A needs assessment for a school of nursing[1]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

A needs assessment for a school of nursing[1]

on

  • 6,845 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
6,845
Views on SlideShare
6,845
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • The following is a non-thesis project presentation submitted to the College of Arts and Sciences, in the Nursing Department at Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia on April 20th 2010 This project was conducted in order to partially fulfill the requirements for a Master of Science in Nursing Education Degree at Liberty Univesity.
  • The project is a Needs Assessment that was conducted at a College of Nursing in Malawi. Malawi is located in South-Eastern Africa as highlighted and shown on the map in the color RED. Malawi is landlocked between Mozambique to the east and south, Zambia to the west, and Tanzania to the north. Malawi is separated from Mozambique and Tanzania by a large extent of it’s Lake Malawi, which lies on the country's eastern edge. The immense extent of Lake Malawi accounts for 20 percent of Malawi's 45,745 square miles of total area. Therefore, despite Malawi's inland location, the country has a sizeable coastal area.
  • First, I will introduce the project to you, by telling you some details regarding the people of Malawi This will be followed by a summary of the current problems in Malawi, especially those that impact Nursing and Healthcare.At the end, I will discuss possible ways we can come up with solutions to address Malawi’s healthcare and nursing crisis.
  • As previously located on the map, Malawi is an east sub-Saharan African country with deficient assets and resources and a largely unskilled personnel. There is a need for training for skilled workers in Malawi, that includes nurses, nurse assistants, nursing technicians, midwife technicians and other medical personnel (Kelly, 2001).
  • Malawi, also known as the Warm Heart of Africa, for the friendliest, welcoming and peaceful people, currently boasts a Human population of 14 million people.
  • Malawi, has one of the lowest life expectancies in the world of only 41 years of age. This is appalling when compared to the life expectancy of 82.6 for Japan, 79.4 for United Kingdom, of 79.4 for the United States.
  • All this explains why in part, Malawi is a current likely site for present and future humanitarian and missionary efforts for it’s rankas one of the poorest countries in the world.The poverty in Malawi, is currently complicated by the current healthcare crisis.
  • Currently,The healthcare infrastructure in Malawi, has been destroyed by interconnected factors that involve poverty, famine and lack of personnel.According to Avert International (an AIDS Charity Project), Out of Malawi’s 14 million, almost one million people in Malawi are living with HIV.11. UNGASS Country Progress Report (2010) 'Malawi HIV and AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Report: 2008-2009'
  • It is clearly apparent that nurses and nursing educators in Malawi are challenged by an exaggerated nurse shortage that is at a much bigger scale incomparable to what is seen in most developed nations today. In a telephone interview with Jacinta Mtengezo, the Director of Education for the Nurses and Midwives Council of Malawi. Between the years 2000- 2008, there were 614 Nurses and midwives who migrated to other practice in other develop countries after training in Malawi. These nurses seek better working and living conditions and better wages for themselves and their families in other countries that are also experiencing a nursing shortage.
  • 1).
  • According to the Malawi Nurses and Midwives Council Records, there are 13 Nursing Training Schools in Malawi:# 1., on the shown mapEkwendeni College is a very small and rural training school located in northern Malawi and trains nurse-midwife technicians.# 2. on the shown map is St. Johns College. It is the college of focus for this project and it is located in northern Malawi as well and it trains nurse-midwife technicians#3 on the map is St. John of God College It is located adjacent to # 2 trains psychiatric nurse technicians# 4. on the map is Mzuzu University . Also located in the northern region of Malawi. This university has just recently started offering the bachelors of science-registered nursing degree. It will graduate its first class in another next year.# 5. on the map is the Kamuzu College of Nursing (with campuses in Malawi’s capital of Lilongwe and Blantyre, the biggest city in Malawi’s southern region).Kamuzu College o f Nursing offers the bachelor's degree in registered nursing.# 6 on the map is Malawi College of Health Sciences, which has 3 campuses as follows: Campus 6a on the map is in Lilongwe , Malawi’s capital in the central region. This campus trains community health nurse technicians. Campus 6b on the map is located in Blantyre. This campus trains nurses who want to upgrade their credentials to a bachelor in registered nursing. Campus 6c is located in Zomba, a small rural city located in Malawi’s southern region. This campus trains nurse-midwife technicians and offers psychiatry for nurse-midwife technicians.Campuses 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 are Mulanje College, St. Luke's College, St. Joseph's College,Trinity College,Holy Family College and Malamulo College respectively. These are all very small and rurual colleges, located in the southern region of Malawi and responsible for the training of nurse-midwife technicians.While Nkhoma College is # 8 on the map. It is located in the central region and also trains nurse-midwife technicians as well.
  • Here is an example of an Image published in the American Journal of Nursing Issue of June 2009 which depicts hundreds of women and children who wait for a mobile clinic to arrive, usually staffed by a nurse midwife technician and a medical assistant in rural Malawi.
  • Here is another picture of a nurse at work in a rural mission hospital in northern Malawi.
  • Now, let me take the time to introduce to you my Needs Assessment Project.I am thankful for the opportunity to conduct this project at a Small, but mighty College of Nursing in northern Malawi called St. John’s College of Nursing. The project was conducted between 2010 and 2011. Activities for this project included 2 site visits, phone and personal interviews and e-mails.I am thankful of the generous contributions in information by Lily Thindwa, the college principal and Kondwani Banda, the College Librarian.
  • First, I would like to outline the project goals and objectives that were identified PRIOR to the beginning of this Needs Assessment Project in Malawi.
  • The comprehensive goal for this needs assessment was to allow opportunities for globalization and collaboration in Nursing Education.Nurses and educators around the world will have a better understanding of nursing education, nursing practice and challenges that are real and faced by fellow nurses and nurse educators in a country like Malawi.This is important in today’s world as we take a different and more definitive and meaningful stand to curb global health challenges. I will never forget looking at the amount of donated expired medications and supplies in a rural Malawian hospital. I wondered:Did these donations make news headlines in the country of origin?Is the answer to this crisis?It was obvious, that the nurses and medical personnel at this hospital were aware that these donations not useful and would need to be discarded at their institutions expense.Only in knowing and collaborating in globalization can we come up with real, definite and useful answers to the health crises in the world, like one that is present in Malawi today.
  • So, the first objective is to give out information that can be utilized for such thing as:nursing research, nursing education,Relevant healthcare infrastructureenhancements in Malawi & other strategic planning activities by all those who will chose to be concerned an get involved in changing the outcome of the future of nursing and healthcare in Malawi.
  • Secondly, it is apparent that very little is known about Malawi. This project hopes to provide an awareness among interested individuals in the global healthcare and nursing communities regarding nursing issues in Malawi.
  • Thirdly, in doing this project and sharing the results with the faculty and staff at St. John’s College of Nursing and other nursing schools in this region of Africa, I hope that the results will evoke an action that will perpetuate to providean entrance platform for Malawi’s nursing leaders into the global nursing professional dialogue regarding solutions to global health problems.
  • Lastly, this project allows opportunities for nursing leaders, students and professionals to learn various ways of enhancing theircurriculum in order to include globalization and awareness of worldviews that pertain to nursing and nursing education.
  • St. JOHN’S MISSIONHOSPITAL-, LOCATED IN MZUZU, MALAWIIs a 215-bed Mission Hospital that was established in 1962 by the Catholic order sisters.
  • Many patients coming from the rural country side, are brought in by their relatives on a “bicycle ambulance”
  • This hospital, even though it might be small in size, has a large catchment area that includes the City of Mzuzu and the surrounding countryside of most of the northern region of Malawi.
  • The hospital sees various types of complex and advanced disease processes, which include malaria, Tuberculosis, Cholera, Bilhazia, Skin infections, complicated childbirth and deliveries.The hospital has a Male Ward, a Female Ward, a Pediatric Ward, a Tuberculosis Ward, a Maternity Ward,a Premature Baby Ward and a Nutrition Ward. The maternity unit at this hospital delivers over 2000 babies a year!
  • Hospital services includea small pharmacy- where medications are dispensed to the patient population.a small laboratory- where very basic laboratory services are conductedan X-ray department- where basic x-rays can be doneand an Operating Theatre- where basic surgeries and basic specialized medical careThe hospital severely lacks in emergency medical management services and training and does not have an ambulance staffed with people trained in advanced life support measures.
  • The nursing school is located across the street from the hospital. All clinical rotations are conducted at the hospital. Nursing students are given various duties at the hospital and they assist in staffing the hospital.
  • Data will be collected using a written questionnaire that will also be available for emailing. An attempt will be made to make this questionnaire available to first year, second year and third year nursing students at St. John’s Nursing School in Mzuzu, Malawi. To answer the first research question, study participants will be evaluated utilizing a data collection tool that has being formulated by modifying the Minimal Data Set for the Evaluation of International Nurses. This tool was originally developed and approved by the National Council of State Board of Nursing (NCSBN) Delegate Assembly during the NCSBN annual meeting in 2004. This tool was developed to be used by evaluating agencies to evaluate international nurse’s credentials, education and training. A tool will be developed to answer to second research question.

A needs assessment for a school of nursing[1] A needs assessment for a school of nursing[1] Presentation Transcript

  • 1
    A Non- Thesis Project Presentation
    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of:
    Master of Science in Nursing EducationCollege of Arts and SciencesNursing DepartmentLiberty UniversityLynchburg, VAApril 20th 2010
  • 2
    A Needs Assessment Project Presentation for a College of Nursing in Malawi, Africa
    by:
    By:
    Khataza Jessie Wheatley RN BSN
  • 3
    Project Introduction
  • Introduction- Malawi
    4
    Malawi is an east sub-Saharan African country with deficient assets and resources and a largely unskilled personnel (Kelly, 2001).
  • Introduction –Malawi
    5
    Well known as the "warm heart of Africa” around the region for its friendliest people in all of Africa, this small country boasts a human population of 14 million.
  • Introduction – MALAWI
    6
    With a life expectancy of only 41 years, Malawi also has one of the lowest life expectancies in the world for its population (Gorman & Hohmuth-Lemonick, 2009).
  • Introduction- Malawi
    7
    Malawi is a likely site for present and future philanthropy enterprises as it ranks as one of the poorest countries in the world.
  • Introduction –Malawi
    8
    The healthcare infrastructure in Malawi,
    has been complicated by issues of poverty, famine and lack of healthcare workers which yield to :
    One of the world’s worst rates of the
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    (HIV) and AIDS infection !!
  • Introduction- Malawi
    9
    It is clearly apparent that nurses and nursing educators in Malawi are challenged by an exaggerated nurse shortage that is at a much bigger scale incomparable to what is seen in most developed nations today.
  • Introduction –Malawi
    10
    The nursing shortage is due to the Malawi’s numbers of healthcare worker and nurse emigration rates( Taha, 1996).
  • Introduction –Malawi
    11
    Nursing Training Schools in Malawi
    Ekwendeni College
    St. John’s College
    St. John of God College
    Mzuzu University
    Kamuzu College of Nursing ( 2 )
    Malawi College of Health Sciences (3)
    Mulanje College
    Nkhoma College
    St. Luke’s College
    St. Joseph College
    Trinity College
    Holy Family College
    Malamulo College
    #4
    #2
    #1
    #3
    #6A
    #5a
    #8
    #6C
    #9
    #10
    #11
    #5B
    #11
    #12
    #6B
    #7
    #13
  • Image Shows Hundreds of women and children wait patiently-the occasional temper tantrum aside-for the mobile clinic to arrive in Emazwini, Malawi. (Northern Region)
    12
    Image:
    Gorman, Christine; Hohmuth-Lemonick, Eileen
    AJN The American Journal of Nursing. 109(6):26-30, June 2009.
    doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000352461.20307.e3
  • Image Shows, Northern Region, Malawi:Embangweni Mission Hospital in rural northern Malawi, nurse WalinaseNdovi takes the temperature of a child who is suspected of having malaria. Thanks to a combination of education, prevention, and treatment efforts, the death rate from malaria among children in this area has fallen dramatically over the past five years
    13
    Image:
    Gorman, Christine; Hohmuth-Lemonick, Eileen
    AJN The American Journal of Nursing. 109(6):26-30, June 2009.
    doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000352461.20307.e3
  • St John’s Mission Hospital
    &
    St John’s College of NursingNorthern Region Malawi
    Central Africa Dates: January 2010 – April 2011
    14
    Project setting:
  • Goal:
    To allow opportunities for globalization and collaboration in nursing education in Malawi by conducting a Nursing School Needs Assessment.
    Objectives:
    • To provide data that can be utilized for nursing research, nursing education, healthcare infrastructure enhancements and other strategic planning needs for future nursing and healthcare philanthropic activities in Malawi.
    • To provide an awareness to the global healthcare and nursing community regarding nursing education in Malawi .
    • To permit knowledge and access for the St. John’s College of Nursing and other nursing schools in this region of Africa by providing an entrance platform for Malawi’s nursing leaders into the global nursing professional forum.
    • To allow opportunities for nursing leaders, students and professionals to learn various ways of enhancing curriculum globalization and awareness of worldviews that pertain to nursing and nursing education.
    15
    Project Goal & Objectives:
  • Goal:
    To allow opportunities for globalization and collaboration in nursing education in Malawi by conducting a Needs Assessment for in a Nursing School.
    Objectives:
    • To provide data that can be utilized for nursing research, nursing education, healthcare infrastructure enhancements and other strategic planning needs for future nursing and healthcare philanthropic activities in Malawi.
    • To provide an awareness to the global healthcare and nursing community regarding nursing education in Malawi .
    • To permit knowledge and access for the St. John’s College of Nursing and other nursing schools in this region of Africa by providing an entrance platform for Malawi’s nursing leaders into the global nursing professional forum.
    • To allow opportunities for nursing leaders, students and professionals to learn various ways of enhancing curriculum globalization and awareness of worldviews that pertain to nursing and nursing education.
    16
    Project Goal & Objectives:
    To allow opportunities for globalization and collaboration in Nursing Education in Malawi by conducting a Nursing School Needs Assessment .
  • Goal:
    To allow opportunities for globalization and collaboration in nursing education in Malawi by conducting a Needs Assessment for in a Nursing School.
    Objectives:
    • To provide data that can be utilized for nursing research, nursing education, healthcare infrastructure enhancements and other strategic planning needs for future nursing and healthcare philanthropic activities in Malawi.
    • To provide an awareness to the global healthcare and nursing community regarding nursing education in Malawi .
    • To permit knowledge and access for the St. John’s College of Nursing and other nursing schools in this region of Africa by providing an entrance platform for Malawi’s nursing leaders into the global nursing professional forum.
    • To allow opportunities for nursing leaders, students and professionals to learn various ways of enhancing curriculum globalization and awareness of worldviews that pertain to nursing and nursing education.
    17
    Project Goal & Objectives:
    # 1.To provide data that can be utilized for nursing research, education,
    healthcare infrastructure enhancements & other strategic planning needs for future nursing and healthcare philanthropic activities in Malawi.
  • Goal:
    To allow opportunities for globalization and collaboration in nursing education in Malawi by conducting a Needs Assessment for in a Nursing School.
    Objectives:
    • To provide data that can be utilized for nursing research, nursing education, healthcare infrastructure enhancements and other strategic planning needs for future nursing and healthcare philanthropic activities in Malawi.
    • To provide an awareness to the global healthcare and nursing community regarding nursing education in Malawi .
    • To permit knowledge and access for the St. John’s College of Nursing and other nursing schools in this region of Africa by providing an entrance platform for Malawi’s nursing leaders into the global nursing professional forum.
    • To allow opportunities for nursing leaders, students and professionals to learn various ways of enhancing curriculum globalization and awareness of worldviews that pertain to nursing and nursing education.
    18
    Project Goal & Objectives:
    # 2. To provide an awareness to the global healthcare and nursing community regarding nursing education in Malawi
  • Goal:
    To allow opportunities for globalization and collaboration in nursing education in Malawi by conducting a Needs Assessment for in a Nursing School.
    Objectives:
    • To provide data that can be utilized for nursing research, nursing education, healthcare infrastructure enhancements and other strategic planning needs for future nursing and healthcare philanthropic activities in Malawi.
    • To provide an awareness to the global healthcare and nursing community regarding nursing education in Malawi .
    • To permit knowledge and access for the St. John’s College of Nursing and other nursing schools in this region of Africa by providing an entrance platform for Malawi’s nursing leaders into the global nursing professional forum.
    • To allow opportunities for nursing leaders, students and professionals to learn various ways of enhancing curriculum globalization and awareness of worldviews that pertain to nursing and nursing education.
    19
    Project Goal & Objectives:
    # 3. To permit knowledge and access for the St. John’s College of Nursing and other nursing schools in this region of Africa by providing an entrance platform for Malawi’s nursing leaders into the global nursing professional forum.
  • Goal:
    To allow opportunities for globalization and collaboration in nursing education in Malawi by conducting a Needs Assessment for in a Nursing School.
    Objectives:
    • To provide data that can be utilized for nursing research, nursing education, healthcare infrastructure enhancements and other strategic planning needs for future nursing and healthcare philanthropic activities in Malawi.
    • To provide an awareness to the global healthcare and nursing community regarding nursing education in Malawi .
    • To permit knowledge and access for the St. John’s College of Nursing and other nursing schools in this region of Africa by providing an entrance platform for Malawi’s nursing leaders into the global nursing professional forum.
    • To allow opportunities for nursing leaders, students and professionals to learn various ways of enhancing curriculum globalization and awareness of worldviews that pertain to nursing and nursing education.
    20
    Project Goal & Objectives:
    # 4. To allow opportunities for nursing leaders, students and professionals to learn various ways of enhancing curriculum globalization and awareness of worldviews that pertain to nursing and nursing education.
  • St. JOHN’S HOSPITAL- MZUZU, MALAWI
    Is a 215-bed Mission Hospital established in 1962 by the Catholic order sisters.
    21
    Project Setting- The Hospital
  • Project Setting- The Hospital
    22
    ST. JOHN’S HOSPITAL- MZUZU, MALAWI
    It has a large catchment area that includes the City of Mzuzu and the surrounding countryside.
    It has a Male, a Female, a Pediatric, a TB, a Maternity, a Premature Baby Unit and a Nutrition Unit. The maternity unit delivers about 2000 babies a year.
    A small pharmacy, a small laboratory, an X-ray department and an Operating Theatre providing basic specialized medical care.
  • Project Setting- The Hospital
    23
    ST. JOHN’S HOSPITAL- MZUZU, MALAWI
    It has a large catchment area that includes the City of Mzuzu and the surrounding countryside.
    It has a Male, a Female, a Pediatric, a TB, a Maternity, a Premature Baby Unit and a Nutrition Unit. The maternity unit delivers about 2000 babies a year.
    A small pharmacy, a small laboratory, an X-ray department and an Operating Theatre providing basic specialized medical care.
    It has a large catchment area that includes the City of Mzuzu and the surrounding countryside
  • Project Setting- The Hospital
    24
    It has a Male, a Female, a Pediatric, a TB, a Maternity, a Premature Baby Unit and a Nutrition Unit. The maternity unit delivers about 2000 babies a year.
    ST. JOHN’S HOSPITAL- MZUZU, MALAWI
    It has a large catchment area that includes the City of Mzuzu and the surrounding countryside.
    It has a Male, a Female, a Pediatric, a TB, a Maternity, a Premature Baby Unit and a Nutrition Unit. The maternity unit delivers about 2000 babies a year.
    A small pharmacy, a small laboratory, an X-ray department and an Operating Theatre providing basic specialized medical care.
  • Project Setting- The Hospital
    25
    ST. JOHN’S HOSPITAL- MZUZU, MALAWI
    It has a large catchment area that includes the City of Mzuzu and the surrounding countryside.
    It has a Male, a Female, a Pediatric, a TB, a Maternity, a Premature Baby Unit and a Nutrition Unit. The maternity unit delivers about 2000 babies a year.
    A small pharmacy, a small laboratory, an X-ray department and an Operating Theatre providing basic specialized medical care.
    A small pharmacy, a small laboratory, an X-ray department and an Operating Theatre providing basic specialized medical care.
  • ST. JOHN’S COLLEGE OF NURSING, MZUZU, MALAWI
    26
    Project Setting- The Nursing School
  • Project Setting- The Nursing School
    27
    Students & Staff
    A College of Nursing located at the Hospital with 111 nursing students currently enrolled in a Diploma Nursing Program specializing in a three-year study for Nurse & Nurse Midwife Technician Programs.
    First-year Students – 26
    Second-year Students- 38
    Third-year Students- 47
    (Male: Female Ratio- 3.7)
    The College has 12 academic staff (tutors) which includes a Volunteer Services Organization (VSO) volunteer, a College Principal and 3 Clinical instructors.
  • 28
    Statement & Significance of Nursing & Nursing Education Issues in Malawi
    Why Malawi? Why Nursing? ……. One may choose to wonder.
  • Statement and Significance of Nursing Education Issues in Malawi
    29
    Malawi has the lowest ratios of Healthcare Workers to Total Patient Population in the world.
    only 7,264 nurses are serving Malawi’s 14 million people. (? Reference)
    Malawi is the poorest country in the world, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of less than $200 per capita.
    Malawi has been hardest hit by two of the world’s current worse epidemics: proliferating rates of HIV infection, AIDS and Tuberculosis (TB) infection (Kelly, 2001).
  • Statement and Significance of Nursing Education Issues in Malawi
    30
    Malawi Aid Workers focusing on Healthcare realize that philanthropic opportunities to assist in Malawi must involve all healthcare workers, including the global professional body of nursing that includes nursing educators and current nursing students.
    Issues of nursing education in Malawi need to be addressed. These issues can best be addressed by active collaboration with global leaders and students currently actively participating in shaping nursing education worldwide.
  • Statement and Significance of Nursing Education Issues in Malawi
    31
    This needs assessment serves as a stepping stone to opportunities that will assist the stabilization and standardizing nursing education at St. John’s College of Nursing in Malawi to ensure the quality and integrity of the global body of professional nursing
  • Statement and significance of Nursing Education Issues in Malawi
    32
    This needs assessment study serves to provide much needed data, not only for Malawi but also for the Sub-Saharan Africa region.
    In response to this, it is time for nursing leaders and educators to pay close attention to issues affecting nursing education on the global front.
    By bringing Malawi’s nursing issues to focus with this project and the implementation of further action, we will enhance and unify the profile of the body of the nursing profession in our world and address some very important and complex issues that are affecting world health outcomes today.
  • A review of literature using the CINAHL and OVID databases was conducted using the key terms:
    international nursing and Malawi,;
    nursing in Malawi;
    global nursing issues;
    nursing migration,;
    nursing education in Malawi;
    nursing education issues in Malawi and
    nursing issues in Malawi.
    33
    A Review of Literature
  • A Review of Literature
    34
    that very few studies have been conducted that are specific to nursing and nursing education in Malawi.
  • A Review of Literature
    35
    Previous studies have focused on other issues; such as:
    the positive practice environments for international nurses migrating out of countries like Malawi;
    the ethical recruitment of foreign-trained nurses (Adams & Kennedy, 2006).;
    nursing work-force self sufficiency and sustainability in countries (like Malawi) where there has been an increase in RN and/or nurse emigration (Little & Buchan, 2007).
    It is apparent, by review of literature that the global nursing community is aware of such issues as:
    the massive migration of the healthcare labor force out of poor countries (like Malawi) to developed countries and have published suggestions for the management of issues related to its impact (Stillwell et. al., 2004);
    the need for accurate data collection methods to track the migration trends (Diallo, 2004);
    The characteristics of the work of internationally-trained RNs (like those out of Malawi) are also discussed in studies (Xu & Kwak, 2007).
    Other studies focus on migration and credentialing issues of foreign-educated nurses (Bieski, 2007),
    There are studies on specific issues that employers of foreign-trained nurses face, such as: competency, communication and consistency in education preparation (Parrone et. al., 2008). According to Parrone et. al (2008), ambiguous and inconsistent education standards for registered nurses that vary from nation to nation may leave out key topics in nursing education preparation, such as patient advocacy, confidentiality issues, Kubbler- Ross research on death and dying etc. Many studies have not focused on the need for transparency in topics regarding RN education in countries around the world.
  • A Review of Literature
    36
    There is an obvious gap in current research literature on nursing education and practice environment issues in developing countries like Malawi, despite the growing number of emigrating RNs needing to practice in other countries worldwide.
    The answer to fill this gap lies in conducting research and project s such as this one.
  • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
    What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools (“Please describe what would most increase your overall level of satisfaction with your nursing education and nursing practice experience here in Malawi”) and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
    37
    Research Questions:
    The project attempted to answer the following
  • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
    What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools (“Please describe what would most increase your overall level of satisfaction with your nursing education and nursing practice experience here in Malawi”) and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
    38
    Research Questions:
    The project attempted to answer the following
    Question # 1:
    In what ways do Standards of Nursing Education in Malawi Compare to the Schools in Developed Nations?
  • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
    What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools (“Please describe what would most increase your overall level of satisfaction with your nursing education and nursing practice experience here in Malawi”) and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
    39
    Research Questions:
    The project attempted to answer the following
    Question # 2:
    What possible correlations exist between Suggestions for Improvement in a Malawi Nursing School and Resources which are marked with both the Highest Importance and the Lowest level of Satisfaction?
  • In the attempts to answer the first research question, there was no intention for the manipulation of the variables under study, nor was there a need to establish causality among variables that were isolated, hence dependent and independent variables were not isolated (Barnes & Grove, 2005).
    The key variables of interest to answer the first question in this project were sub-divided into these main categories:
    (1) Demographic Information Characteristics,
    (2) High School (Secondary) Education Characteristics,
    (3) Post-Secondary Education Characteristics,
    (4) Professional Nursing Education Characteristics,
    (5) Prior Health-Related Education Characteristics,
    (6) Professional Development Studies Characteristics
    (7) Professional Licensure Requirements
    40
    Methodology
  • Data for the second question was collected utilizing the following methods:
    a written survey (questionnaire) given to nursing students.
    a face-to-face, telephone, and e-mailed interviews with the nursing school principal and the college librarian.
    a nursing student focus group.
    through on-site observations.
    41
    Methodology
  • The type of research design selected for this project was a Comparative Descriptive Design (Barnes & Grove, 2005). In this design, there was examination and description of several key variables of interest as they occured naturally in their natural setting in Malawi.
    The rationale for selecting this design is that at this early stage of research on this subject matter there, is such a need to establish a clearer delineation of the Standards of Nursing Education in Malawi before the Second Research Question or any studies such studies that would establish causality could be explored.
    It is very imperative that Descriptive Research, such as one, be conducted first on this subject matter at this time so that opportunities for further research in Nursing in Malawi can be explored.
    42
    Project Design
  • The initial participants of this project were obtained through Convenience Sampling Methods. Study participants were accessed through contacts made while visiting the School of Nursing in Mzuzu, Malawi in May 2010. 
    The attrition rate for the sample was ~10 %.The sample was further be expanded and maintained utilizing network sampling methods that included maintaining contacts from the original convenience sample.
    The total number of subjects studied was 124 individuals. This included nursing faculty and staff, and students at St. John’s College of Nursing.
    43
    Sample & Sampling Procedures
  • Microsoft Excel was used to create a spreadsheet of the raw data collected for the research questions.
    Ease/Impact Matrices were utilized to analyze the data collected to and to allow brainstorming by project participants and or other nursing professionals seeking to implement additional actions to solve problems that were identified in this project.
    44
    Data Analysis
  • 45
    Project Findings
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 1
    46
    Demographic Information Characteristics
    • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
    Name of Institution- St. John’s College of Nursing, Mzuzu, Malawi
    Nature of Instruction (e.g., Setting, Focus, etc.)- Post-Secondary Institution of Higher Learning
    Language of instruction- English
    Country of Birth- 100 % of the students were Malawian
    Purpose of Educational Program- Post-Secondary Training Course for Nurses
    Explanation of School System- Based on the British School System of Higher Education
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 1
    47
    High School (Secondary) Education Characteristics
    • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
    Entrance Requirements: Must pass the Standard Eight Exam and be Selected for Secondary Education
    Length of Study: 4 years
    Nature of Instruction: Equivalent to High School Instruction.
    Comparability to U.S. Secondary Education: Highly Comparable
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 1
    48
    Post-Secondary Education Characteristics
    • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
    Entrance Requirements:
    Must pass the Malawi school Certificate of Education (MSCE) with Credits (A’s or B’s) in :
    1. Either Biology or Physical science and;
    2. In any other three science subjects like Mathematics, Agriculture, Geography, Home economics
    3. Must complete a separate application to the College of Nursing.
    4. Must undergo Entrance Written and Oral Interviews.
    Length of Study: 3years
    Nature of Instruction: Classroom Lecture and Clinical Instruction.
    Comparability to U.S. College, Technical, Community College Education: Highly Comparable
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 1
    49
    Nursing Education Characteristics
    • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
    Length of Study: 3years
    Nature of Instruction: Classroom Lecture and Clinical Instruction.
    Comparability to U.S. College, Technical, Community College Education: Highly Comparable
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 1
    50
    Prior Health Education Characteristics
    • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 1
    51
    Professional Development Studies Characteristics
    • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 1
    52
    Professional Licensure Requirements
    Must pass licensure exam to practice nursing in Malawi
    Issuing Agency Information- Malawi Nurses and Midwives Council
    Professional Title- Nurse-Midwife Technician
    • In what ways do standards of nursing education in Malawi compare to the schools in developed nations?
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 2
    53
    Suggestions For Improvement by Students & Staff
    Nursing Learning Facilities-
    Better hospital facilities and supplies
    Better dormitory living environments, bedding etc.
    Better utilities
    Nursing Learning Supplies
    Better computers for library research
    Better simulation, mannequin, equipment etc.
    Better and more newer textbooks
    Nursing Learning Opportunities
    Improvement in nursing facilities and supplies
    Computers and medical equipment
    Nursing Learning Staff
    Better faculty resource support.
    Availability of professional development opportunities
    Nursing Learning Procedures
    Opportunities to practice what is learned in textbooks.
    Nursing Learning Affordability
    Better Tuition support
    • What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 2
    54
    Suggestions For Improvement by Students & Staff
    Nursing Learning Facilities-
    Better hospital facilities and supplies
    Better dormitory living environments, bedding etc.
    Better utilities
    • What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 2
    55
    Suggestions For Improvement by Students & Staff
    • What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
    Nursing Learning Supplies
    Better computers for library research
    Better simulation, mannequin, equipment etc.
    Better and more newer textbooks
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 2
    56
    Suggestions For Improvement by Students & Staff
    Nursing Learning Opportunities
    Improvement in nursing facilities and supplies
    Computers and medical equipment
    • What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 2
    57
    Suggestions For Improvement by Students & Staff
    Nursing Learning Staff
    Better faculty resource support.
    Availability of professional development opportunities
    • What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 2
    58
    Suggestions For Improvement by Students & Staff
    Nursing Learning Procedures
    Opportunities to practice what is learned in textbooks
    • What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
  • Project Findings- Research Question # 2
    59
    Suggestions For Improvement by Students & Staff
    Nursing Learning Affordability
    Better Tuition support
    • What possible correlations exist between suggestions for improvement in Malawi’s nursing schools and resources which are marked with both the highest importance and the lowest level of satisfaction?
  • The following pages contain Ease/Impact Matrices that can be utilized to brainstorm ways to implement additional actions to solve problems that will be identified in this project.
    If an action was deemed to impact a larger number of students at the school or in nursing schools in Malawi, its impact was considered to be high.
    If an action requires ease in implementation, low cost and can not negatively impact other processes or services, its Ease was considered high.
    60
    Suggestions For Future Studies & Projects
  • Suggestions For Future Projects & Research
    61
    Tuition support
    Ease/ Impact Matrix
    Nursing Learning Facilities Improvements to yield:
    Better hospital facilities and supplies
    Better dormitory living environments, bedding etc.
    Better utilities
  • Suggestions For Future Projects & Research
    62
    Tuition support
    Ease/ Impact Matrix
    Improvements to Yield Better Nursing Learning Supplies:
    Better computers for library research
    Better simulation, mannequin, equipment etc.
    Better and more newer textbooks
  • Suggestions For Future Projects & Research
    63
    Tuition support
    Ease/ Impact Matrix
    Improvements to Yield Better Nursing Learning Opportunities:
    Improvement in nursing facilities and supplies
    Computers and medical equipment
  • Suggestions For Future Projects & Research
    64
    Tuition support
    Ease/ Impact Matrix
    Improvements to Yield Better Nursing Learning Staff:
    Better faculty resource support.
    Availability of professional development opportunities
  • Suggestions For Future Projects & Research
    65
    Tuition support
    Ease/ Impact Matrix
    Improvements to Yield Better Nursing Learning Procedures and Affordability:
    Opportunities to practice what is learned in textbooks.
    Better Tuition support
  • References
    66
    Adams, E. & Kennedy, A. (2006). Positive practice environments. International Centre on Nurse
    Migration (ICNM). Retrieved February 19, 2009 from http://www.intlnursemigration.org
    Andrews, M.M. (1992). Cultural perspectives in the 21st century. Journal of Professional
    Nursing, 8, 7-15. Retrieved January 20, 2009 from CINAHL database.
    Arnold, L., Bakhtarina, I., Brooks, A.M., Coulter, S., Hurt, L., Lewis, C., Weinstein, S., &
    Younger, J. (1998). Nursing in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union: An
    international partnership for nursing development. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and
    Neonatal Nursing, 27, 203-208. Retrieved January 20, 2009 from CINAHL database.
    Barnes, N., & Grove, S.K., (2005). The practice of nursing research: Conduct critique, and
    Utilization (5th ed.) St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders
    Bieski, T. (2007). Foreign-educated nurses: An overview of migration and credentialing issues.
    Nursing Economics. 25, (1), 20-34
    Davidhizar, R., Dowd S.B., & Giger, J.N. (1998), Educating the culturally diverse healthcare
    student. Nurse Educator, 23, 38-42
    Diallo, K. (2004). Data on the migration of health-care workers: Sources, uses and challenges.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 82, 601-607
    Freda, M. C., DeVore, N., Gibeau, A., Griggs, S., Valley-Haye, S., & Russell, B. (1998). An
    effort to upgrade perinatal nursing practice in Albania. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and
    Neonatal Nursing, 27, 209-213
    Gorman, C. & Hohmuth-Lemonick, E. (2009) At work with Malawi’s nurses. American Journal
    of Nursing109, 26-30
  • References
    67
    Kelly, P.M. (2001). Local problems, local solutions: improving tuberculosis control at the district
    level in Malawi. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 70(2), 111-117
    Little, L., & Buchan, J. (2007). Nursing self-sufficiency/sustainability in the global context.
    International Centre on Nurse Migration (ICNM). Retrieved February 19, 2009 from
    http://www.intlnursemigration.org
    Maher, A. B. (1992). Supporting education within the international nursing community.
    Orthopedic Nursing, 11, 8
    Parrone, J., Sedrl, D. Donaubauer, C., Phillips, M. & Miller, M. (2008). Charting the 7 C’s of
    cultural change affecting foreign nurses: competency, communication, consistency,
    cooperation, customs, conformity and courage. Journal of Cultural Diversity. 15, (1), 3-6
    Polsky, D., Ross, S.J., Brush, B.L., Sochalski, J. (2007). Trends in characteristics and country of
    origin among foreign-trained nurses in the United States, 1990 and 2000. American Journal
    of Public Health. 97, (5)895-899
    Stilwell, B., Diallo, K. Zurn, P., Vujcic, M., Adams, O. & DalPoz, M. (2004). Migration of
    health-care workers from developing countries: strategic approaches to its management.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 82, (8), 595-600
    Taha, T.E. (1994). Research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Malawi: the John
    Hopkins University- Ministry of Health (JHUMOH) project. Malawi Medical Journal, 10 (1)
    6-11
    Xu, Y. & Kwak, C. (2007). Comparative trend analysis of characteristics of internationally
    educated nurses and US educated nurse in the United States. International Nursing Review.
    54, 78-84