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The Puritans believe that children
are born close to the Devil, and the
role of society and family is to
wrestle Satan from within the child.
FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Massachusetts’ Old Satan
Deluder Act of 1647
establishes first public school
system. Since, Puritans
believed that children were
born with the “original sin,”
they had to be raised in an
atmosphere of fear, strict
discipline, hard work, and a
strong knowledge of the Bible
to delude Satan.
As the Nation’s first well-known State
Secretary of Education, Horace Mann
argued in 1837 that public education’s goals
are to create an “industrious class of women
and men” who obey the law and are diligent
in their work.” For factory and mining work,
only basic literacy was required. By 1860,
there were no more than 300 high schools in
the United States, less than 100 of them free.
The public education system designed by
Franklin and promoted by Mann is still the
standard public school curriculum today.
William Chandler Bagley
With strict discipline,
“one who studies
can see in the
mechanical routine of
the classroom, the
educative forces that
transforming the child
from a little savage
into a creature fit for
law and order, fit for
the life of civilized
society.” - 1907
YOUTH SEEN AS
REBELS, RADICALS &
1960s - EARLY 70s
OUT OF L.A. CAME THE BUILDERS OF SCHOOL DE-FUNDING AND MASS INCARCERATION
IN L.A. :
’65 Watts Rebellion in response to police brutality in South L.A. FBI and police surveillance,
infiltration and bombing of Panther headquarters in L.A. and Pasadena; leads to United Slaves shoot
out with Panthers at UCLA. (US leader Karenga goes on to found Kwanzaa and teach at Cal State
Long Beach.) Geronimo Pratt (now Geronimo Ji Jaga) is framed by LAPD and FBI. Crushing of
prisoners’ rights movement at Soledad; guards assassinate George Jackson and his brother.
(Jacksons are from Pasadena.) Angela Davis teaches and organizes at UCLA. LAPD riot on Chicano
Moratorium and assassination of L.A. Times reporter Ruben Salazar. CIA floods L.A.’s
neighborhoods with drugs.
U.S. POLICIES THAT COME OUT OF L.A.:
Nixon’s Law and Order backlash after
60s movements leads to mass incarceration
of poor people and people of color. The prison
population increases 300% in 20 years. Cali and L.A.
lead the world in incarceration and harsh sentencing,
including creation of JLWOP, Three Strikes, Prop 21
and Prop 9 - all are written and financed from L.A..
Reaganomics including anti-tax movement and Prop
13., the “war on drugs” and war on welfare, and
mental health de-institutionalization without
community services, all lead to massive increase in
homelessness. L.A. creates “planned Skid Row” to
force homeless into downtown isolation.
U.S. fuels wars against rebellions in Central America.
In the 1980s, LAPD and Sheriffs work with U.S.
military to teach counter-guerilla tactics,
interrogation and torture against civilians. In the 90s
and 00s, they return to teach gang suppression when
people are deported - (the greatest number from L.A.)
Chief Parker introduces military-style policing and
brings National Guard into Watts in ‘65. Gates takes
militarization further by creating SWAT and CRASH
(first gang units).’92 Uprising once again reflects
L.A.’s anger over entrenched police brutality. Gates
also created DARE.
2007 - Jordan Downs is first community in the U.S. to
get GPS surveillance system. L.A. and Riverside first
to use GPS monitoring to track people with
gang convictions returning home from prison.
PRESIDENT REAGAN APPOINTS
WILLIAM BENNET AS U.S.
SECRETARY OF EDUCATION.
policies include requirements for
suspension, expulsion and arrests; the
takeover of school discipline by police
departments; and relationships in
schools replaced by metal detectors,
locker searches, drug-sniffing dogs,
and security gates.
take over school
and run like
have the same
massive pushout and arrest
Los Angeles County built the nation’s first comprehensive gang suppression policies:
 Gang injunctions - first in 1983,
the ability to lock down a
neighborhood and arrest people if they are
on the street with another alleged gang
member, out past a curfew, or carrying a cell phone.
 Gang databases in 1987 computerized lists that label
people as “gang members”
without their knowledge, without
any chance to appeal, and without a
clear way to get off.
(3) The statewide STEP Act in 1988 that provided the nation’s first law targeting street
gangs, first gang definition, first language referring to gang members as “terrorists,”
first gang enhancements in court, and took database statewide [Cal Gangs Database].
 In 1985, L.A. established CLEAR I[Community Law Enforcement and Recovery].
THESE POLICIES HAVE FUELED CALIFORNIA’S ADDICTION TO INCARCERATION
BECAUSE OF THE CHANGES IN LAWS AND POLICING,
IN THE EARLY 1980s, CALIFORNIA ALSO STARTED TO
RAPIDLY EXPAND THE
BUILDING OF PRISONS AND
CUT THE BUDGET
TO EVERYTHING ELSE.
DURING THAT SAME
TWO CAL STATES.
California used to be #1 in school spending
and had one of the best school
systems in the world.
Now, California is #1 in prison spending,
and with this year’s budget cuts,
dropped from #47 to #50
in school spending!
South and East L.A. lead the
nation in school overcrowding,
low test scores and
with only 40%
of students graduating.
FULL IMPLEMENTATION OF TWO
BILLS THE YJC SPONSORED OR COSPOSORED LAST YEAR: SB 458
REQUIRES THAT ALL POLICE - INCLUDING
SCHOOL POLICE - NOTIFY PEOPLE WHEN THEY
ARE PUT ON THE GANG DATABASE AND ALSO
GUARANTEES RIGHTS TO APPEAL AND REMOVAL;
SB 549 ENCOURAGES SCHOOLS TO
PRIORITIZE NEW FUNDS FOR COUNSELORS AND
INTERVENTION/PEACE WORKERS OVER POLICE.
THESE BILLS BECOME
JANUARY 1, 2013.
IF OUR SCHOOLS DON’T FULLY IMPLEMENT
THEM, WE CAN NOTIFY THEM THAT THEY’RE
BREAKING THE LAW.
Intervention Savings: Each Murder Costs $1 Million to investigate and
approximately $17 million more in Jail, Court and Incarceration. With drastic
decreases in homicide, should the saved money be reinvestment in our
schools and communities?
of L.A.’s Courts,
Probation’s and City
would pay for: 500 fulltime gang intervention
workers; 50 youth
centers open from 3pm midnight, 365 days a
year; and 25,000 youth
FOR THE YJC: TRANSFORMATIVE JUSTICE (TJ) HAS SOME OF THE SAME
GOALS AS RJ, BUT ADDS COMMUNITY AND SYSTEM ACCOUNTABILITY:
1. What law was broken?
2. Who broke it?
3. What punishment is
4. Competition between lawyers
- assumes two opposing sides.
5. Assumes guilty and innocent
parties - victim and perpetrator.
6. Not responsible for
determining or addressing root
causes of conflict.
1. Who was harmed?
2. What are the needs and
responsibilities of those
3. How do all affected parties together
address needs and repair harm?
4. Is non-adversarial. Seeks an
outcome all parties can agree to.
4. What are the root causes of
5. What community and/or
societal change is needed to
change relationships, conditions
Job and Cost Comparisons Between Law Enforcement and Intervention