Behavioral approach

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  • 1. BehavioralApproach
  • 2. What Is Motivation? Direction Intensity or driving Persistence forcePrentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 2
  • 3. Intensity
  • 4. Direction
  • 5. Its not that Im sosmart, its just that I stay with problems longer .Persistence
  • 6. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)Considered to be the founder of humanistic psychology.
  • 7. theory of human needs had three assumptions: Human needs are never completely satisfied. Human behavior is purposeful and is motivated by the need for satisfaction. Needs can be classified according to a hierarchical structure of importance from the lowest to highest.
  • 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Self-Actualization  Esteem(appreciation)  Social need  Safety  Physiological
  • 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs MOST NEEDS HAVE TO DO WITH SURVIVAL PHYSICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
  • 10. Physical needs What did Maslow mean by physical Food needs? Water What physical needs Air do every person Shelter have? ClothingThese are essential for good health and well-being, and for continuation of life.
  • 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVEL UNLESS NEEDS BELOW ARE SATISFIED SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
  • 12. Safety and Security Needs Staying well, avoiding being ill Avoiding danger or Safe circumstances Stability
  • 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SOCIAL NEED SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
  • 14. Social needs Friends, family,affectionate relationships in general, even a sense of community
  • 15. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ESTEEM NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
  • 16. The Esteem needs Self-esteem – The need for the respect from others, the need for status, fame, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, even dominance. Individual level – Confidence, competence, dignity,achievement, independence and freedom
  • 17. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs NEED FOR SELF- ACTUALIZATIONMASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIME MOTIVATION
  • 18. SELF-ACTUALIZATION MEANS ACTUALIZING Who am I?????How am I doing????
  • 19. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs NEED SELF- ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
  • 20. Maslow’s view on a Self-actualized Person Has mental stability Fully explore talents Motivated by values
  • 21.  Implications for Management Physiological needs: Provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety Needs: Provide a safe working environment and job security. Social Needs: Create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events.
  • 22.  Esteem Needs: Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization: Provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential with value based approach.
  • 23.  Limitations of Maslows Hierarchy There is evidence that contradicts the order of needs specified by the model. For example, some cultures appear to place social needs before any others There is little evidence to suggest that people are motivated to satisfy only one need level at a time, except in situations where there is a conflict between needs.
  • 24. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs General Organizational Examples Examples Self- Self- Actualization Actualization Challenging Self-Fulfillment Job Needs Needs Status Esteem Needs Esteem Needs Job Title Family, Friendly work Friendship Social Needs Social Needs environment Stability Security Needs Security Needs Job securityFood,Shelter Physiological Needs Physiological Needs Salary
  • 25. Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) – To understand human behavior, one must discover the theoretical assumptions upon which behavior is based – Especially interested in the behavior of managers toward workers – “Every managerial act rests on assumptions, generalizations, and hypotheses- – Theory X - – Theory Y - – FOCUS: Manager’s assumptions about HUMAN NATURE
  • 26. McGregor’s Beliefs Employees are not machine parts to be fixed, redesigned, or eliminated They are individual people in all of their complexity
  • 27. McGregor’s Contribution to Management Theory Theory X assumptions The average person dislikes work and will avoid it Most people must be controlled People avoid responsibility and have little ambition
  • 28. McGregor’s Contribution to Management Theory Theory Y assumptions Physical and mental work effort are natural Commitment is a function of proper rewards People learn to seek responsibility People have the ability to creatively solve organizational problems Employees need the freedom to utilize their potential
  • 29. Theory X and Theory YTheory X Theory Y Avoid Work is Natural Work Must be Self- Controlled Direction Avoid Seek Responsibility Responsibility Good Decisions, Seek Security creativity
  • 30.  Theory X... management through: force tight controls threats punishments
  • 31.  Theory Y... management through: open systems communication self-managing teams