HELMET CONCUSSIONS MARTEL PEDEN 31 October 2011
Purpose• To raise awareness on the seriousness of sport concussions.• To decrease the number of sport related concussions.• To provide insight into the newest information on concussion management and prevention.
Concussion• Definition of a Concussion …a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces.• Several common features that incorporate clinical, pathologic, and biomechanical injury constructs that may be utilized in defining the nature of the concussive head injury include:
SYMPTOMSEarly Symptoms Late Symptoms• Headache • Low-grade headaches • Lightheadedness• Dizziness • Poor attention and concentration• Lack of awareness of • Memory dysfunction surroundings • Easy fatigability• Nausea or vomiting • Irritability and low frustration tolerance • Intolerance of bright lights or difficulty focusing vision • Intolerance of loud noises • Anxiety or depressed mood • Sleep disturbance American Academy of Neurology
How Often Do Concussions Occur?• On average, 3-5% of all sport and recreational injuries are head injuries.• The majority of sport related head injuries are mild.• The most common cause of sport related head injuries are falls. 7
How Often Do Concussions Occur?• Patients younger than 20 years old are more likely to suffer a sports related head injury.• Males are more frequently injured. These statistics are changing as more females engage in contact sports.• Very few head injuries are hospitalized. 8
Recognition of Concussions• It is common for athletes to underreport the incidence of sport concussions.• Often athletes do not associate their symptoms with those of a concussion. 9
Athletic Trainers Report• Athletic Trainers from Canada and the United States identified head injuries as 5% of their total sports injuries.• X Top sports? 10
Top Causes of Concussions Female Male• Soccer • Ice Hockey• Horseback Riding • Cycling• Cycling • Football• Ice Hockey • Soccer• Snowboarding • Snowboarding 11
Sport Specific RatesHockey: • HockeyHigh School: 17.6/1000 hours – Professional (Europe):Peewee: 23.1/1000 hours 14.3% of all injuries;Bantam: 10.7/1000 hours 0.16/1000 hoursPeewee:Children under age 6 had twice – College (Canadian Intercollegiate): 7.5% ofthe head injuries as older injuries; 1.5/1000 hourschildren. – High School (US): 18.7/1000 hours 12
Peewee Hockey N = 125 (86% response rate)• Average age: 11.5 years-old with 5.6 years of playing experience• No. of players with concussion: 11 (incidence rate = 9.87%) 16 total• 7 players with 1 concussion• 3 with 2 concussions• 1 with 3 concussions (1 non hockey related)• Mechanism of Injury: player contact (n = 10)• hits from behind (n = 4)• fall (n = 1)• collision into boards (n = 1)• Avg # of practices missed: 3.25 (range 0 – 6)• Avg #. of games missed: 2.00 (range 0 – 4)• Avg duration of symptoms: 7.03 days (range 1 - 21 days)• No. subjects with ED visit: n = 1• No. with previous concussion: n = 2 13
Mouth Guards• Mouth Guards have not been proven to prevent concussions.• Mouth Guards are required by many Athletic Associations because they reduce trauma of jaw, facial and dental injuries. 16
Helmets• Helmets are known to reduce the risk of intracranial injury however, there is no helmet that can prevent all head injuries.• An athlete should wear the correctly sized helmet and one specific to the activity (hockey, football, snowboard, bike). 17
Prevention cont.New technologies and changes in equipment SWAT Hockey does not indorse any specific manufactures product.