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  • 1. Submitted To: Submitted By: Prof. Paras Dhawan KhushbooKapoor MCA 4 th B Roll No:30
  • 2.
    • What is Smart Dust?
    • “ SMART DUST” is an autonomous sensing, computing, communication and power source in a cubic millimeter
    • Conceived by Dr. Kris Pister of UC Berkeley
    • Small devices that can collect information from on-board sensors and transmit it over a wireless network that automatically sets itself up
    • Also called “Motes”
    • Possible sensors include temperature, relative humidity, illumination, acceleration, magnetic field, pressure, chemical vapors, camera, microphone, …
    • These “motes” have memories, microprocessor,
    • radio receiver and transmitter
  • 3.
    • Smart Dust Components
  • 4. Contd…
    • Thick film battery: 1mm 3 , 1 J storage
    • Power capacitor: 0.25mm 3 , 1uJ storage
    • Solar cell: 1x1x0.1mm 3 , 0.1mW generation
    • CMOS controller: 1x1x0.1mm 3
    • Sensor: 0.5x0.5x0.1mm 3
    • Passive CCR comm: 0.5x0.5x0.1mm 3 , 10kbps, 1uW, 1km
    • Active laser comm: 1x0.5x0.1mm 3 , 1Mbps, 10mW, 10km
    • Total volume: < 1.5 mm 3
    • Total mass: < 5 mgm
  • 5.
    • Smart Dust Networking
    • A collection of motes is dispersed in an environment
    • Motes use wireless communications to relay information to a base station (gateway) over distances of 15-50 m.
  • 6. How the communication occurs?
    • microcontroller that not only determines the task performed by the mote, but consists of the power to the various components of the system to conserve energy.
    • gets a reading from one of the sensors, which measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli and store it in memory.
    • turns on optical receiver to see if anyone is trying to communicate with it.
    • This may include new programs or messages from other motes.
    • In response to a message or upon its own initiative, the microcontroller will use the corner cube retro reflector(CCR) or laser to transmit sensor data or a message to a base station or another mote.
  • 7. Its Battery:
    • The main moto is to design motes is volume, which in turn puts a severe constraint on energy since we do not have much room for batteries or large solar cells.
    • The motes must operate efficiently and conserve energy whenever possible.
    • The majority of the mote is powered off with only a clock and a few timers running. When a timer expires, it powers up a part of the mote to carry out a job, then powers off.
    • A few of the timers control the sensors that measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure.
    • When timer expires, it powers up the sensor, takes a sample, and converts it to a digital word. Data may either be stored directly in the SRAM or the microcontroller is powered up to perform more complex operations with it.
    • Task is over, everything is again powered down and the timer begins counting.
  • 8. Communication ways
    • It can be in 3 ways
    • Radio-Frequency Communications
    • Optical Communication: passive dust mode transmitters
    • Optical Communication: active dust mode transmitters
  • 9. Radio-Frequency Communications
    • Radio frequency communication is one of the well-developed communication systems.
    • It is based on the generation, propagation and detection of electromagnetic waves with a frequency range from tens of kHz to hundreds of GHz.
    • It could be used to function as both the uplink and the downlink.
    • Pros
      • Long range
      • Not severely affected by rain, fog or atmospheric turbulence
    • Cons
      • Antenna may be too large for dust motes
      • Requires modulator, demodulator, filtering (power consumption)
      • Requires complex multiplexing scheme (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA)
  • 10. Optical Communication (Passive Dust Mote Transmitters)
    • Attractive communication option for uplink and downlink
  • 11. Corner Cube Reflector (CCR)
  • 12. Contd...
      • Requires each dust mote to have a line-of-sight path to the base station.
      • Uplink transmissions are multiplexed using space-division multiplexing.
  • 13. (Active Dust Mote Transmitter) Two-axis beam steering assembly Active dust mote transmitter
    • It uses an active steered onboard laser diode based transmitter to send a collimated laser beam to a station
  • 14. Contd…
      • It consist of a laser diode, collimating mirror and beam steering mirrors for the communication.
      • It is suitable for peer to peer communication.
  • 15. Forest Fire Detection
    • Implementation
    • Drop smart dust from an airplane
    • Motes self-organize into a network
    • Usage
    • A mote that detects a fire notifies central monitoring station
    • The mote’s location is the approximate location of the fire.
  • 16. Spotting Pipe Corrosion
    • Benefits
    • Inspect pipes without crawling in tight spaces
    • No need to remove insulation to inspect pipe
    • Up to date status
  • 17. Other Applications are:
    • Security and Tracking
    • Health and Wellness Monitoring (enter human bodies and check for physiological problems ).
    • Factory and Process Automation .
    • Seismic and Structural Monitoring .
    • Monitor traffic and redirecting it .
  • 18.
      • Smart dust motes incorporate sensing, computation, communications and power in a mm 3 volume.
      • Free-space optical communication offers advantages in terms of size, power and network throughput.
      • On the technology
      • Software and hardware are open-source
      • Many potential civilian and military applications
      • Promising technology if cost goes down
    • On regulatory aspects
      • Investigate their impact on existing services
      • Low power device
  • 19.