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  1. 1. Submitted To: Submitted By: Prof. Paras Dhawan KhushbooKapoor MCA 4 th B Roll No:30
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is Smart Dust? </li></ul><ul><li>“ SMART DUST” is an autonomous sensing, computing, communication and power source in a cubic millimeter </li></ul><ul><li>Conceived by Dr. Kris Pister of UC Berkeley </li></ul><ul><li>Small devices that can collect information from on-board sensors and transmit it over a wireless network that automatically sets itself up </li></ul><ul><li>Also called “Motes” </li></ul><ul><li>Possible sensors include temperature, relative humidity, illumination, acceleration, magnetic field, pressure, chemical vapors, camera, microphone, … </li></ul><ul><li>These “motes” have memories, microprocessor, </li></ul><ul><li> radio receiver and transmitter </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Smart Dust Components </li></ul>
  4. 4. Contd… <ul><li>Thick film battery: 1mm 3 , 1 J storage </li></ul><ul><li>Power capacitor: 0.25mm 3 , 1uJ storage </li></ul><ul><li>Solar cell: 1x1x0.1mm 3 , 0.1mW generation </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS controller: 1x1x0.1mm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor: 0.5x0.5x0.1mm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Passive CCR comm: 0.5x0.5x0.1mm 3 , 10kbps, 1uW, 1km </li></ul><ul><li>Active laser comm: 1x0.5x0.1mm 3 , 1Mbps, 10mW, 10km </li></ul><ul><li>Total volume: < 1.5 mm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Total mass: < 5 mgm </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Smart Dust Networking </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of motes is dispersed in an environment </li></ul><ul><li>Motes use wireless communications to relay information to a base station (gateway) over distances of 15-50 m. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How the communication occurs? <ul><li>microcontroller that not only determines the task performed by the mote, but consists of the power to the various components of the system to conserve energy. </li></ul><ul><li>gets a reading from one of the sensors, which measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli and store it in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>turns on optical receiver to see if anyone is trying to communicate with it. </li></ul><ul><li>This may include new programs or messages from other motes. </li></ul><ul><li>In response to a message or upon its own initiative, the microcontroller will use the corner cube retro reflector(CCR) or laser to transmit sensor data or a message to a base station or another mote. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Its Battery: <ul><li>The main moto is to design motes is volume, which in turn puts a severe constraint on energy since we do not have much room for batteries or large solar cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The motes must operate efficiently and conserve energy whenever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of the mote is powered off with only a clock and a few timers running. When a timer expires, it powers up a part of the mote to carry out a job, then powers off. </li></ul><ul><li>A few of the timers control the sensors that measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>When timer expires, it powers up the sensor, takes a sample, and converts it to a digital word. Data may either be stored directly in the SRAM or the microcontroller is powered up to perform more complex operations with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Task is over, everything is again powered down and the timer begins counting. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Communication ways <ul><li>It can be in 3 ways </li></ul><ul><li>Radio-Frequency Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Communication: passive dust mode transmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Communication: active dust mode transmitters </li></ul>
  9. 9. Radio-Frequency Communications <ul><li>Radio frequency communication is one of the well-developed communication systems. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on the generation, propagation and detection of electromagnetic waves with a frequency range from tens of kHz to hundreds of GHz. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be used to function as both the uplink and the downlink. </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not severely affected by rain, fog or atmospheric turbulence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna may be too large for dust motes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires modulator, demodulator, filtering (power consumption) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires complex multiplexing scheme (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Optical Communication (Passive Dust Mote Transmitters) <ul><li>Attractive communication option for uplink and downlink </li></ul>
  11. 11. Corner Cube Reflector (CCR)
  12. 12. Contd... <ul><ul><li>Requires each dust mote to have a line-of-sight path to the base station. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplink transmissions are multiplexed using space-division multiplexing. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. (Active Dust Mote Transmitter) Two-axis beam steering assembly Active dust mote transmitter <ul><li>It uses an active steered onboard laser diode based transmitter to send a collimated laser beam to a station </li></ul>
  14. 14. Contd… <ul><ul><li>It consist of a laser diode, collimating mirror and beam steering mirrors for the communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is suitable for peer to peer communication. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Forest Fire Detection <ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Drop smart dust from an airplane </li></ul><ul><li>Motes self-organize into a network </li></ul><ul><li>Usage </li></ul><ul><li>A mote that detects a fire notifies central monitoring station </li></ul><ul><li>The mote’s location is the approximate location of the fire. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Spotting Pipe Corrosion <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect pipes without crawling in tight spaces </li></ul><ul><li>No need to remove insulation to inspect pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Up to date status </li></ul>
  17. 17. Other Applications are: <ul><li>Security and Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Wellness Monitoring (enter human bodies and check for physiological problems ). </li></ul><ul><li>Factory and Process Automation . </li></ul><ul><li>Seismic and Structural Monitoring . </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor traffic and redirecting it . </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart dust motes incorporate sensing, computation, communications and power in a mm 3 volume. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-space optical communication offers advantages in terms of size, power and network throughput. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software and hardware are open-source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many potential civilian and military applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promising technology if cost goes down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On regulatory aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate their impact on existing services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low power device </li></ul></ul>