LOS ANGELES’ 167-YEAR-LONG
WAR
ON YOUTH
L.A. LOCKDOWN
#1 worldwide: Incarceration (Prison Spending and Prison Population); Pornography
Production/Export; Gangs Cr...
L.A. is home to:
• The world’s largest Sheriffs Department
and largest county jail system with as
many as 140,000 people a...
ROOTS
THE WAR AGAINST
“SAVAGES,
BANDITS
& YELLOW PERIL”
1800s
SUPPRESSION AND THE CONNECTION TO LAND OWNERSHIP
TAKING L.A.ND
1848 California and the Southwest is
annexed into U.S. through illegal war
against Mexico.
LOS ANGELES:
Is the only region...
L.A.’S WAR ON GANGS
STARTS IN 1848:
L.A. has the highest lynching rate of any region in the country. the victims are large...
Throughout the 1900s, the war on
youth continued.
L.A. has more “riots” than any other region of the country - all are
eit...
THE BACKLASH AGAINST
POWER
YOUTH
THE BUILDERS OF THE WARS ON DRUGS AND GANGS AND MASS INCARCERATION
THESE POLICIES CAME OUT OF L.A.:
Nixon’s Law and Order backlash after 60s movements creates a massive
jump in incarceratio...
IN L.A. :
SIMULTANEOUSLY, THE U.S. STRATEGY INCLUDED FLOODING COMMUNITIES OF COLOR
WITH DRUGS LEADING TO A RELIANCE ON AN ...
IF THAT’S NOT ENOUGH, LA ALSO CREATED…
McDonald’s, Carl’s, Jack-in-the Box created fast
food industry (LA, OC and Riversid...
BY THE 1980s, YOUTH WERE LABELED
SUPER
PREDATORSEven though John DiLulio, the researcher who created the
term later apolog...
1. 1982: GEORGE L. KELLING AND JAMES Q. WILSON
PUBLISH THEORY OF “BROKEN WINDOWS POLICING” IN
THE ATLANTIC
2. 1992-1996: J...
In the 1980s, Los Angeles County built the nation’s first comprehensive gang suppression
policies:
[1] Gang injunctions - ...
CONSTRUCTION OF THE SCHOOL-TO-JAIL TRACK
PRESIDENT REAGAN APPOINTS
WILLIAM BENNET AS U.S. SECRETARY
OF EDUCATION.
ZERO
TOLERANCE
policies include requirements for
...
1. Police
Departments
take over school
security
2. More Probation
Officers than
Counselors
3. Schools look
and run like
pr...
THE WARS ON DRUGS AND GANGS FUELED CALIFORNIA’S ADDICTION TO INCARCERATION
IN THE EARLY 80s, CALIFORNIA STARTED TO
RAPIDLY EXPAND THE BUILDING OF PRISONS
AND CUT THE BUDGET TO EVERYTHING ELSE.
DURING THAT SAME TIME,
CALIFORNIA BUILT ONE UC AND
TWO CAL STATE UNIVERSITIES.
Just
1%of L.A.’s Courts,
Police, Sheriffs’
District Attorney’s,
Probation’s and City
Attorney’s Budgets
would pay for: 500...
THE CURRENT (2015)
FIGHT
IN L.A./SOCAL
2.3 BILLION JAIL
EXPANSION +
400 Million in Annual
Operations
The jail proposal as laid out by
Vanir Construction Manageme...
TRACKED AND TRAPPED (2015)
HOW YOUTH ARE LABELED
GANGS
For most people, getting added to the CalGang Database begins with a police officer
stopping them on the street or in scho...
[1] CalGang is a secret police surveillance tool.
People (and their parents)
are not notified, they have no process to
cha...
Through submission of a Public Records Act request, the Youth Justice Coalition
released the first-ever data on who is on ...
Results of
L.A.’s
(Most Recent)
Multi-
Billion $
Gang War?
Results of L.A.’s Most Recent
Multi-Billion $ Gang War?
• After 30 years, L.A. has 6 times as many alleged
gangs and at le...
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth
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Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth

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History on the roots of Los Angeles' War on Youth, leading to the construction of a vicious school to jail track and the largest system of police departments, courts, juvenile halls, youth and adult prisons in the world. The policies and procedures created in LA have spread throughout the state of California, across the nation, and now to many jurisdictions throughout the world. And new trends in policing, law enforcement expansion and militarization, surveillance and incarceration pose new threats. You could say, "Free L.A., save the world."

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  • There are now 0 youth prisoners in other countries .
  • Youth Justice Coalition: War on Youth

    1. 1. LOS ANGELES’ 167-YEAR-LONG WAR ON YOUTH
    2. 2. L.A. LOCKDOWN #1 worldwide: Incarceration (Prison Spending and Prison Population); Pornography Production/Export; Gangs Creation/Export; Meth Production/Export; Import/Export of 5 Illegal Drugs; Hand Guns; White Supremacy Gangs and Orgs #1 nationwide: Gap between rich and poor, Homelessness, Youth in Foster Care - the majority were “orphaned” by the prison system, “Riots”/Uprisings, Children and people living in poverty, immigration and deportation
    3. 3. L.A. is home to: • The world’s largest Sheriffs Department and largest county jail system with as many as 140,000 people a year cycling through as many as 8 county jails. • The world’s largest juvenile halls - Eastlake, Barry J. Nidorf and Los Padrinos - with as many as 20,000 youth a year detained. • The world’s largest Probation Department - with over 20,000 youth and 40,000 adults on Probation. • The world’s largest youth prison system - L.A. has nearly as many Probation “camps” - 19 - as community colleges (20). • The United States has 5% of the world’s population but 25% of the world’s prison population. The U.S. is #1 in prisons, China with 1/3 of the world’s population is #2. • California leads the nation in the number of people locked up: (over 200,000 a day in state prisons, youth prisons, youth camps and ranches, jails, juvenile halls and those held in detention with ICE - Immigration and Customs Enforcement - holds. LA 27% of state; 40% of CDCR.
    4. 4. ROOTS
    5. 5. THE WAR AGAINST “SAVAGES, BANDITS & YELLOW PERIL” 1800s
    6. 6. SUPPRESSION AND THE CONNECTION TO LAND OWNERSHIP TAKING L.A.ND
    7. 7. 1848 California and the Southwest is annexed into U.S. through illegal war against Mexico. LOS ANGELES: Is the only region west of Texas to side with the Confederacy. Gains reputation as nation’s most violent city with one murder per day by 1870. The homicide rate between 1847 and 1870 averaged 158 per 100,000, which was 10 to 20 times the annual murder rates for New York City during the same period. If we had the same homicide rate today, we’d have 600,000 murders a year. French send troops to protect their citizens. By 1871, half of businesses are gambling halls, saloons or houses of prostitution, most with political or law enforcement ownership or involvement. Corruption is the norm in L.A.’s police force until the Parker administration creates military hierarchy in the 1960s. The Marshall’s Office is funded by enslavement of indigenous population. L.A.’s first jail is established (chain and a log.)
    8. 8. L.A.’S WAR ON GANGS STARTS IN 1848: L.A. has the highest lynching rate of any region in the country. the victims are largely Californios - now seen since the war as Mexicans struggling to reclaim land and livestock taken through the war. First use of gang profiling – “bandido/bandit” – to criminalize groups. Los Angeles had several active Vigilance Committees during that era. Between 1850 and 1870, mobs carried out approximately 35 lynchings of Mexicans—more than four times the number that occurred in San Francisco. Los Angeles was described as "undoubtedly the toughest town of the entire nation. 1871 – Chinese Massacre is L.A.’s first of many “riots,” all of which are led by law enforcement or happen in response to police brutality. A shootout between Tong factions leads to the death of a popular white chicken rancher. A mob of 200-500 Whites and Latinos led by local government and law enforcement leads to the lynching of 19 Chinese men and the burning down of Chinatown. Vigilante mobs and state sanctioned murder typifies L.A.’s “justice” system throughout 1800s and early 1900s. 1881 - The L.A. Times is founded by Otis Harrison, and both he and the paper are a leading voice in L.A..’s power structure which establishes L.A. as nearly all-white and union free by 1900.
    9. 9. Throughout the 1900s, the war on youth continued. L.A. has more “riots” than any other region of the country - all are either led by law enforcement or military against the community or represent a community response police violence. confiscation of all savings, businesses the most famous of which was the Sleepy Lagoon Trial and Sailor (a.k.a. Zoot Suit) Riots where “fear of gangs” was used to criminalize and incarcerate youth of color.
    10. 10. THE BACKLASH AGAINST POWER YOUTH
    11. 11. THE BUILDERS OF THE WARS ON DRUGS AND GANGS AND MASS INCARCERATION
    12. 12. THESE POLICIES CAME OUT OF L.A.: Nixon’s Law and Order backlash after 60s movements creates a massive jump in incarceration. NIXON DECLARES WAR ON DRUGS. The prison population increases 600% in 20 years. California and L.A. lead the world in incarceration and harsh sentencing, including creation of adult court transfers, JLWOP, Prop 21 and Prop 9 - all are written and financed from L.A.; Three Strikes is financed from L.A. Howard Jarvis and Ronald Reagan lead anti-tax movement (Prop 13), the expanded war on drugs and war on welfare, and mental health de-institutionalization without community services, GLOBALIZATION AND OUTSOURCING OF MANUFACTURING. All lead to massive increase in homelessness and further incarceration. L.A. creates “planned Skid Row” to force homeless into downtown isolation. Chief Parker (LAPD) introduces military-style policing and brings National Guard tanks into Watts in ‘65. Gates (LAPD) takes militarization further by creating nation’s first SWAT and CRASH (gang unit) and battering rams. LA Sheriffs (LASD) implement nation’s first use of police helicopters. In ’92 Gates also created DARE. U.S. fuels wars against rebellions in Central America. In the 80s, LAPD and Sheriffs work with U.S. military to teach counter-guerilla tactics, interrogation and torture against civilians. In the 90s and 00s, they return to teach gang suppression when people are deported - (the greatest number from L.A.) 2007 - Jordan Downs is first community in the U.S. to get internet-based surveillance system. L.A. and Riverside first to use GPS monitoring to track people with gang convictions returning home from prison.
    13. 13. IN L.A. : SIMULTANEOUSLY, THE U.S. STRATEGY INCLUDED FLOODING COMMUNITIES OF COLOR WITH DRUGS LEADING TO A RELIANCE ON AN UNDERGROUND DRUG ECONOMY
    14. 14. IF THAT’S NOT ENOUGH, LA ALSO CREATED… McDonald’s, Carl’s, Jack-in-the Box created fast food industry (LA, OC and Riverside) Scientology - LA Hollywood & Disneyland - LA/OC Evangelical Movement - LA
    15. 15. BY THE 1980s, YOUTH WERE LABELED SUPER PREDATORSEven though John DiLulio, the researcher who created the term later apologized for his flawed research.
    16. 16. 1. 1982: GEORGE L. KELLING AND JAMES Q. WILSON PUBLISH THEORY OF “BROKEN WINDOWS POLICING” IN THE ATLANTIC 2. 1992-1996: JOHN DILULIO, POLITICAL SCIENTIST, AUTHOR OF BODY COUNT POPULARIZES TERM “SUPER- PREDATOR.” APOLOGIZED IN 2001. 3. 2000: Proposition 21 passed by voters allowed for direct file without a fitness hearing, bumped many misdemeanors to felonies. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    17. 17. In the 1980s, Los Angeles County built the nation’s first comprehensive gang suppression policies: [1] Gang injunctions - first started in Pomona, West Covina and LA, 82 -83 the ability to lock down a neighborhood and arrest people if they are on the street with another alleged gang member - Including family - + other restrictions. [2] In 1985, L.A. established CLEAR [Community Law Enforcement and Recovery] first multi-agency task force and joint code enforcement effort targeting street gangs. [3] In 1987, the L.A. County Sheriffs Department created the first gang database - a computerized file that labeled people as “gang members” without their knowledge, without any chance to appeal, and without clear way to get off. (4) The statewide STEP (Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention) Act in ‘88, the nation’s first law targeting street gangs, first gang definition, first language referring to gang members as “terrorists,” first gang enhancements in court, and took database statewide to create the CalGang Database.
    18. 18. CONSTRUCTION OF THE SCHOOL-TO-JAIL TRACK
    19. 19. PRESIDENT REAGAN APPOINTS WILLIAM BENNET AS U.S. SECRETARY OF EDUCATION. ZERO TOLERANCE policies include requirements for suspension, expulsion and arrests; the takeover of school discipline by police departments; and relationships in schools replaced by metal detectors, locker searches, drug-sniffing dogs, and security gates.
    20. 20. 1. Police Departments take over school security 2. More Probation Officers than Counselors 3. Schools look and run like prisons; some have the same architects 4. Searches, metal detectors, gang profiling 5. Leads to massive push- out and arrest
    21. 21. THE WARS ON DRUGS AND GANGS FUELED CALIFORNIA’S ADDICTION TO INCARCERATION
    22. 22. IN THE EARLY 80s, CALIFORNIA STARTED TO RAPIDLY EXPAND THE BUILDING OF PRISONS AND CUT THE BUDGET TO EVERYTHING ELSE.
    23. 23. DURING THAT SAME TIME, CALIFORNIA BUILT ONE UC AND TWO CAL STATE UNIVERSITIES.
    24. 24. Just 1%of L.A.’s Courts, Police, Sheriffs’ District Attorney’s, Probation’s and City Attorney’s Budgets would pay for: 500 full- time gang intervention workers; 50 youth centers open from 3pm - midnight, 365 days a year; and 25,000 youth jobs!
    25. 25. THE CURRENT (2015) FIGHT IN L.A./SOCAL
    26. 26. 2.3 BILLION JAIL EXPANSION + 400 Million in Annual Operations The jail proposal as laid out by Vanir Construction Management Inc. includes a 1,600 bed women’s jail in Lancaster + a new jail to replace Men’s Central Jail for 4,860 people - (3,260 people diagnosed with mental illness, 500 people with substance abuse issues, 500 people who need medical treatment and 600 high security cells.) SURVEILLANCE SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES’ REPORTING (OBSERVED BEHAVIOR OF PRE-OPERATIONAL PLANNING, I- WATCH, FUSION CENTER, LICENSE PLATE READERS, BODY & CAR CAMERAS, TRAP WIRE, STINGRAY CELL-PHONE), DRONES, PUBLIC BENEFITS, CROWD CONTROL, SHOT SPOTTER - ACOUSTIC GUNFIRE, FACIAL RECOGNITION AND EYE-SCAN MISSION CREEP “TRIAD MODEL” OF SCHOOL POLICING, OUTREACH TO PEOPLE LIVING ON STREET AND PEOPLE WITH MENTAL CONDITIONS, INTERVENTION AND PREVENTION PROGRAMS, YOUTH CENTERS AND CADET PROGRAMS, BRATTON: “REPLACE SCHOOL TO PRISON PIPELINE WITH SCHOOL TO POLICE PIPPELINE” PREDICTIVE POLICING NEW STOP STANDARD OF REASONABLE INDICATION, SATURATION POLICING, COMSTAT MILITARIZATION IN SCHOOLS, STREETS, LOCK-UPS (INCLUDES DHS THRU FEMA “URBAN AREA SECURITY INITIATIVE” $8 BILLION TO 62 CITIES - LA AND LONG BEACH NEARLY 1 B /1033 EQUIPMENT MUST BE USED OR RETURNED WITHIN 1 YEAR). USE OF FORCE HIGHEST IN NATION: 625 PEOPLE KILLED SINCE 2000 POLITICAL POWER AND PR CANDIDATES, LOBBYING, CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS, AND FALSE PROMISE OF “COMMUNITY POLICING” Trends in PIC/LE: SO CAL / LA BROKEN WINDOWS POLICING SAFER CITIES INITIATIVE ON SKID ROW, STOP AND FRISK, GANG DATABASES AND INJUNCTIONS BUDGET DOMINANCE
    27. 27. TRACKED AND TRAPPED (2015) HOW YOUTH ARE LABELED GANGS
    28. 28. For most people, getting added to the CalGang Database begins with a police officer stopping them on the street or in school, asking questions, and taking pictures of them and identifying characteristics (such as scars and tattoos.) During the stop, the police fill out an F.I. card - known as a “field information card.” Some departments refer to this as a field identification card. An officer trained in CalGangs, either the officer who made the stop or another officer they hand the information off to - determines whether or not to add the person and the information collected onto CalGang.
    29. 29. [1] CalGang is a secret police surveillance tool. People (and their parents) are not notified, they have no process to challenge/appeal the label and departments have no standard process for removing people. If you are removed, that is also kept secret from you. [2] Whenever the person comes into contact with law enforcement in the state - and increasingly In the nation - they will come up as a “known gang member.” [3] Criteria to be added to the CalGang Database includes that the person meet two of the following: a. admits “gang membership” or association; b. is observed to be associating on with “known” gang members; c. has tattoos “indicating membership;” wears clothing, symbols, etc. to identify with a specific gang; is in a photograph with “known gang members” or with gang signs; name is on a “gang document, hit list or gang related graffiti; is identified as a gang member by a “reliable source;” is arrested in the company of known gang members or associates; corresponds with known gang members or associates and/or receives correspondence about gang activities; writes about gang(s) on walls, books, paper, etc.
    30. 30. Through submission of a Public Records Act request, the Youth Justice Coalition released the first-ever data on who is on the CalGang database: At least 201,094 people are currently on CalGangs. 94.8% are male. Twenty percent are African American; 66% are Latino. The database includes youth as young as ten. The population of L.A. County makes up 27% of California; but L.A. makes up 40% of the people on the CalGang database.
    31. 31. Results of L.A.’s (Most Recent) Multi- Billion $ Gang War?
    32. 32. Results of L.A.’s Most Recent Multi-Billion $ Gang War? • After 30 years, L.A. has 6 times as many alleged gangs and at least twice as many alleged gang members. • In 30 years, there are more than 100,000 shooting victims in South Central and Watts alone. • In West L.A., 1 in 78,000 young men are victims of homicide. • In East L.A. it’s 1 in 6,100. • In South L.A., it’s 1 in 2,200. • L.A. County leads the nation and the world in detention, incarceration and deportation> • One in 3 African American males is under the custody of the state. • African Americans are 11% of L.A.’s population, but 36% of detention and prison population. • Latinos in L.A. serve five times longer sentences for the same crimes as whites. • Latino youth are five times more likely, and African American youth 18.3 times more likely to receive life without parole than white youth. We have exported the street organizations, the violence and the suppression policies nationwide and internationally.
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