ROLE OF THE WORKING MOTHERA presentation brought to you by PD&T and DMDIn association with the University of LimerickOisin Mc QuinnTadgh DoyleKate SedasNiamh BegleyKillian VignaLiam KennySean MallenEmma O’ Leary
THE DECADE OF WOMENo ―Women do two-thirds of the world’s work, receive10 percent of the world’s income and own 1percent of the means of production.‖o — Richard H. Robbins, Global Problems and theCulture of Capitalism, (Allyn and Bacon, 1999), p.354
THE WOMAN’S LAND ARMY 1939o Advertised as Glamorous and Patriotic by theGovernment.o Work was hard and young women usually workedin isolated communitieso They were paid 32 shillings a week – about £1.60(€1.85)o Skilled women earned £2.15 (€2.48), the wage ofan unskilled mano Rolls Royce strike – Glasgow, wage raise to that ofa semi-skilled man.
FORD DAGENHAM - WOMENS STRIKEo 7th June 1968 - 850 Women Sewing Machinists goon Strikeo Women paid 87% of a mans wage for equallyskilled roles.o Car production ceases for 3 weeks before theintervening of Barbara Castle.o Womens wage increases to 92% and the EqualPay Act 1970 is passed.
MODERN WOMENS WAGEo 80% of paid females work in Agriculture aroundAsian and African regions providing up to 90% ofthe worlds food.o By 2008, 59% of Women worldwide work inAgriculture earning around 17% of mens wagesworking the same job.
CHANGING ROLE FOR WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCEo In the beginning of the 20th century, women were regarded as societysguardians of morality; they were seen as made finer than men and wereexpected to act as such. Women were expected to hold on to theirinnocence until the right man came along so that they can start a family.The role of men was to support that family financiallyo However, at the turn of the 20th century, social attitudes towardseducating young women were changing. Americans and WesternEuropeans were now educating their women more and more. By1900, four out of five colleges accepted women.o World War 1 was first to make space for women in the workforce, due tothe rise in demand for production during the raging war, more womenfound themselves working outside the home.o World War 2 allowed for millions of jobs for women. Over 16 million menleft their jobs to join the war in Europe and elsewhere, opening evenmore opportunities and places for women to take over in the job force.Although two million women lost their jobs after the war ended, femaleparticipation in the workforce was still higher than it had ever been.
REVOLUTION From 1890 to 1930, women in the workforce were typicallyyoung and unmarried. They had little or no learning on the joband typically held clerical and teaching positions. Manywomen also worked in textile manufacturing or as domestics.Women promptly exited the work force when they weremarried, unless the family needed two incomes. During the ―Transition Era‖ the time period between 1930 and1950, we enter into the second phase, married women beginto exit the work force less and less. Labor force productivityfor married women 35–44 years of age increased from 10% to25%. As the number of women graduating high schoolincreased they began to hold more respectable, steady jobs. ―Roots of the revolution" encompasses the time from 1950-mid-to-late 1970s. Womens expectations of futureemployment changed. Women began to see themselvesgoing on to college and working through their marriages andeven attending graduate school.
THE QUIET REVOLUTION The fourth phase, known as the "Quiet Revolution", began in thelate 1970s and continues on today. Beginning in the 1970swomen began to flood colleges and grad schools. They began toenter profession like medicine, law, dental and business. The percentage of women majoring in education declinedbeginning in the 1970’s, education was once a popular major forwomen since it allowed them to step into and out of the laborforce when they had children. Instead, majors such as business and management were on therise in the 1970s, as women ventured into other fields that wereonce predominated by men. Women worked before they gotmarried, and since women were marrying younger they wereable to define themselves prior to a serious relationship.Research indicates that from 1965 to 2002, the increase inwomen’s labor force participation more than offset the decline formen. The Quiet Revolution is called such because it was not a "bigbang" revolution; rather, it happened and is continuing to happengradually.
Gender Inequality by Social RolesDuring WW2, women had to enterthe workforce to support their familiesand the local economy. Instead ofreturning to work at home when theirhusbands returned, they stayed inthe workforce.
Girls now had easier access to higher educationwhich helped them achieve higher paid careers.The availability of birth control meant that womencould finish their educations and advance in theircareers before starting a family Women that didnt have a higher education behindthem ended up in low paying jobs. They would bepaid far less then a male doing the job, as it wasseen that a womans earning were less importantthan a males in regards to supporting a family.Sexual harassment was a part of everyday life formost working women. They were dependent onmale approval for hiring and career advancement.
QUOTAS Quotas are mechanisms by which governments seek to increasethe number of women represented in the governing bodies andboard rooms of companies History saw males being hired over females because of oldlegislations which made women to quite their public service jobswhen they had a child and had to take on the role as a motherfulltime instead, with this and other factors it lead to maledominance in promotion in the workforce for centuries Other aspects such as maternity leave had made people perceivewomen as unpredictable when they might be out and the costinvolved which effected the rate of women to men being hired Under new EU laws being put into place Europe’s listed companieswill be forced to reserve at least 40 per cent of their non-executivedirector board seats for women by 2020 Just 13.7pc of board positions in listed companies in the EUcomprised of women 2013
EU countries – including France, Italy, Spain and theNetherlands – have already adopted their ownnational quotas France, introduced them in January2011, increasing the number of women onboards by 10 percentage points to 22 per cent in oneyear There are pros and cons to introducing mandatorylegislation and quotas such as;- Tension arising other women who oppose them are just terrified of the idea of women being judged of having got into a position of power through extra help- It will reintroduce women to a workforce to a level that would be expected if existing legislation/ traditions which saw women having to leave work
WORKING WOMEN AND THE LAW The equal pay act of 1970 The Sex Discrimination act of 1975 The Employment Protection (consolidation ) Act1978
SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT 1975Prevent discrimination which can createobstacles for women inobtaining and retaining employment. Recruitment : Use of sexist terminologyin advertising Promotion and Training : Access toparticular skills training Availability for work: Part time work
THE EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION ACT 1978 The right to not be unfairly dismissed because ofpregnancy The right to return to the same job afterconfinement The right to paid time off for ante-natal care The right to statutory maternity pay
BARRIERS TO EQUAL PARTICIPATIONWages Field, position and period of absence all have an impact.If grounds to get certain salary are open, it is morepossible for everyone to get the same wage. The fieldsthat are mostly women workers are usually paid less.Also in the same field, women tend to get less, as theyare placed in different tasks. Even in the same taskwomen get less wage on average than male colleagues. If cost of maternity leave and parenthood are not equallydivided between employers, the temptation to hire aman is higher thus creating an expectation for women totake care of children and paternity leave is shorter andless likely to be taken.
FROM GOLF FIELDS TO DRINKING DINNERS A lot of socializing and networking isdone outside the office or meetingplaces. In some of these places thereare restrictions to people who canattend. A lot of deals and agreementsare often done in these places. If youcan´t get access to these because ofyour sex, you are much more lesslikely to be involved and may be outof the loop. In the past, this includedmany clubs and pubs, and the golfcourse is a fine example of both workrelated socialising and also genderdiscrimination in certain clubs.
APPRECIATION Technical fields are often more valued than jobsamong other human beings, usually fields with a lotof women workers. Usually this difference is taughtin school without any real studies behind; boys orgirls are better in some subjects just because. Orstill somewhere boys are send to school as girls arerather seen as a household helpers."universities rated the application materials of a student—who wasrandomly assigned either a male or female name—for a laboratorymanager position. Faculty participants rated the male applicant assignificantly more competent and hireable than the (identical) femaleapplicant. These participants also selected a higher starting salaryand offered more career mentoring to the male applicant."-Corinne A. Moss-Racusin, 2012
HIERARCHY Amount of women is smaller the closer you get tohigher hierarchy, more competitive and morevalued tasks. The way women lead differs frommen and sometimes this is understood as aweakness instead of resource. Sometimes womenare too critical, as men seem to see themselvescompetent for the task when women are stillconsidering. Lack of rolemodels, prejudices, coordination of family and worklife, work distribution and possible sexualharassment are all factors.
―women who present themselves as confident andambitious in job interviews are viewed as highlycompetent but also lacking social skills. Womenwho present themselves as modest andcooperative, while well liked, are perceived as lowon competence. By contrast, confident andambitious male candidates are viewed as bothcompetent and likable and therefore are more likelyto be hired as a manager than either confident ormodest women.‖- Psychology of Women Quarterly, Julie E.Phelan, 2008
WOMEN IN POWER , POLITICAL AND HUMANITARIAN―Thatcherism‖ was both substantial and essentially aboutpolitical economy. Thatcher introduced a series of political and economicinitiatives to reverse what she perceived to be Britain’sprecipitous national decline. Margaret Thatcher revitalised Britain’s economy, curbedthe trade unions, and re-established the nation as a worldpower. She has been criticised as being divisive and forpromoting greed and selfishness. In terms of modern day politics she was the mostpowerful and influential women.
The Princess developed an intense interest inserious illnesses and health-related mattersoutside the purview of traditional royalinvolvement, including AIDS and leprosy.In addition, she was the patroness of charitiesand organisations working with thehomeless, youth, drug addicts, and the elderly.In 2007, Tina Brown wrote a biography aboutDiana as ―restless and demanding ... obsessedwith her public image‖ and also a―spiteful, manipulative, media-savvy neurotic.‖―one of the most beloved female public figures―
THE GLASS CEILINGDEFINITION"A gender or racial difference thatis not explained by other job-relevantcharacteristics of the employee.――the unseen, yet unbreachable barrier thatkeeps minorities and women from rising to theupper rungs of the corporateladder, regardless of their qualifications orachievementsThe Pipeline Theory describes the situation inwhich women are placed on a track that wouldeventually promote them to a top executiveposition. However, this process is long, andwomen sometimes spend 20–35 years in thepipeline waiting to advance to CEO positions
STATISTICS While there is a slight upward trend in the number of women leaders, theoverall figures are still very low. In business leadership in 2009, women held49% of the jobs in the U.S. and 50% of all managerial positions. In 2010 only 2.4% of the U.S. Fortune 500 chief executives were female. Inthe FTSE 500 the statistics are even worse--only 1.8% of its companies areled by women. Womens access to boardroom seats is alsotroubling, particularly in the U.S. and U.K. In the FTSE 100, forexample, 12.5% of directors are women, a tiny improvement on the 12.2% in2009 and 11.7% in 2008.
REFERENCES Perkin, Joan (1993). Victorian Women. London: John Murray(Publishers) Ltd. p. 189. ISBN 0-7195-4955-8. Davis, R.L: "The Social and Cultural Life of the 1920s" p.10.Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1972 Walker, R.H: "Life in the Age of Enterprise" p. 120-121. Capricorn Books.1971 Green, E:"The Uncertainty of Everyday Life, 1915-1945" p. 57-58.HarperCollins 1992 Goldin, Claudia. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed WomensEmployment, Education and Family. The American EconomicReview, Vol. 96, No. 2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21. http://www.economist.com/node/21549953 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/65f494e6-f5e7-11e1-a6c2-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2PrGfqZuJ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/jobs/9519251/EC-could-fine-companies-if-they-miss-female-board-quota.html Morris, A. and Nott, S. (1991) Working Women and the Law :Equality and Discrimination in Theory and Practice