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The Abuse Of Sporting Supplements Amongst Adolescents






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The Abuse Of Sporting Supplements Amongst Adolescents Document Transcript

  • 1. ESSAY/ASSIGNMENT/PROJECT WORK Submission FormStudent Name: Killian VignaStudent ID Number: 10129758Course of Study: Digital Media Design (LM113)Year: 2ndLecturer Name: Amy HealyDate of Submission: 22nd November 2011I ________Killian Vigna________________declare that the attachedessay/project is entirely my own work, in my own words, and that all sourcesused in researching it are fully acknowledged and all quotations properlyidentifiedESSAYS, ASSIGNMENTS & PROJECTS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY WITHOUT A SIGNED SUBMISSION FORM
  • 2. The Abuse of Sporting Supplementsamongst Adolescents.Introduction to Social Research.So4063Killian Vigna(10129758)
  • 3. Contents. • Introduction. • Rationale and Significance of Research. • Research Question(s). • Literature Review. • Method of Investigation. • Ethical Issues. • Conclusion.
  • 4. • Bibliography.• Appendices.
  • 5. Introduction.The topic I have chosen to research is;“The Abuse of Sporting supplements amongst Adolescents”.The aim of this research is to discover the different factors amongst Adolescents andSupplemental abuse today, either Legal Sporting Supplements, or AndrogenicAnabolic Steroidal (AAS) abuse.The reason being for this report, is to find out the Percentage of youths who consumesupplements into their diets, and their reasons being, whether it’s athletically related(substituting for muscular strength gains and performance) or the more popularlygrowing, cosmetic use, for a more masculine, muscular defined physique.Rational and Significance of Research.The reason being for my research, is to find out,1.What the average percentage of Adolescents today induce sports nutrition andsupplements into their diets, as opposed to the au-natural sports athletes who chooseto eat cleanly, with real Carbohydrates and Proteins rather than synthetic, chemicallybased supplements.2.How many Gym users include supplements for personal gains in favour of trainingfor a sport, i.e. to build that muscular physique for a more defined, muscularappearance?
  • 6. 3.The crucial question of, how many of these athletes are willing to go as far aschallenging their bodies and going beyond extremes, by taking illegal substances forthat added “edge”, with the possibility of the short and/ or long term effects it canhave both physically and emotionally.
  • 7. Research Question(s).1.What is the average percentage of young peopleinducing sporting supplements into their diets?2.How many Adolescence athletes and/ or frequent Gymusers have admitted to taking Illegal SportsSupplements?3.What are the main reasons behind taking thesesupplements from such a young age?
  • 8. Literature Review.1. Giving New Meaning To The Term "Taking One For The Team”: InfluencesOn The Use/Non-Use Of Dietary Supplements Among Adolescent Athletes.In this article, the researchers main focus is “to assess intentions, attitudes, and beliefsof 1737 adolescent athletes regarding dietary supplements”, as it is believedAdolescence are where supplement companies focus most of their advertising on,with such “Claims of increased energy, improved performance, and gains in muscularstrength” allowing them to reach a physical peak to that of their sporting idols.To proceed with this study, the researchers made clear with each individual that, allinformation must be clearly understood by each interviewee, to prevent being misled,and that their study is completely voluntary, carried out with the consent of theirparents (as subjects we’re between 14-19 years of age), and they may discontinuewhenever they feel. With all of this taken into account, the researchers carried outthree main points;“1) Attitude towards the behaviour - whether something seems good or bad to theindividual”.“2) Subjective norms - the perception of what others in their life would think aboutthe individual performing the behaviour and their motivation to comply with thatperception”.“3) Behavioural intention -- the decision made to either perform or not perform thebehaviour based on the weight of the first two tenets”.
  • 9. Here we have the survey results based “ATTITUDES TOWARDS DIETARYSUPPLEMENTS” (a personal note);1."Most athletes my age need dietary supplements to improve sports performance" -17.7% Yes.2."Taking dietary supplements would help all athletes do better in sports" - 27.4 Yes.3."Taking dietary supplements is a safe way for athletes to improve sportsperformance" - 32.7% Yes.4."Taking dietary supplements is safe because they are tested by scientists” - 25.1%Yes, 36% Unsure.5."Taking dietary supplements give you more energy" - 41% Yes.6."Taking dietary supplements is a safe way to improve strength" - 32.7% Yes.7.“Taking dietary supplements is a good way to build muscle." - 44.8% Yes.8.“Dietary supplements are safe because pro athletes take them" - 63% No.9."Dietary supplements work because pro athletes take them" - 62.9% No.Now they show the survey results based on “SUBJECTIVE NORMS” (What theythink their Coaches, Parents, Doctors and Teammates, would feel;1."My coach would support my using dietary supplements to improve sportsperformance" - 41.8% No Answer, 32.7% Yes, 25.4% No.2.“My parents would support my using dietary supplements to improve sportsperformance" 36% - Yes.3."My doctor would support my using dietary supplements to improve sportsperformance" - 25% Yes.4."My teammates would support my using dietary supplements to improve sportsperformance" - 45.9% Yes.
  • 10. The final survey was based on “Behavioural Intentions”, meaning would they takesupplements they knew worked, or we’re given to them by an elder.The results of this showed high percentages of teens agreeing they would takesupplements they knew worked, and how they are more inclined to take supplements offof a coach or athlete, as opposed to their own parents for sporting benefits.The reason behind this study is it was “one of the first to use theory as a framework in aneffort to determine underlying determinates of dietary supplement use among adolescentathletes”. The results clearly show, that although Coaches specialise in managing a team,they are not as nutritionally knowledgeable as some may think, however it is still theCoach a young person will look up to, and if given supplements by them, they wouldtake them quicker than off a parent or teammate, regardless if they work or not, asaccording to this article “Dietary supplements are not tested by any governmentregulatory agency” and the only safety requirement, is only down to labelling.2. Androgenic Anabolic drug use among male adolescents in FalkenburgThe aim of this article is to highlight the dangers and increasing misuse of steroidalabuse amongst teenagers found through studies in Falkenburg. The “study wasundertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use amongteenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim ofdecreasing the misuse of these drugs.” The reason for including this survey, is, asstated above, their research was not based on the intake of anabolic steroids byathletes, but disturbingly by teenagers who wanted a better physical appearance, andto appear more masculine.
  • 11. This form of research was done through quantitative study, by means of “ananonymous multiple-choice questionnaire distributed to high school students inFalkenburg” with over 1,000 students between 14 and 19 filling out questionnairesheets. “The misuse of androgenic anabolic steroids was ascertained by the followingquestions:"Have you ever eaten doping pills with muscle-stimulating and anabolic effects?"And"Have you ever injected anabolic steroids?"Both these questions were to be answered "yes" or "no."”.Upon collecting back their data, it was revealed that over 52% of students knewsteroids could be accessed in their small town, and that “One in five boys knew of adrug-misusing friend his own age”. Along with anabolic effects of the muscle, it wasreported most “were unaware of the adverse effects concerning, e.g. hair and skintrouble” as well as temperamental issues. According to the questionnaire figures, 5%of 15 year old males have taken hormonal boosting drugs, which “indicates that 350boys of this age in the country of Holland use or have used steroid hormones”, “toimprove their appearance and handsomeness and perhaps also for their psychologicaleffects.”The conclusion of this article is simply summed up that there will always be steroidalabuse amongst adolescents as “Today boys want muscles to give them a "macho look"because they think that girls like this” and likewise “girls display anorectic behaviourbecause they think that boys like them to be thin”.
  • 12. Method of Investigation. There are several methods that could be encountered to find out what percentage of Adolescents are taking Sports Supplements and/ or Anabolic Steroids for either athletic reasoning or physical appearance. Below are the 2 main types of Surveying a researcher may use;1.Qualitative. And1.Quantitative.QualitativeQualitative is of a more personal process revealing exact results, however, this can bea very time consuming method, usually involving small groups of people over a shortperiod of time, or a large group of interviewees, taken over a relatively larger time,maybe a few weeks, months, or even years depending on the form of research, andresults looking to be attained.Methods of a Qualitative study can involve such actions as;1.Focus groups. Introducing a group of people (usually around 10-20) to a discussion held byresearchers. The role of the surveyors is to throughout some topics of discussions, andallow to the interviewees converse on their personal thoughts and expressions. Thisform of Study is less of an Interview, and more of an afternoon style talk, where thefocus group members can relax in a room, usually with some light refreshments and
  • 13. openly talk about whatever the researchers will through at them, as opposed toanswering a question. Amongst the Surveyors there will be a scribe, whose job it is towrite and record everything said, and has taken place amongst the group beforeheading off to analyse the results.2.One-on-one interviewing. One-on-one Interviewing is more formal, with an interviewer citing of aquestionnaire sheet to an individual who in response answers each question, asopposed to the Focus Group method where individuals and express their opinions inno controlled manner, the one-on-one interviewee must give straight forward answersthat will give approved results.3.Telephone surveying. Usually the most hated form of surveying amongst phone users, it is still veryaffective, as just about every household in Ireland has a landline phone, and if not,Almost every person has a mobile. The reason for its effectiveness being, Telephonecalls can be placed at random, therefore receiving a wide surface area of intervieweesas opposed to restricting their surveying to one are. A researcher is able to progress ontheir survey without having to meet the individual, therefore remainingconfidentiality.Quantitative.This form of researching is usually survey based. Its a faster method used to forstatistical results. Quantitative questionnaires are usually displayed as a set number ofquestions, with multiple choice answers, such as “yes”, “no”, “maybe” and so on.
  • 14. These forms of surveying are short and brief to allow the results to be published instatistical form, and represented by means of bar and pie charts for example. Thisallows for the researcher to visually see result variations, and allows them to segregateinto different categories for more defined results.The Method of Investigation chosen for this research is:Quantitative multiple choice question airing.The reason being for this method, is due to the areas chosen to study (AnabolicSteroids and other Sporting Supplements), the main ethical focus is Anonymityamongst participants in sports teams throughout UL and other participants, therefore,one-on-one Interviewing and Focus groups would prove difficult to find participants,and if found, may result in the individuals holding back on certain questions. There isalso the aspect of, being as UL is such a highly acclaimed sporting college, it wouldbe interesting to try and survey as many people as possible, as opposed to restrictingto just the University Arena Gym users.To progress this research, there will be enough Multiple choice questionnaires printedup, with about 10 questions of the same on each, and handed out to every Universityof Limerick sports club, plus a further couple of hundred to be handed out at theUniversity Arena desk by designated researchers as opposed to staff (this makes it lesspersonal receiving a questionnaire from someone you have never seen, than one youmeet every time you enter the gym) to regular users on a specific week betweenopening and closing hours.
  • 15. Willing participants will be asked to go home, and carefully answer as truthfully aspossible, all questions stated (bearing in mind, this is completely voluntary, and if onewishes not to continue, may hand their survey back on the designated date listed) andreturn when stated to where they received it from (again, this will be another surveyorto keep it imp-personal).The final results acquired by each participant will be carefully calculated up, andtransferred into SPSS where diagrams and charts can be obtained to compare andcontrast participant’s use of sport supplements visually, and in a presentational format.The use of SPSS allows researchers to obtain results from several different researchquestions, see which sex is more dominant in the use of supplements, what age groupamongst adolescents is most inclined to indulge in steroids, and finally, whether thereis a higher use of drug and/ or supplement abuse amongst athletes, or physical trainers(individuals training for appearance over sport) and which is consumed more, legal, orillegal substances.For this Research paper, SPSS allows for the answering of the three main ResearchQuestions listed at the start;1.What is the average percentage of young people inducing sporting supplements intotheir diets?2.How many Adolescence athletes and/ or frequent Gym users have admitted totaking Illegal Sports Supplements?3.What are the main reasons behind taking these supplements from such a young age?
  • 16. In forms of Graphs and Pie charts to really highlight the main concerns betweentaking legal sporting supplements, too going beyond limits and inducing illegalanabolic supplements.Conclusion. Due to the fact, this research will not be going ahead, there is no real conclusive evaluation to be shown, based on this quantitative survey in UL. Had this had gone ahead, there would be an open door to access the real truth about legal and illegal sports supplements induced by not only Athletes, but by frequent gym users too amongst the University of Limerick, and other Irish Colleges. As there is so much controversy now a-days of the intake of banned substances, and regular drug testing from such a young age, this survey will be one of the first amongst Irish Universities and Colleges to show the real percentages of users, and from what ages substance abuse, or excessive supplement intake can start from for not only athletic gains, but the split survey of non-athletic gains, but the increase of substance intake for appearances alone, due to mass media pressure to look good!
  • 17. Ethical Issues. The Ethical issues of this research will take these following titles into account.1.Informed consent.2.Anonymity3.HarmInformed Consent;The research subjects participating in this quantitative study will be highly informedthat the multiple choice questionnaire they are participating in is 100% voluntarily,and under no circumstances should they feel in anyway obliged to continue/ finish offtheir survey at hand. The participants may discontinue the survey whenever theyplease.Anonymity;As stated under the Questionnaire title placed at the top of the survey, all rights ofConfidentiality are remained under strict order due to the researchers aims of SportsSupplement and Anabolic Steroidal abuse. Participants will be asked to enter an agegroup they fall into, a sporting activity (if any) they take place in, and several otherimpersonal questions, however, it would be of a strict breach of ethical rules for anyuser to enter any personal details (names, addresses, etc.) that may give away theiridentification.
  • 18. Harm;Being as this research aims to discover the percentage of UL students engaging insupplemental and/ or steroidal abuse, the research team will be in conjunction with theUniversity of Limericks Counselling and Chaplaincy aids for any participants whofeel they might need help, or simply someone to talk to in confidence about whateverproblems may arise.
  • 19. Bibliography.1.Perko, M. Bartee, R. Dunn, M. Wang, M. & Eddy, J.M. (2000) Giving NewMeaning to the Term “Taking One for the Team:” Influences on the use/non-use of dietary supplements amongadolescent athletes.American Journal of Health Studies, 16, 2, 99-1062.Nilsson, S. (1995). Androgenic anabolic steroid use among male adolescents inFalkenburg. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY. 48 (1), 9-11.3.Tian H, Ong W S, Tan C Lhttp://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=96522 Body image and attitudes toward male roles in anabolic androgenic steroidusers Gen kanayama
  • 20. Appendices. “The Abuse of Sporting supplements amongst Adolescents”. Questionnaire.Attention: This Is a Social Research Survey Carried Out To Investigate The Useof Sports Supplements And Other Such Banned Substances Amongst YoungIrish Athletes, And Frequent Gym Users Today. This Research Respects AllParticipants Rights To Privacy, And Therefore JUST The Questions Below MustBe Answered, With No Further Information Of Personal Details Included.As This Research Is 100% Voluntary, You Reserve The Right To Discontinue AtAnytime, And Hand Up The Questionnaire Unfinished.If Under 18, Or Over 22, Please Refrain From Continuing The Questionnaire,And Return To Place Of Collection On Due Date.1.Are you a University of Limerick Undergraduate? Yes. No.2.Please select an age group that best represents you. 18-20. 20-22.3.Do you play for a UL Club and/ or Team? Yes. No.
  • 21. 4.If yes, please list the University Sport and/ or Club involved with. .5.Are you a frequent Gym user? Yes. No.6.How many times a week do you engage in exercise? 1-2 times. 3-4 times. 5-7 times.7.Do you use the University Arena/ Boathouse? Yes. No.8.Do you take legal sporting supplements? (Protein, Energy Drinks/ Bars, Creatine,BCAAs, etc. . .) Yes. No. Sometimes.9.Have you ever taken Anabolic Steroids, Hormone Boosters, or equivalent? Yes. No. Sometimes.10.From what age did you begin taking legal Sports Supplements (Insert “N/A” ifnever)? .
  • 22. 11.From what age did you begin taking Anabolic Steroids, Hormone Boosters, orequivalent? .12.Would you ever take any banned substances if you felt it would increase yourathletic ability? Yes. No. Maybe.13.Would you ever take Anabolic Steroids, Hormonal Boosters or equivalent to speedup recovery from a bad injury? Yes. No. Maybe.14.Would you ever take any banned substances if you felt it would produce a moremuscular appearance? Yes. No. Maybe.15. How many, and what supplements, would you take a day? .Thank You For Your Participation Of This Survey, Please Remember To ReturnTo One Of The Designated Researchers On Week 12 Of College To Where YouFirst Received Youre Questionnaire.
  • 23. FACULTY OF ARTS, HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE CHECKLIST All applicants must fill in this checklist. If you answer “No” to all the questions,please then fill in the application form. If you answer “Yes” to any of these questions, you must also fill in the Advanced Ethics Application Form (Appendix C) which is specifically designed with social research methodologies in mind. All applications must be accompanied by an Information Sheet and Consent Form (Appendices A+B)1.Does this application involve research with:a.People under the age of 18 Yes Nob.People with psychological impairments Yes Noc.People under the control or influence of others (eg, people in care, prisoners) Yes Nod.People with learning difficulties Yes Noe.Relatives or parents of sick people Yes Nof.People who only have a basic knowledge of English Yes Nog.Students with whom the researcher has a teaching or supervisory relationship Yes No2.Does this application deal with:a.Personally sensitive issues, such as suicide, bereavement, gender identity, sexuality, fertility, abortion, gambling, financial arrangements Yes Nob.Illegal activities, illicit drug taking substance abuse, engaging in criminal behaviour Yes Noc.Any act that might diminish self-respect or cause shame, embarrassment or regret? Yes Nod.Research into politically sensitive and/or racially/ethically and/or commercially sensitive areas? Yes Noe.Issues which might otherwise give rise to a risk of loss of employment for the participant? Yes No3.Does the proposed research procedures involve:a.Use of personal records without consent Yes Nob.Deception of participants or use of placebos Yes Noc.The offer of inducements to participate Yes Nod.Audio or visual recording without consent Yes Noe.Invasive physical interventions or treatment Yes Nof.Research that might put researchers or participants at substantial risk? Yes Nog.Storage of data for less than 7 years? Yes Noh.Revealing the identity of participants? Yes Noi.Dealing with topics, using methodologies, or reporting
  • 24. of findings in a way that is likely to cause pain,Discomfort, embarrassment, or changes of lifestylefor the participant? Yes No
  • 25. FACULTY OF ARTS, HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE APPLICATION FORM All applicants must complete this form and include an information sheet and consentform with their application. If you have ticked “yes” to any question on the checklist, please complete this form and the “Advanced Ethics Application Form”. For Office Use Only: Application No.: ____________Applicant Details:Name: Killian Vigna.ID Number: 10129758.E-mail Address: 10129758@studentmail.ul.ieDepartment/Programme of Study: Digital Media Design (LM113).Type of Project (FYP/MA/PhD/Faculty): Research Design.Funding Body (where appropriate): N/A.Project: The Abuse of Sporting Supplements amongst Adolescents.Supervisor/Other Investigators:Signature of Applicant ____________________________ DateSignature of Supervisor/HoD _______________________ Date
  • 26. FACULTY OF ARTS, HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE APPENDIX B – CONSENT FORMConsent Section:I, the undersigned, declare that I am willing to take part in research for the projectentitled “Name of Research Project”.•I declare that I have been fully briefed on the nature of this study and my role in itand have been given the opportunity to ask questions before agreeing to participate.•The nature of my participation has been explained to me and I have full knowledgeof how the information collected will be used.•I am also aware that my participation in this study may be recorded (video/audio)and I agree to this. However, should I feel uncomfortable at any time I can requestthat the recording equipment be switched off. I am entitled to copies of all recordingsmade and am fully informed as to what will happen to these recordings once the studyis completed•I fully understand that there is no obligation on me to participate in this study•I fully understand that I am free to withdraw my participation at any time withouthaving to explain or give a reason•I am also entitled to full confidentiality in terms of my participation and personaldetails______________________________________ __________________________Signature of participant Date