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YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2
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YJC Know Justice, Know Peace Part 2

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The use of transformative justice to heal schools and communities; prevent violence and repair harm; hold ourselves, our communities, institutions and officials accountable; and to break America's …

The use of transformative justice to heal schools and communities; prevent violence and repair harm; hold ourselves, our communities, institutions and officials accountable; and to break America's addiction to incarceration. Part 2 covers the historical roots of the school-to-jail track, youth criminalization and mass incarceration.

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  • There are now 0 youth prisoners in other countries .
  • Transcript

    • 1. KNOW JUSTICEKNOW PEACE Part 2PO Box 73688, L.A., CA 90003 / www.youth4justice.org / freelanow@yahoo.com
    • 2. Please use theinformation hereWITH CREDIT GIVEN TO: THE YOUTH AND FAMILIES OFTHE YOUTH JUSTICE COALITION WHOSE WISDOM ANDEXPERIENCES GAVE RISE TO THIS WORK; JUSTICEMOVEMENTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD WHO HAVEINSPIRED AND GUIDED US; AND THE COMMUNITYELDERS AND ANCESTORS WHO LAID THEGROUNDWORK. AS THE YORUBA PROVERB SAYS,“If we stand tall, it’s because we stand on the backs ofthose who went before us.”
    • 3. KNOW JUSTICEKNOW PEACETHIS PRESENTATION IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS:(1) CITY OF LOST ANGELS explains why the Youth Justice Coalition(YJC) was forced to address violence and crime, and why transformativejustice was the only logical path for us to take towards peace. (2) ROOTSOF THE SCHOOL-TO-JAIL TRACK, YOUTH CRIMINALIZATION ANDMASS INCARCERATION covers some of the history that led to America’saddiction to prisons. (3) BUILDING A MOVEMENT FOR YOUTH JUSTICEdescribes the YJC’s Transformative Justice Process and includescomparisons with the traditional U.S. court system andRestorative Justice. THIS IS PART 2.
    • 4. ROOTS OF THE SCHOOL-TO-JAIL TRACK, YOUTH CRIMINALIZATION AND MASS INCARCERATION
    • 5. CriminalizationThe labeling of an individual or group, their activities, culture and/oridentity as deviant, dangerous and/or undesirable and thecorresponding suppression of that individual or group by authorities.Criminalized people and populations do not need to engage in illegal orharmful behavior to be treated as criminals, and are regularly targetedfor surveillance, police stops, frisks and questioning; schoolsuspension/expulsion; as well as receive harsh and unfair treatment atevery level from arrest, to court, detention, sentencing, incarcerationand deportation. Criminalization often extends beyond police andcourt systems control to impact the larger societys perception andtreatment of the individual/group, dramatically impacting mediacoverage, public policy development, public opinion, voter behavior, orincreased suspicion by neighbors and businesses (such as targetingby a neighborhood watch, having people cross the street, divert theireyes or ignore individuals perceived to be “dangerous”, or beingfollowed by store clerks or security). Thus, criminalization drasticallytransforms ones life chances - eliminating access toemployment, education, housing, loans and numerous other resourcesand opportunities, and causing abuse by and exclusion from the largercommunity, regular dehumanization, verbal, sexual and physicalattacks, and widespread fear and loathing.
    • 6. FORCEVIGILANTE JUSTICE, MOB VIOLENCE, MASSACRE, DISEASE, STARVATION, BURNING PEOPLE OUTDISPLACEMENTLegal/legislative force (as opposed to military force) such astreaties, imminent domain, false bribes such as Section 8 and Hope VI, gentrification/development, etc.Displacement is always onto inferior land/area or into homelessness.DETERIORATION + ISOLATIONNeglect - allowing or enabling land to fallinto disrepair so that it‟s less valuable, dangerous and uncomfortable, COMBINED WITH TRAPPING PEOPLEin that condition - eventually people are forced to abandon the land.ADDICTIONFrom Reservations to Vietnam; from Opium Dens to Crack HousesDIVISION/ASSIMILATION/MISSEDUCATIONDivide andConquer From Plantation to Prison / Boarding Schools / Inferior Education and Outlawing EducationHARRASSMENT/CRIMINALIZATION/CONTAINMENTGang Profiling, Loitering, Stop and Frisk, Code Enforcement, Status Offenses, Construction to Stop FreeMovement, Ease Surveillance and Prepare People for IncarcerationSLAVERY AND INCARCERATION The Thirteenth Amendment states thatslavery shall be outlawed in the U.S. and all its territories except as a “punishment for crime.”
    • 7. YOUTH SEEN ASSAVAGES AND SLAVES 1600s
    • 8. ORIGINAL SINThe Puritans believe that childrenare born close to the Devil, and therole of society and family is towrestle Satan from within the child.
    • 9. FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOLS Massachusetts‟ Old Satan Deluder Act of 1647 establishes first public school system. Since, Puritans believed that children were born with the ―original sin,‖ they had to be raised in an atmosphere of fear, strict discipline, hard work, and a strong knowledge of the Bible to delude Satan. The Bible is America‘s first school text book.
    • 10. SCHOOLS LOOKAND RUN LIKEPURITANCHURCHTeachers established as all-knowing, and students as emptyvessels. The system of an instructorlecturing from the front of a class,with students sitting in stiff rowsand memorizing information ratherthan building critical thinking skills,remains the norm to this day.
    • 11. EDUCATIONALTRACKING INTHE COLONIESAs the New England Colonieswere settled,educationaltracking determined that therewas no education, forcedapprenticeships, indenturedservitude, or slavery for poorclasses, basic skills trainingand literacy for the smallmiddle class, and classics-based, college preparatoryeducation for the upper class.
    • 12. TRACKINGThomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin engage in an ongoing public debate on purpose of public schooling. Jefferson argues for a classics, university prep education. Franklin wins; except for the elite, schools are to build the workforce for the new nation.
    • 13. UNEMPLOYMENT WASSEVERELY PUNISHEDThe death penalty, prisons,asylums, poorhouses and work farms wereestablished to isolate anyone who didn‘t fitinto the economy, who engaged in theunderground economy or who rebelled.Children are kept in the same institutionsand courts as adults.In 1787, the Quakers create the nation‘s firstpenitentiary - believing that solitude wasneeded to enable people to do penancefor their sins. But the isolation and sensorydeprivation soon proved to cause severemental illness and the Quakers abandonedthe practice. The government, however,picked it up and make it the norm for U.S.prison system.
    • 14. FIRST INDIAN BOARDING SCHOOLSThroughout U.S. history, missionaries establish schools to Christianizeindigenous children, freed slaves and new immigrants. This begins first withHarvard University, which in 1614 was founded by the Society for thePropagation of the Gospel and included in its mission the conversion of Indianchildren to Christianity, considered the first Indian Boarding School. OnceHarvard became known as a prestigious university, this mission was abandoned.Yale University was founded in 1701 also for the purpose of ―saving‖ the soulsof Indian youth. Despite the fact than Indian communities rejected the schoolsfrom the start, and those youth in boarding schools faced great hardships,confusion and disease, the practice became not only church but governmentpolicy throughout North America until the 1950s, and continued by removing themajority of indigenous children from their homes through foster care systemthrough the 1970s.
    • 15. “KILL THE INDIAN, SAVE THE MAN.” Beginning in 1879,Captain Richard Henry Pratt, 10th Calvary BuffaloSoldiers, establishes a widespread government boarding school system. For the next 70 years, indigenous children are stolen from their communities and taken hundreds to thousands of miles from their homes to governmentboarding schools. Their hair is cut; they are forced to wear Western clothing andspeak English; they are punished for speaking their language or practicing their religion; and they are put to work in school factories.
    • 16. For African Americans, Learning to Reador Teaching Others to Read is Punishable by Death―Midnight Schools‖ are established in Black communities to secretly teachliteracy. Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth and other Black abolitionistspromote that African Americans speak for themselves,strive toward university education, and publish their ownnarratives and newspapers.
    • 17. Thirteenth AmendmentSlavery shall be outlawed in the U.S. and all itsterritories except as a punishment for crime.- 1863
    • 18. POST CIVIL WAR TRACKINGBeginning during Reconstruction, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T.Washington engage in a similar debate to that of Jefferson and Franklin, with Douglass andDu Bois arguing that African Americans should have access to university admission, andWashington arguing for agricultural and technical schools for Blacks. Washington supportsmany of Du Bois‘ political efforts, yet his arguments are also used to support the needs ofU.S. capitalism. Separate schools and colleges for African Americans are established.
    • 19. YOUTH SEEN ASLABOR 1800s - 1900s
    • 20. INDUSTRIALREVOLUTIONAs the Nation‟s first well-known StateSecretary of Education, Horace Mannargued in 1837 that public education‘sgoals are to create an ―industrious class ofwomen and men who obey the law and arediligent in their work.‖ Initially, factory andmining work, required only basic literacyskills. By 1860, there were no more than 300high schools in the United States, less than100 of them free. Schools were built tolook and operate like factories, includingthe use of bells to signal studentmovement.
    • 21. “UNWASHEDMASSES”Immigrant youth areexploited as cheaplabor, and pushed toassimilate intoAmerican culture.Many of those who endup on the street arestarved, killed,incarcerated,institutionalized orsent west to be“adopted” as farmlabor.
    • 22. THROUGHOUT THE 1800s - 1930s,the majority of American children and youth areworkers, not students.
    • 23. Classroom Management With strict discipline, “one who studies educational theory can see in the mechanical routine of the classroom, the educative forces that are slowly transforming the childWilliam Chandler from a little savage Bagley into a creature fit for law and order, fit for the life of civilized society.”- 1907
    • 24. THE BACKLASH AGAINST POWER 1960s - 1970s
    • 25. OUT OF L.A. COME THE ARCHITECTS OF SCHOOL DE-FUNDING AND MASS INCARCERATION
    • 26. U.S. POLICIES THAT COME OUT OF L.A.:Nixon‘s Law and Order backlash after 60smovements leads to mass incarceration of WHAT’S THE BIGpoor people and people of color. The prison DEAL? JUST SAYpopulation increases 700% in 30 years. Caliand L.A. lead the world in incarceration and harsh “NO”sentencing, including creation of JLWOP, Prop 21and Prop 9 - all are written and financed from L.A..,and Three Strikes - written in the Central Valley, but financed from L.A.Nixon also declares the War on Drugs, and Ronald Reagan escalates the war internationally.The modern anti-tax movement - jump-started in L.A. by Howard Jarvis‘ Proposition 13. and UCLAEconomist Milton Friedman - is picked up by Reagan; his trickle down economic policies come to beknown as ―Reaganomics‖ and include: globalization and deindustrialization, war on welfare, massive cutsto social services, and mental health de-institutionalization without community placements, all of whichlead to massive increase in homelessness, unemployment and the bankrupting of entire towns and cities.Small rural towns that lose their industrial jobs look to state and federal governments‘ building of prisonsas their new economy. L.A. creates ―planned Skid Row‖ to force homeless into downtown isolation.LAPD Chief Parker introduces military-style policing and brings National Guard into L.A. to squash WattsRebellion in ‗65. Chief Gates takes militarization further by use of helicopters, battering ram, creatingnation‘s first SWAT and CRASH (gang) units.‘92 Uprising once again reflects L.A.‘s anger over entrenchedpolice brutality, and National Guard is once again utilized against civilians. Gates also created DARE.in the 1980s, U.S. fuels wars against rebellions in Central America. LAPD and Sheriffs work with U.S.military to teach counter-guerilla tactics, interrogation and torture against civilians, based on tactics usedagainst urban rebellions on the streets of L.A. In the 90s and 00s, L.A. law enforcement return to CentralAmerica and Mexico to teach ―gang suppression‖ when people are deported - (the greatest number aredeported from L.A. The violence that L.A. creates we then deport to other U.S. states, Mexico, C.A., Laosand Cambodia)2007 - Jordan Downs is first community in the U.S. to get GPS surveillance system. L.A. and Riverside firstto use GPS monitoring to track people with gang convictions returning home from prison.
    • 27. These policieslead to themassincarcerationof youth ofcolor.
    • 28. YOUTH SEEN ASPREDATORS 1980 - 2000s
    • 29. IN 1985, PRESIDENT REAGAN APPOINTS WILLIAM BENNETT AS U.S. SECRETARY OF EDUCATION. Zero Tolerance policies include requirements forsuspension, expulsion and arrests; thetakeover of school discipline by police departments; and relationships in schools are replaced by metal detectors, locker searches, drug- sniffing dogs, and security gates. BENNETT REQUIRES SCHOOL DISTRICTSTO FOLLOW ZERO TOLERENCE STANDARDS IN ORDER TO RECEIVE FEDERAL FUNDS.
    • 30. 1. Police Departments take over school security2. More Probation Officers than Counselors3. Schools look and run like prisons; some have the same architects4. Locker, backpack and body Searches, metal detectors, gang profiling5. Leads to dramatic increases in student push- out, ticketing and arrest
    • 31. L.A.‟S INTENSIFICATION IN THE 1980sOF ITS 150-YEAR-OLD “WAR ON GANGS”
    • 32. 1848 California and the Southwest isannexed into U.S. through illegal waragainst Mexico.L.A. :Is the only region west of Texas to side with the Confederacy.Gains reputation as nation‘s most violent city with one murderper day by 1870. The homicide rate between 1847and 1870 averaged 158 per 100,000, which was10 to 20 times the annual murder rates for NewYork City during the same period. If we had thesame homicide rate today, we’d have 600,000murders a year.French send troops to protect theircitizens.By 1871, half of businesses are gambling halls, saloons orhouses of prostitution, most with political or law enforcementownership or involvement. Corruption is the norm in L.A.‘s policeforce until the Parker administration of the 1960s. The Marshall‘sOffice is funded by enslavement of indigenous population.L.A.‘s first jail is established (chain and a log.)
    • 33. L.A.‘S WAR ON GANGS STARTS IN 1848:L.A. has the highest lynching rate of any region in the country. the victims are largely Californios - now seen since the war as Mexicans struggling to reclaim land and livestock taken through the war. First use of gang profiling – ―bandido/bandit‖ – to criminalize groups. Los Angeles had several active Vigilance Committees during that era. Between 1850 and 1870, mobs carried out approximately 35 lynchings of Mexicans—morethan four times the number that occurred in San Francisco. Los Angeles was described as "undoubtedly the toughest town of the entire nation. 1871 – Chinese Massacre is L.A.‘s first of many ―riots,‖ all of which are led by law enforcement or happen in response to police brutality. A shootout between Tong factions leads to the death of a popular white chicken rancher. A mob of 200-500 Whites and Latinos led by local government and law enforcement leadsto the lynching of 19 Chinese men and the burning down of Chinatown. Vigilante mobs and state sanctioned murder typifies L.A.‘s ―justice‖ system throughout 1800s and early 1900s. 1881 - The L.A. Times is founded by Otis Harrison, and both he and the paper are a leading voice in L.A..‘s power structure which establishes L.A. as nearly all-white and union free by 1900.
    • 34. Los Angeles County built the nation‟s first comprehensive gang suppression policies:[1] Gang injunctions - first started in Pomona and West Covina in 1983 -the ability to lock down aneighborhood and arrestpeople if they areon the street with anotheralleged gang member -Including family - out pastcurfew, or carrying a cell phone.[2] In 1985, L.A. established CLEAR[Community Law Enforcement andRecovery] first multi-agency taskforce and joint code enforcementeffort targeting “street gangs.”[3] Gang databases in 1987 -computerized lists that labelpeople as “gang members” without their knowledge,without any chance to appeal, and without clear way to get off.(4) The statewide STEP (Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention) Act in „88, the nation‟sfirst law targeting street gangs, first gang definition, first language referring to gangmembers as “terrorists,” first gang enhancements in court, and took database statewide[Cal Gangs Database].
    • 35. L.A. FUELS CALIFORNIA‟S AND THE NATION‟S ADDICTION TO INCARCERATION
    • 36. IN THE EARLY 80s, CALIFORNIA STARTS TORAPIDLY EXPAND THE BUILDING OF PRISONS ANDCUT THE BUDGET TO EVERYTHING ELSE. AT THETIME, WE ALREADY HAVE 12 PRISONS.
    • 37. DURING THE SAME TIME, CALIFORNIABUILDS ONE UC AND TWO CAL STATEUNIVERSITIES.
    • 38. 2010 BY 2010, CALI HAS 176 THOUSAND STATE PRISONERS; 40% FROM L.A. COUNTY. With realignment, 135,000 people are in prison. But in manycounties bodies are being shifted from state cages to county cages.
    • 39. California used to be #1 in school spending and had one of the best school systems in the world. Now, California is #1 in prison spending, and with this year‟s budget cuts, dropped from #47 to #50 in school spending! South and East L.A. lead the nation in school overcrowding, low test scores and drop-out/push-out rates with only 40% of students graduating.
    • 40. What are the Results of L.A.’s Multi-Billion $ Gang War?• After 25 years, L.A. has 6 times as many alleged gangs and at least twice as many alleged gang members, and L.A.‘s ―gangs‖ as well as gang suppression policies have spread throughout the world.• In 30 years, there are more than 100,000 shooting victims in South Central and Watts alone.• In West L.A., 1 in 78,000 young men are victims of homicide.• In East L.A. it‘s 1 in 6,100.• In South L.A., it‘s 1 in 2,200.• L.A. County leads the nation and the world in detention, incarceration and deportation.• One in 3 African American males is under the custody of the state.• African Americans are 11% of L.A.‘s population, but 36% of detention and prison population.• Latinos in L.A. serve five times longer sentences for the same crimes as whites.• Latino youth are five times more likely, and African American youth 18.3 times more likely to receive life without parole than white youth.
    • 41. The largest numbers ofyouth contacts with thepolice and Probation arefor:(1) Tickets that can turn into arrestwarrants or holds on Drivers‟licenses when families can‟t affordto pay them. The #1 “crime” fareevasion - riding train or buswithout paying.(2) Curfew Violations(3) Routine stop and frisks, gangdatabase adds on the street.(4) Graffiti related tickets andarrests including minor acts suchas posting slap tags, tiny throwups, carrying a marker, or having agraffiti-covered back pack,(5) Small possession of weed oralcohol for individual use.(6) Minor Probation violations -such as missing school or arguingwith family - can get youth lock-down placement or camp time.
    • 42. We are also suffering from something we define as Post Incarceration Stress DisorderPISD is caused by the following: The lack of human interaction; extreme verbal, sexual and physicalabuse at the hands of guards and other equally miserable prisoners; sensory depravation; rampantspread of disease within filthy and overcrowded institutions; conditioning of system-involved people todepend on constant oversight and management of our daily lives - when to pee, when to sleep, whento move, when to eat; the wide availability of both prescription and contraband drugs within institutionscombined with a lack of quality and effective drug and alcohol treatment; the hours of wasted timewithout educational or vocational resources; and the domination of gang and racial “politics” within thesystem all serve to increase mental health problems and further cripple system-involved people andour families.PISD causes new and increased rates of several afflictions, which are also spread to familiesand communities on the outside. These include, but are not limited to: inability to make decisionsor live independently; chronic homelessness and unemployment; dangerous health epidemicsincluding HIV, Tuberculosis, Staph infection, Hepatitis C; increased mental illness;misdiagnosis, addiction to, misuse, over-use and sharing of prescription medications; increasedsubstance abuse; increase in both domestic and community violence; extreme, unpredictable andoften uncontrollable mood swings, depression and anger; suicide; paranoia and lack of trust;increased fear of authority; “gang” affiliation and violence; and racial hatred and conflict.PISD: You‟re pissed all the time. Everyone is pissed at you.And resources and opportunities tell you to, “piss off.”

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