CONSIDERATIONS IN EVALUATING
A METHOD OF TEACHING
Khansa AL-Qudaimi
The concept of Method
“Any procedure which applies
some rational order or systematic
pattern to diverse objects."
Morris. ...
The concept of Method
Justus Buchler (1963) has raised many
questions;
• What is the relation between method and
procedure...
Components of Method
•Buchler introduced Repeatability to
the concept of method.
•Methodic refers not only to the use or
r...
The value of Method
•Method is value-free.
oThere are viable methods and sterile
methods.
oThere are important methods and...
The value of Method
•According to Kumar, method has an
ideological motivation.
•A method is but a “reflection of a
particu...
Method in practice
Elements that may influence the
application of a teaching method:
•Teachers
•Students
•Society
•School ...
Teachers and method application
“Human action typically employs
„mediational means‟ such as tools and
language, and that t...
Mediational
means
subject object
The mediational means
Mediational
means
teacher goal
Method of teaching
Teachers and method application
Why would a teacher choose a
certain method in delivering a
specific subject?
Mediational
means
teacher goal
Method of teaching
Teachers and method application
“The goal constrains the options for
action.”
Nikiforov (1990)
Teachers and method application
•Teachers‟ use of a technique that they
disapprove may be caused by the
goal-in-context.
•...
Teachers and method application
• When a mediational means has been used
frequently in a particular setting, the subject
b...
Teachers and method application
“Beliefs have a strong shaping effect
on behavior.”
Schoenfeld (1998)
Teachers and method application
• Beliefs have a significant influence on the
instructional and classroom practices
(Calde...
Teachers and method application
Why would some teachers not
try to fill the gap between their
beliefs and practices?
Teachers and method application
• Festinger‟s (1957) dissonance theory
principle:
Disharmony among cognitive “elements”
mo...
Teachers and method application
In order to restore harmony, one of the
following cognitive changes may occur:
1. The teac...
Teaching
material
Teacher‟s
awareness
of the right
method
Teacher‟s
goal
beliefs
attitude
Students and method application
What’s the student’s role in the
learning process?
Students and method application
Teacher-centered approach
• The formal authority
approach
• The demonstrator
model approac...
Students and method application
Student
role
Teacher-
centered
approach
The formal
authority
approach
Demonstrator
model
a...
Students and method application
Issues that can be raised about student-
centered conceptions include the tendencies:
to p...
Students and method application
Reflection is “an act of searching,
hunting, inquiring, to find material.”
Dewey (1933)
Students and method application
preparation
engagement in an
activity
the process of what
has been learned
Learning stages:
THANKS FOR LISTENING
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Considerations in evaluating a method of teaching

147 views
125 views

Published on

For more detailed information in a Word file, check this:
http://www.4shared.com/file/5wfRagzBba/Considerations_in_evaluating_a.html

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
147
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Considerations in evaluating a method of teaching

  1. 1. CONSIDERATIONS IN EVALUATING A METHOD OF TEACHING Khansa AL-Qudaimi
  2. 2. The concept of Method “Any procedure which applies some rational order or systematic pattern to diverse objects." Morris. R. Cohen (1933)
  3. 3. The concept of Method Justus Buchler (1963) has raised many questions; • What is the relation between method and procedure? • What does it mean to apply an order? • What kind of order is rational and systematic? • What makes a method methodic?
  4. 4. Components of Method •Buchler introduced Repeatability to the concept of method. •Methodic refers not only to the use or reproduction of an achieved pattern, but also to the invention and refinement of pattern.
  5. 5. The value of Method •Method is value-free. oThere are viable methods and sterile methods. oThere are important methods and unimportant methods.
  6. 6. The value of Method •According to Kumar, method has an ideological motivation. •A method is but a “reflection of a particular view of the world and is articulated in the interest of unequal power relations.” Pennycook (1989)
  7. 7. Method in practice Elements that may influence the application of a teaching method: •Teachers •Students •Society •School system •Curriculum •Teaching supplies
  8. 8. Teachers and method application “Human action typically employs „mediational means‟ such as tools and language, and that these mediational means shape the action in essential ways.” Wertsch (1991)
  9. 9. Mediational means subject object The mediational means
  10. 10. Mediational means teacher goal Method of teaching
  11. 11. Teachers and method application Why would a teacher choose a certain method in delivering a specific subject?
  12. 12. Mediational means teacher goal Method of teaching
  13. 13. Teachers and method application “The goal constrains the options for action.” Nikiforov (1990)
  14. 14. Teachers and method application •Teachers‟ use of a technique that they disapprove may be caused by the goal-in-context. •Sometimes, goals are „imposed‟ upon teachers.
  15. 15. Teachers and method application • When a mediational means has been used frequently in a particular setting, the subject begins to “appropriate” it. • “Appropriation refers to the process through which a person becomes sufficiently familiar with a mediational means that he or she is able to use it purposefully and flexibly in particular social environments.” (Grossman et al., 1999)
  16. 16. Teachers and method application “Beliefs have a strong shaping effect on behavior.” Schoenfeld (1998)
  17. 17. Teachers and method application • Beliefs have a significant influence on the instructional and classroom practices (Calderhead, 1996; Thompson, 1985). • Inconsistencies between beliefs and practices would result in tension and contradiction which cause the teacher to attempt to change (Lerman, 2002).
  18. 18. Teachers and method application Why would some teachers not try to fill the gap between their beliefs and practices?
  19. 19. Teachers and method application • Festinger‟s (1957) dissonance theory principle: Disharmony among cognitive “elements” motivates cognitive changes designed to restore harmony.
  20. 20. Teachers and method application In order to restore harmony, one of the following cognitive changes may occur: 1. The teacher avoids thinking about the elements that conflict. 2. The teacher tries to change her practice. 3. The teacher changes her beliefs. 4. The teacher incorporates into her thinking additional “consonant elements”.
  21. 21. Teaching material Teacher‟s awareness of the right method Teacher‟s goal beliefs attitude
  22. 22. Students and method application What’s the student’s role in the learning process?
  23. 23. Students and method application Teacher-centered approach • The formal authority approach • The demonstrator model approach student-centered approach •School system •Curriculum •Teaching supplies
  24. 24. Students and method application Student role Teacher- centered approach The formal authority approach Demonstrator model approach Student- centered approach Guided participation concept
  25. 25. Students and method application Issues that can be raised about student- centered conceptions include the tendencies: to promote active student engagement at the expense of active teaching to privilege individual experience over linguistically-mediated cultural knowledge in the development of higher-order knowledge to confuse desired outcomes of education with the developmental processes that lead to those outcomes
  26. 26. Students and method application Reflection is “an act of searching, hunting, inquiring, to find material.” Dewey (1933)
  27. 27. Students and method application preparation engagement in an activity the process of what has been learned Learning stages:
  28. 28. THANKS FOR LISTENING

×