Gender communication in the family 2

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  • 1. Gender Communication in the Family KIMBERLY PIKE
  • 2. Introduction Families are more than groups of related people People are gendered within their families Families are organized by gender Impossible to fully study gender without family Where we learn roles are unequal
  • 3. Introduction  Importance of gender roles  Gender roles taught by families  Traditional gender roles reinforce stereotypes  Hidden role of family traditions  Role of gendered social scripts
  • 4. Family as a Social Institution
  • 5. The Ideal Nuclear Family Most families do not fit this mold Families today are very unique and diverse The nuclear family is elusive Masculinity & femininity emerges in 1800s
  • 6. Nuclear is not the norm 38% of all marriages end in divorce Around 75% of divorced persons remarry with a 60% chance of divorce 50% of marriages occurring this year are expected to end in divorce Almost 30% of homes are headed by a single adult 52% of families have no children under 18 30 % of children will live in blended families at some point (CDC, 2005a; The International Stepfamily Association, 2006) In most two-parent homes, both parents work outside the home (Hochschild, 2003)
  • 7. Stereotypes Emerge  Masculinity, femininity, and nuclear family  Institutionalized in the 1950s  Role of the media and economic growth  Spread of this ideal outside the U.S.
  • 8. Interlocking Institutions
  • 9. Institutions Coexist  Family affects, and is affected by, other institutions  Nuclear ideal pushed by politicians and congress  Idea of “Family Values”  Heterosexual privilege
  • 10. How Work Affects Family Imbalance in housework distribution The “second shift” Division of labor in same-sex couples “Compulsory heterosexuality”
  • 11. Family Constructs (and Constrains) Gender
  • 12. Research on the Nuclear Family Research affected by ideology Unequal levels of housework deemed normal “His vs. her marriage”
  • 13. Parent-Child Communication Parental modeling The power of observation Influence of parent/child interaction Is gender teaching conscious? Social accountability
  • 14. Parent-Child Communication  Militant Motherhood  Children actively create gender  Gender Schema Theory
  • 15. Adult Friends and Lovers Heteronormativity Devaluing of friendships The Two-Culture Theory Influence of the normative ideal
  • 16. Dating Relationships Gender Role Scripts Deviating From the Norms Do we really express intimacy that differently?
  • 17. Marital Communication Popular Research Topic Demand/Withdrawal Pattern  Two-culture theory  Power perspective
  • 18. Domestic Violence Not all conflicts are bad for relationships Family maintains gender inequalities and violence Every instance is unique CCV- Common couple violence
  • 19. Facts on Domestic Violence in the U.S. 4 children die in the U.S. everyday from abuse and neglect in the family 4 women are murdered in the U.S. daily by boyfriends or husbands Women are 10 times more likely to be victims of domestic violence than are men 4+ million children in the U.S. are abused or neglected by family members annually 16% of men and 27% of women were victimized as children 25% of women have been physically assaulted or raped by an intimate partner, both in the U.S. and around the world
  • 20. Domestic Violence What types of men abuse? How do gender expectations play a role? How family hides abuse Sex differences in violence
  • 21. Emancipatory Families
  • 22. Emancipatory Families Why do they matter? Society’s ideals of fatherhood Benefits of engaged fatherhood Lack of research on fathers
  • 23. Emancipatory Families Diverse fathers Violence vs. nurture Homosexual fathers
  • 24. Conclusion Families are diverse, so is their communication The “Ideal” is not the norm The ideal perpetuates inequalities in communication, role expectations, and violence between the sexes Breaking from the ideal is how we improve