The construction sector is an important part
of the Indian economy with a contribution of
10% in GDP
It has a registered annual growth of 9%.
The Indian brick industry is the second
largest producer of bricks in the world after
THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR IN
The brick production in India is estimated at
140 billion bricks, consuming 24 million
tonnes of coal along with huge quantity of
Brick production in India takes place in
small units, using manual labor and
traditional firing technologies.
The industry is estimated to consume 350
million tonne of top soil every year.
Mortarless technology is directly
associated with interlocking
The history of interlocking bricks
started in the early 1900s with the
construction of toys for children’s
McKusick (1997), Love and
Of these various systems, Lego has
the most similarity to walling.
HISTORY OF INTERLOCKING
Since 1970s the interlocking mortarless
bricks/blocks for house construction, made
from sand-cement, stabilized soil and
burnt/baked soil, have been pioneered in
Africa, Canada, the Middle East and India.
THE PROCESS OF
Interlocking earthen bricks are produced
according to the following steps: extraction
→ preparation → mixing → pressing →
Storage of the materials or products is also
necessary in each step.
Moreover, a ready supply of cement and
water and soil tests to assure the product
quality at any given point in the production
process are indispensable.
Can be produced at or near the site –
reduced transportation cost
Green technology – Zero carbon emission
Uses local available materials
Reduces the need for skilled labor
Maximize the use of unskilled labor
Faster to build – shortens construction time
Creates local employment
Permits self-help construction or
community based projects
Can be used to build all types of buildings
WHY INTERLOCKING BRICKS?
Load bearing construction system
No need for mortar between 2 layers of bricks
Reduces reinforcements as it eliminates concrete
lintels, beams and columns
Cement based and Reinforced wall – resists fire, wind
Modular - No material wastage
Simple construction – with little training unskilled
labor can be used to build the buildings
Cost-effective construction system
Can be use as composite structure
Initial cost for the equipments and trainings might
seem big amount, but once it is in place, it will show
that it is much cost – effective than traditional
Construction cost can be reduced as much as 50%
in comparison with conventional system depending
upon the local price.
Thailand - 20% to 40%
Bhutan - 40% to 50%
Nepal - 13% to 30%
The site is now Peru's most-visited
The entire city is constructed from
interlocking walls of smooth,
polished stones. Without using
mortar, the Inca fit the stones
together like an immense jigsaw
puzzle. Their work was so precise
that, even after centuries of
earthquakes, in many places it's
still impossible to slip a piece of
paper between the seams of two
Machu Picchu stones.
It is a historical edifice with
such a marvelous architecture
that even modern architects
seem to be perplexed by its
The roof has been put together
with interlocking bricks
without using a beam or a
girder. Hence, it is viewed as a
unique achievement of
Pumapunkis part of a large
temple complex or monument
group that is part of the
Tiwanaku Site near
In assembling the walls of
Pumapunku, each stone was
finely cut to interlock with the
surrounding stones and the
blocks fit together like a puzzle,
forming load-bearing joints
without the use of mortar.
Umaid Bhawan Palace is one of
the most popular edifices of the
Jodhpur city of Rajasthan.
An interesting feature of the
palace is that no mortar or
cement was used in its
construction. Rather, carved
stones were used and joined
together by a system of
interlocking positive and
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