Cognitive learning theory


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Presentation deals with the factors that impact on the learning process as posited by Piaget, Bloom, Bruner and Ausubel

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  • more concerned with learning processes than content
  • Cognitive learning theory

    2. 2. Basis and Focus • Basis: Principles of cognitive psychology • Focus: Role of cognitive processes in learning
    3. 3. Focus • The mental processes involved in learning: – Observing, categorizing, forming generalizations to make sense of the information provided
    4. 4. Main Assumptions • Learning results from internal mental activity and not from externally imposed stimuli
    5. 5. • The learner comes with knowledge, skills and related experiences to the learning situation
    6. 6. Role of the Learner • Active participant in the learning process, using various strategies to process and construct their personal understanding of the content to which they are exposed
    7. 7. Piaget, Bloom, Bruner, Ausubel • Each of these psychologists focused on different cognitive conditions that impact on learning
    8. 8. Jean Piaget • Constructed models of child development and the learning process • Identified 4 developmental stages and the cognitive processes associated with each of them
    9. 9. Developmental Stages • Sensory-motor - understands his environment through the basic senses • Intuitive /Pre-operational - Thoughts more flexible, memory and imagination begin to play a part in learning, capable of more creativity
    10. 10. • Concrete Operational – Can go beyond the basic information given, but still dependent on concrete material and examples to support reasoning • Formal Operational – Abstract reasoning becomes increasingly possible
    11. 11. Accommodation • Accommodation – The process by which we modify what we already know to take into account the new information
    12. 12. Assimilation • The process by which new knowledge is changed / modified / merged in our minds to fit into what we already know
    13. 13. Equilibration • The balance between what is known and what is currently being processed, mastery of the new material
    14. 14. Implications for the Classroom • Learning is the process of relating new information with what was previously learnt • Learning is cumulative
    15. 15. Implications • Learners should be assigned tasks that are age and stage appropriate
    16. 16. Bloom’s Taxonomy • Identifies and describes, in hierarchical order, the cognitive processes involved in learning
    17. 17. Implication for Teaching • Use verbs aligned to the taxonomy to plan lessons that would ensure that learners’ cognitive skills develop from LOTS to HOTS
    18. 18. Revised Taxonomy • The original taxonomy has now been revised to make provision for the new knowledge and skills that now exist as a result of the integration of web 2.0 tools in teaching
    19. 19. Original and Revised Taxonomies
    20. 20. Bloom (Rev.) and Web 2.0
    21. 21. Jerome Bruner - Focus Development of conceptual understanding, cognitive skills and learning strategies rather than the acquisition of knowledge
    22. 22. Bruner’s Focus • Teaching Approach - Learners should be encouraged to discover solutions via appropriate tasks which require the application of relevant critical thinking skills
    23. 23. Bruner – Modes of Thinking • Extended aspects of Piaget’s theory. He identified three ways in which learners process information
    24. 24. • Enactive Level – learning takes place via direct manipulation of objects and materials
    25. 25. • Iconic Level – Objects are represented by visual images and are recognized for what they represent
    26. 26. • Symbolic Level – Learning can take place using symbols, objects and mental images. Language is used to represent thoughts and experiences
    27. 27. Implications for Teaching • Providing opportunities for learners to be actively engaged in making sense of the language input, through meaningful tasks
    28. 28. • Providing opportunities for learners to develop the ability to analyze the language, make generalizations about rules, take risks in trying out the language, and to learn from errors
    29. 29. • Catering for interaction of learner with curriculum material and the learning environment • Catering for the three modes of thinking (Bruner)
    30. 30. • The Spiral Process: The cumulative nature of learning requires frequent opportunities for reviewing previously learnt material even as new material is introduced.
    31. 31. David Ausubel - Focus • Stressed the importance of active mental participation in meaningful learning tasks • Learning must be meaningful to be effective and permanent
    32. 32. • Made a distinction between meaningful learning and rote learning • Meaningful Learning – relatable to what one already knows so it can be easily integrated in one’s existing cognitive structure
    33. 33. • Rote Learning – the material to be learnt is not integrated / subsumed into an existing cognitive structure but learnt as isolated pieces of information
    34. 34. Implications for Classroom • Teacher has to enhance the meaningfulness of new material to increase the chances of its being anchored to what is already known
    35. 35. • New material must be organized to be easily relatable to what is already known • New material must be appropriately sequenced to facilitate integration
    36. 36. • Use of advance organizers. These facilitate the learning process by providing ideas to which the new knowledge can be attached
    37. 37. Advance Organizers • Introductory material presented in advance of the new material • Information that activates relevant background knowledge
    38. 38. Advance Organizers • Material that orients learners to the subject matter and relates new learning to what is already known • Can take the form of textual material, pictures, titles, topic summaries, questions
    39. 39. Attention should be given to: • The need to organize and structure meaningful learning activities. • The requirements of the task must be appropriate to the developmental stage (Piaget, Bruner) and allow for the development of HOTS (Bloom)
    40. 40. Moving from LOTS to HOTS