2011Waste Free Events Promotions Interaction Design Phase 1 Group G 2/24/2011
Waste Free Events Promotions Interaction Design CS4052 Phase 1 Niamh Begley 10131256 Denis Cronin 10103031 Killian Vigna 10129758 Tara Donoghue 10131787 The Brief In this project we were required to use a number of different research methods and techniques for the specification and design or an interactive system which will enhance the awareness of the environmental issues on campus. We had to identify an issue of concern and undergo study relevant to this problem. We collected data from all of our research and study and analysed them. Our work PlanFirst thing we had to do was to form our group. We agreed that the four members of our team would workwell together as we are all the same age. An advantage we had over other groups was that we all live oncampus so it would be easy to meet up during the week. We all found the excessive usage of paper in theuniversity to be a big concern. We collaborated and decided that the excessive usage of posters all overthe college was a waste. We are all sociable people and enjoy going out. We all agreed on the topic ofmaking the university “waste free” zone for promoting events. Together we read through the “look”,“ask”, “learn” and “try” research methods and decided which would be most useful in carrying out ourresearch. We will meet during our time of between classes and in the evenings. After carrying out ourresearch we will evaluate and document all of our findings.We chose Event Waste Management, as we allfound this relevant in the modern college day life due to the mass amounts of event organising that takesplace in and around the campus, also, we each attend an event at one time or another, and have shared ourexperiences on how we came about them.
The topics we chose are 1. Look •Fly on the Wall •A Day in the Life •Behavioural Mapping 2. Ask •Camera Journal. •Extreme User Interviews 3. Learn •Draw the Experience •Activity Analysis 4. Try •Scenarios •Paper Prototyping
Research Methods1. Look A day in the lifeFor day in the life we decided to track movements of acquaintance of ours. We informed him that wewere carrying out research methods surrounding the concern of environmental issues in the university. Heis a first year engineering student who wanted to find out information about an upcoming event. Weasked him if we could track his movements as part of our research. He heard about an engineeringmystery tour from his classmates and required more information. We used his enquiries to help usinvestigate the usage of posters in and around the university. He noticed that the posters advertising theevent didn’t require information he required such as the date and cost of the tour. This has proven to usthat some posters put up around the college are a waste of paper and a threat to the environment. Rorydecided to look on social network site Facebook to require the information he needed. He discovered thata Facebook event page had been made which provided him with a lot of information such as the date,time, where the bus was leaving from and the names of his friends attending. Technology is taking overadvertising and is more effective in many ways. There is a massive amount of wastage being producedfrom all of the posters put up around the college and we want to find a way of preventing such wastage.DataFrom our investigation it was obvious that technology is much better for the environment than theexcessive printing of posters as it does no use a lot of paper which is rarely recycled in the college when itis finished with. Often we noticed that the posters had fallen on the ground and were being stood on andtorn to bits and were being scattered all over the college.With Rory’s help we found that technology is much more effective in spreading the word about events asit is much more eye grabbing than sheets of paper posted on walls.It was obvious that most of the younger students find the student union common room is the focus pointof finding out information.We discovered that it doesn’t take long to find out information because it often spreads by technology andword of mouth.JustificationThis method gave us the opportunity to explore the availability of events advertising all over the collegefrom one end to the other. We got to see with our very own eyes how a male student seeks informationwhen eager. We got to spend a day orientated around a male teenager’s life for a day which wasinteresting and just as fun as it was an effective contribution to our research. Pictures of Rory during “A day in the life”
Fly on the wallFor this method we chose a place, which we felt, was a focus point for people seeking informationthrough posters. We picked set times of the day to go and observe peoples natural actions. It allowed us tosee how popular different places on campus are used and what type of person stops to find information.DataWe found that the posters were clustered and hard to read because there were so many. It was also notedhardly anyone bothered to stop to find information. The posters that were up were mainly Clubs, Soc’sand bars. We also noted that on average it was males who stopped and everyone who’s stopped wasbetween the ages of 19-21. From our observations we discovered that people put their posters on top ofothers without any care if they are covering others important displays. It was also noted that if people didstop to observe the information it was in groups who would then discuss their findings. We were verydisappointed to see that posters were being taken done by others for their own use or thrown in the binwithout any regard for its importance. There were four of the same posters in the one area, we feel this isa massive waste and an unnecessary threat to the environment.JustificationsWe felt that this method was very important asit’s allowed us to observe peoples natural interaction withthe displays of posters. It meant that we could see what people’s reactions were without the pressure onthem knowing we were watching. It was we felt the most realistic way of finding information aboutpeople and posters, for example it is unlikely that a person would cover up others information if theyknew they were being observed. This method helped prove our point that there is far too much clutter inthe university and this is an area we want to combat and make greener. C Block hallway where there were a lot of passer-by’s but only few stopped within the hour we spent here.
Behavioural MappingFor this method we asked a group of students, ranging in age, course, and social interest, to take a map ofthe campus and pin point the popular places and focal point of where they would go to find informationon events. We also tracked the times which were most popular for people to go looking for informationon events.DataFrom our investigation it was found that people all go to the same places to seek info on events. TheStudent unions common room is the main focus for seeking posters and information on events. It wasdiscovered that participants find posters to be ineffective and missing info. It was made very clear thatsocial networking in preferred.JustificationWe felt that this method would give us confirmation on the places that people focus when they are in needof information. We wanted to use this to see if people are happy with the places of information they canaccess through posters. We also wanted to know who much time is spent seeking information using thetraditional methodsOn the map bellow we have pin pointed the places within the university where information can befound and where people go to find information.RedRaisinSUcommonroom
2. Ask Camera JournalCamera journal was extremely useful as we got to find out from a normal user their reactions to theposters that they saw in a normal day of college. We got them to take pictures and write down theirreactions to what they saw. All of our volunteers had similar reactions.DataFrom doing this we recorded the fact that while there are many posters posted all over the common roompeople go to the same spot repeatedly. Most were frustrated with the fact they could not easily access theinformation on events, and which were expired due to the mass clutter of newer events. We also foundout that for most event details, you had to access and join their group/ add them as a friend online throughsocial networks. Our volunteers all noted that it was the posters with pictures and bright colours that stoodout to them. They preferred posters which were clear and direct rather posters which had too muchwriting. They also noticed that there was a build-up of waste being made because old posters were stillhanging on the wall instead of being recycled.JustificationWe decided to use the Camera Journal method so we could get a first person insight. They visuallyrecorded how they perceived the mass of clutter of event notices everywhere and their emotionalresponse, also how they feel about having to personally search through posters for what events aretakingplace.On the following page is an example of one of the camera journals a student kept for us.
Extreme User Interview This method allowed us to get in touch with those who promote events. We interviewed friends of ours who are in bands and who DJ. This method gave us a great insight into what ways people find the most effective ways of promoting their events. As we have seen in other methods technology is taking over and posters are becoming obsolete, however even though some people are taking the environmental friendly approach many people still advertise by printing posters and we want to combat this. Data When we each spoke to our friends about how they went about organising events, we we’re shocked with the results of both people. We found out that when they organised an event, they mainly set up a Facebook page and linked it to everyone in the local area, and also through friends, the full details (venue, time, date, promo’s) were all listed on this social networking page, as they revealed that they often used very little, or no posters at all, due to the unnecessary expenses, which are usually disposed of by the council, or damaged by weather conditions. Although they used no posters, and mainly networking sites, it was obvious that word had spread quickly due to event requests and pop up demanding the user’s attention, as opposed to looking for events. Justification We chose Extreme User Interview as two of our members both knew people who set up and organise events in and around our home towns, this is why we found it extremely useful, to gain an insight on someone familiar with the setup of organising events. We wanted to know what methods they use and why they use them for event managing. The big title draws you in and the background images are very effective and portray the theme of the event brilliantly. However it is very cluttered and unorganised so it is confusing what to read first. The purple and yellow complementeach other. TheThis is an example of a poster an white writing standout outinterviewee made. The image and conveys the main pointdoes not convey what the posters effortlessly. The backgroundmessage is, however sufficient adds to the poster rather thaninformation is provided. The over dominating it. We reallyyellow writing stands out. like this poster as it is simple but very effective.
3. Learn Draw the ExperienceWe asked a volunteer to use the materials we gave them to give us their view of the perfect poster. Wegave them a concert ticket, a poster, newspaper clippings, colouring pencils and paper. The result of thisshowed that they just want basic information like prices of tickets and drinks and they like the usage ofbright colours.DataWe learned that our audience wanted more information than possible to fit onto one poster, resulting in alarger surface area poster and creating more waste. We found that our friends whom organised eventswould only display basic information on a reasonably sized poster to keep costs down and post it on theirsocial network page to provide more information, and anyone who wanted to know more details, or benotified of last minute changes, could contact the organiser directly. The service of last minute changes,or newer promotions was a great advantage over basic posters needing constant updating.JustificationWe decided to use the Draw the Experience method as a way to understand what people actually see on aflyer for an event and what they would prefer to see on an events poster, whether it should attract theirattention or whether it should clearly display the information (Date, Venue, Time, Promotions). Also wewanted to know what the perceiver would like on a flyer that would catch their attention more easily.
• Activity AnalysisAs a group we thought this would be a very proactive method. Killian knew the band members who werealso students in UL so it was easy for us to organise a first-hand experience of events promotion andactually being part of the event. This method allowed us to interview the band members and get theiropinion on promoting events by themselves. The bands were at a disadvantage due to the location so wewanted to see how they would cope with promoting and what forms of communication they would use.The bands had limited funding and therefor were environmental friendly and did not contribute theproblem of waste in advertising in UL.DataAs the event for the guys was on the other side of the country, we had already felt there would be a rulingout on posters to promote. Instead our friends enforced the use of social networking, by posting whereand when they would be playing, and requesting for followers from their home town to travel up, also alot of the members sent a text template to as many people in their phone book whom they felt would beinterested and we found from these text it was also spread from word of mouth as most people whoreceived the text brought up to 3 to 4 people.JustificationWe decided to use the Activity Analysis method as we knew a few band members and we felt it would beinteresting to gain an insight on how they went about promoting a gig (organised by a second party) theywere playing, and how they went about attracting a crowd for support to attend. The band had been askedto play a battle of the bands event in Galway city, and being as it was the other side of the country forthem, we found them the perfect act to follow. This was an interesting case, as we wanted to know whichforms of promotion the band would use, and which techniques they found most effective.
4. Try ScenariosFor this method we chose 4 people, 2 boys and 2 girls of different ages and interests, to help us createscenarios to help further the research for our project. We chose 2 different locations, the Common Roomand the Red Raisin, which we had previously discovered to be focus points for finding information. Weasked them to observe the posters and comment on their findings. While they did this we watched wheretheir focus was, which posters drew them in and how long they spent looking at them all. We recordedtheir interaction in case we needed to refer to it later.DataWe found that our volunteers glanced over poster that did not stand out in either colour or catchy slogan.Having so many posters clustered together meant that focusing on one was difficult, without beingdistracted by the next. The volunteers noted that a lot were partially covered over by other postersblocking information. They also felt that many were badly designed and had too much writing on them,they did not get quickly to the point, which meant the user would lose interest in the event it wasadvertising. The volunteers felt that poster which had pictures on them were less intimidating.JustificationsWe felt that this was an important method to do as it gave us a clear view of the process that a personwould go through when observing a poster or looking for certain information in a poster. It gave us keyinformation like the average amount of time spent looking and the type of posters that people gravitatetowards, for example informative, colourful, big or small. All these details help tell us what is necessaryand what waste is.
Role PlayingWe enjoyed this method as we got to take a proactive approach to our research. We enjoyed each afterour own role to play. It was both fun and valuable as it showed us the role of the stakeholders. The twoparts to play were the designer and person putting up posters and the person who was looking forinformation on an event. We decided to take a different approach and have a third character who playedthe role through an environmental eye. We did this twice each playing different roles and noted thedifference of reactions.DataFrom the promoters point of view the more advertisements the better therefor their approach was themore posters the better without a care for the environment. Promoters are competitive with one anotherand have no respect for other people’s posters and are going to such lengths to cover others up or throwthem away.From the view of the onlooker they found that the brighter coloured posters and newly displayed weretheir focus of attention. They find the clutter often off putting. They understand why so many posters areused but that is without thinking environmentally.From the view of the environmentalist the idea of wasting paper on excessive use of posters is a bigproblem in UL. They feel that a technological approach would benefit the university and would be moreeffective.JustificationsWe felt this method was essential to understand the reasons behind the stakeholder’s actions. Playing thedifferent roles put everything into perspective and it strengthened our view that the idea of waste freeevents promotions in UL needs to be implemented as soon as possible.
EvaluationTo portray our project as a simple whole, we were four students, Niamh Begley, Tara Donoghue, DenisCronin, and Killian Vigna grouped together by choice (as we lived within close distance of each other,and get on quite well for close team work).Our topic of choice was, “Waste free Event Promotion”. We chose this as our project, due to theincreased amounts of posters and flyers for discos, gigs, and so on being set up. Due to this, we havenoticed a mass amount of clutter on student notice boards in and around the college, and the near endlesstask of trying to review event posters taking place by a desperate bid to recover them from beneath moremodern flyers.When we went about the college buildings, taking photos of notice boards around the stairwells andcorridors, we noticed a slight competitive streak amongst event organisers, with such tactics as, freelyplacing ones poster directly over another’s, or bang on centre of the notice board, and also there wasevidence of the use of coloured flyers, and large posters, dominating the smaller surfaced leaflets (asshown).On setting upon making a change in trying to clean up the act in how events are organised and advertised,our first motive was to indulge in a list of research topics we had agreed on as a team. The list of researchmethods we chose were:1. Look – A day in the life, fly on the wall, behavioural Mapping.2. Ask- Camera Journal and Extreme user interview3. Learn- Draw the experience and Activity Analysis4. Scenarios and Paper PrototypingAfter many hours and users of research, our conclusions were pretty much being received as the same.Our subjects had each expressed how they rarely perceive and go through notice boards posters or flyersanymore, because they simple don’t have the time or patience to have to dive right into a mass pile ofnotices. According to them, gone are the days where notice boards were designed to catch your eye andgive you a brief description on what an organiser was promoting. As a result of modern day students,people are demanding more and more information on venues, times, prices, and promos, causing anincrease in unattractive poster sizes, this is where our real conclusion came in.ConclusionAccording to the students we based our research on, they declare how most of the events they found outabout, are through social networking sites, e-mail, or via text, as they can provide a larger amount ofinformation, and more specific details, also, there is the simple advantage of instant updates, such as newoffers, a change in time and/ or venue, also, the matter of whether or not the event goes ahead, these areall basic things, that you won’t find out about from a poster.The reasons for social networking out-doing posters and leaflets, is an organiser can set up an event, freeof charge (saving on design and printing expenses), and invite everyone they are friends with, or whomlive in close locations to the venue, allowing them the options “Attending”, “Might Attend”, or “NotAttending”. Whoever then decides to attend the event, their friends will then be notified, and so on,creating a long list of endless event requests, all free, and without having to search through for, insteadthe networker can briefly scroll through their requests, and select the preferred event.(Displayed are four example Social Network organised event posters used by one of the promoters weinvolved in our research
Reflection of the methodsWe were reluctant to try these methods at the start as we were more incline to try coming up with asolution straight away but we should have looked at the problem first. However as we started this weshortly found out that this isn’t the way to go about this. As we began these methods we found out thatthere is a lot to the design process and as we continued it was obvious that we got a great insight intowhat people wanted and even what people felt towards the environment. Also how they felt or even ifthey knew the extent of waste created through organising an event and the effect it has on theenvironment.We also found that these methods added up in their own individual way to give us a true insight into howmuch events can impact on the environment and also how easy it is to stop this. From going through thesedifferent methods such as fly on the wall and shadowing we felt it more appropriated to pick suchmethods like fly on the wall as with shadowing, we felt that the people were too aware of us there for wecouldn’t get a through insight.We felt fly on the wall the most interesting method as we found out that people don’t even notice or readthe flyers or posters most of the time, so it felt as though all this waste was for nothing . Over all we feltthese methods really help in this design project as each stage interlinked with each other which workedperfectly.
Examples of notice board and events posters we found throughout the campus Posters covered up by newer posters resulting in overcrowding which is distracting and messy.
Here we can see the contrast between the small clubsand socs posters and the well-established clubs . Wecan see the obvious difference from the differentbudget. There is also a greater amount of informationon the bigger clubs while the small clubs and socs onlyhave the basic information.
These are just a few more examples of what we found throughout the collage of different cluttered posters and examples of how different event organisers attract people to their postersRoles we played
As a group we decided we would meet once a week to check in on our progress. We decided to work on some of themethods as a group and some individually. Firstly we worked on “Behavioral Mapping” as a group this showed us the focalpoints for where the average student goes to find information on events. Then Tara and Niamh proceeded with the Lookmethods of “Fly on the Wall” and “Day in the life” as they lay the foundations of our research project. Mean while Killian andDenis worked on the Learn method “ Activity Analysis” as Killian knew a band who spent a lot of time promoting their events.Denis asked his roommates to make up collages using materials they supplied to represent in their eyes, what they want tosee on an event poster. As a group we then worked on the Try research method “Role play”, this was a group task thatneeded all of us to take part to succeed. In the mean time we had asked a few friends to keep an Ask method “CameraJournal” on their interaction with events promotion through out a day. The last two methods were also worked on as agroup. The Ask method “Extreme user interview” was one that we all wanted to take part in, as it was a very proactive way oflearning important information on our chosen topic. “Scenarios” the Try method required us all to work to together to beable to effectively recreate the necessary scenarios.