice on how to “think like a nurse” (Nightingale, 1969, p.4).
  9. 9. Major Assumptions Person I. The person is a patient. I. Each patient is an individual. I. RN to perform tasks to and for the passive patient, and control the patient’s environment to enhance recovery. I. Patient to perform self-care when possible: being involved in the timing and substance of meals. I. RN in control of and responsible for patient’s environment and in control of some personal choices and behaviors.
  10. 10. Major Assumptions Health I. Being well and using every power to the fullest extent in living life. I. Disease and illness is a reparative process that nature instituted when a person did not attend to health concerns. I. Maintain health through prevention of disease via environmental control and social responsibilities.
  11. 11. Major Assumptions Environment I. Nursing to assist nature in healing the patient and to be accomplished by managing the internal and external environments. I. Nurses to create and maintain a therapeutic environment that would enhance the comfort and recovery of the patient. I. Sick poor people would benefit from environmental improvements that would affect both their bodies and their minds.
  12. 12. Analysis of Nightingale’s Nursing Principles Today • Remain foundation of nursing practice. • Ventilation, warmth, noise, diet, and cleanliness continue to be relevant in today’s hospitals. • Global environmental issues, i.e. nuclear threats, pollution, global warming, contaminated water remains a health issue. • Global travel causes rapid spread of diseases. • Ability to control room temperature for a individual patient is difficult. • Equipment used to assist patient’s reparative process creates noise. • The sunlight today is proven to be harmful. • What would Nightingale say about nursing today?
  13. 13. Click on picture for link to historical video
  14. 14. References • Alligood, Martha Raile, and Ann Marriner Tomey. Nursing Theorists and Their Work. 7th ed. Maryland Heights: Mosby, 2010. Print. • Cross, K. P. (1981). Adults as learners. Washington DC: Jossey-Bass, a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons. • Finkelman, A., & Kenner, C. (2013). PROFESSIONAL NURSING CONCEPTS: Competencies for Quality Leadership (2nd ed.). Retrieved from • Koernig Blais, K., & Hayes, J. (2011). Professional Nursing Practice: Concepts and Perspectives (6th ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. • Nightingale, F. (1969). Notes on nursing: What it is and what it is not. New York: Dover.