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  • 1. Porifera & Cnidaria
    Chapter 35
    KianatZamir, Molly Bicksler & Rebecca Krick
  • 2. Songes- Porifera
    Sponges are classified into the animal phylum Porifera, meaning, “pore bearer.”
  • 3. Sponges- Sessiles
    A sponge is a sessile because “sessile” attach themselves to a surface and stay stuck. This is the type of behavior a sponge practices in it’s environment.
  • 4. Sponges- Variations
    Sponges vary in almost every way:
    Size & shape- 1cm to 2 meters
    Color
    Cactus & moss like
    Blob or fungus like
    Over 10,000 species
  • 5. Sponges- Collar Cells & Osculum
    Sponges have 2 cylinders lined with collar cells that have flagella to help penetrate the sponge with water. This water eaves through the osculum, the opening at the top of the sponge.
  • 6. Sponges- Collar Cells & Osculum
  • 7. Sponges: Spongin vs. Spicules
    Spongin:
    fibers that give the sponge it’s shape & keep it from collapsing
    Spicules:
    Skeleton made of tiny calcium carbonate or little spikes of silicon dioxide
  • 8. Sponges – FilterFeeding
    Most sponges feed by screening food out of the water that the collar cells pump through their body since they cannot pursue their food.
    Nutrients pass from the collar cells to other cells that crawl about within the body wall, bringing nutrients to the rest of the body.
    This niche is important in nature because carbon dioxide and other wastes produced by the sponge’s cells diffuse into the water passing through the sponge. Which helps to clean out the water of bacteria and other diseases.
  • 9. Sponge Reproduction
    Regeneration : is the ability to regrow missing parts; its important in sponge reproduction because even a small piece of sponge can regenerate into a complete new sponge.
    Mobile Larva: sperm is released into the water from one sponge and enters the pores of another sponge. Collar cells in the second sponge engulf the sperm and transfer them to amebocytes which carry the sperm to an egg. After the egg is fertilized it develops into larva.
  • 10. Phylum Cnidaria
  • Polyp vs. Medusa
    Polyp – has a vase shaped, elongated form with a thin body wall, its tentacles pointing up; its specialized for sessile existence.
    Medusa –has a bell shaped round form with a thick body wall, with its tentacles dangling; its specialized for swimming
  • 13. Cnidaria Characteristics
    Gastrovascular Cavity – a hollow in the center of the body which has a single opening, or mouth.
    Tentacles –flexible extensions which surround the mouth.
    Cnidocytes – specialized cells used for defense and capturing prey. In some cnidarians, the cnidocytes are concentrated in the epidermis, especially on the tentacles.
  • 14. Cnidaria Characteristics