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  1. 1. Rabies An Overview of the Neurological Disorder
  2. 2. What is rabies? <ul><li>“ Rabies” is a disease caused by the rabies virus that causes acute, severe encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in mammals, including humans. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also known as “hydrophobia”. </li></ul><ul><li>The disease kills people, and if not treated immediately a person infected will almost always die. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is rabies? Cont'd <ul><li>Rabies inflicts its hosts to the point where he/she is unable to drink water, thus resulting in death. </li></ul><ul><li>It is rare in the United States thanks to vaccines, though it can still be found in other parts of the world. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How to Get Rabies <ul><li>Mammals can only get rabies. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common way to get rabies is to be bitten by a rabid animal. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also possible to get rabies simply from handling an animal infected with rabies through the air surrounding them. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How to Get Rabies cont'd <ul><li>Mammals such as bats, raccoons, skunks foxes, foxes, and coyotes are the most common hosts. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not limited to smaller animals; animals as large as bears have been known to contract the disease </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symptoms of Rabies <ul><li>The rabies virus can be within its host for four weeks without showing any signs. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans infected with rabies experience symptoms that get progressively worse with time. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms start out with a sore throat, headaches, and a fever. </li></ul><ul><li>If not immediately treated, the rabies will then induce violent movements, hallucinations, seizures, the inability to swallow water, foaming at the mouth, coma, and finally death. </li></ul><ul><li>Without a prompt vaccine, the infected will almost always die within ten days of the symptoms. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How rabies is diagnosed <ul><li>Rabies can be difficult to diagnose, at least in the early stages. People suspected to be hosts of the virus usually undergo one of the following tests: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA) – a tissue sample is taken of the suspected area of infection and notices if the rabies protein is present; this test is the fastest </li></ul><ul><li>Polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) – finds the specific DNA of the rabies protein if present; this is the most accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Animals that do the biting are also tested. They can be diagnosed most easily through abnormal behavior: an unnaturally increase in drooling, mindless aggression, and nocturnal animals wandering about during daylight hours all indicate something is very wrong. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Treatment of Rabies <ul><li>Treatment is absolutely essential for survival of the disease, and can be done the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Using a “virus-killing cleanser” on affected area wherever the bite occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Using a vaccine known as rabies immune globulin (HRIG) </li></ul><ul><li>Injection of several separate vaccines including HDCV and DCO doses to completely eradicate the disease. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How to avoid Rabies <ul><li>To completely avoid the chance of getting rabies, do not pet any stray or wild animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated if you are not already as soon as possible, as well as pets. </li></ul><ul><li>Move to Australia, Ireland, Japan, Gum or other island countries if you want no threat of rabies at all. </li></ul><ul><li>The Texas-Mexico border has the biggest likelihood for rabid stray animals to appear. </li></ul><ul><li>Raccoons are the most common rabid animals in the United States </li></ul>
  10. 10. If You Have Been Bitten <ul><li>If you feel you have contracted rabies, immediate action must be taken: </li></ul><ul><li>Wash the bite thoroughly with soap, water, and a sort of iodine solution to kill the fairly common germs associated with animal bites. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the name, phone number and address of the animal if it is a pet. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact local humane society. Do not try to capture the rabid animal or more people may get hurt and inoculated with rabies. </li></ul><ul><li>Call 911 and go immediately to hospital </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cultural Impact Rabies has a particularly bad reputation due to is effects on animals and humans. As a result, there has been a number of things that have come as a direct response of the disease: <ul><li>Cujo – A horror film in which a rabid dog stalks and attacks a family </li></ul><ul><li>World Rabies Day – on Sept 28, in response to the fact that one person dies from rabies every ten minutes, this day of observance was created to bring about people's awareness of the disease </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance for Rabies Control - Great Britain has a charity that serves essentially the same purpose as what World Rabies Day promotes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography <ul><li>http://kungfurodeo.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/chinese%20cujo.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fda.gov/FDAC/features/996_rab.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.emedicinehealth.com/rabies/page7_em.htm#Medical%20Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>http:// en.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/rabies-topic-overview </li></ul><ul><li>http://bbc.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/kidsrabies/Statistics/stats.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/hd/rabies/oral/rabiespic01.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.publicradio.org/content/2007/10/25/20071025_rabiesvaccine1_2.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dolittler.com/enclosures/cute_kitten.p.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.emedicinehealth.com/rabies/page6_em.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.coloradolaw-blog.com/dogbite.jpg </li></ul>