Word formation2000

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Word formation2000

  1. 1. Introduction toWord-Formation by Natalie Mühlberger Markus Ostheimer Felicitas Schäfer
  2. 2. overview Morphological ProcessesInflection Lexical Processes Derivation Compounding Other Processes 2
  3. 3. overview Morphological ProcessesInflection Lexical Processes Derivation Compounding ... 3
  4. 4. inflection• produces from a basic form all those variants which occur in syntactically determined environments - Ex.: these girls are walking Back to Overview 4
  5. 5. criteria of inflection• productivity• stability of word class• stability of stress pattern• semantic transparency 5
  6. 6. productivity• a morphological process is fully productive if it applies to all markers of a specific class, e.g. to all verbs - Ex.: nouns {-s}, {-‘s}, {-s‘} verbs {-s}, {-ed}, {-ing}, {-en} adjectives {-er}, {-est} 6
  7. 7. stability of word-class• inflectional processes do not change the basic form’s word-class irrespective of what type of inflectional affix is added - Ex.: house houses wife wife’s noun noun 7
  8. 8. stability of stress pattern• inflection does not involve a change of the basic form’s stress pattern irrespective of what type of inflectional affix is added - Ex.: navigate navigated refer referring 8
  9. 9. semantic transparency• the meaning of the affixes involved in inflectional processes is stable and thus clearly definable - Ex.: long-er more than long high-er more than high {-er} more than … 9
  10. 10. overview Morphological ProcessesInflection Lexical Processes Derivation Compounding ... 10
  11. 11. lexical processes• involve - a basic form and one or more other basic forms (= compounding) - a basic form and one or more affixes (= derivation) Back to Overview 11
  12. 12. lexical processes• form and meaning of the resulting word- form cannot always be predicted from its component parts• thus, the word should be listed in the lexicon• lexical processes are dealt with by lexical morphology• some linguists refer to it as word-formation 12
  13. 13. criteria of lexical processes• productivity• stability of word class• stability of stress pattern• semantic transparency 13
  14. 14. productivity• lexical processes are not productive or at the most only semiproductive, since they only apply to a finite set of elements - Ex.: nouns {-less}, {-ise}: senseless verbs {-ion}, {-al}: rehearsal adjectives {-en}, {-ness}: quicken combination possibility limited! 14
  15. 15. stability of word-class• lexical processes often involve a change in the basic form’s word-class as soon as an affix is added - Ex.: nouns {-less}, {-ise}: senseless verbs {-ion}, {-al}: rehearsal adjectives {-en}, {-ness}: quicken combination possibility limited! 15
  16. 16. stability of stress pattern• there are stress-preserving affixes like {-al} which do not cause any change, and stress- changing affixes like {-ion} - Ex.: nouns {-less}, {-ise}: senseless verbs {-ion}, {-al}: rehearsal adjectives {-en}, {-ness}: quicken combination possibility limited! 16
  17. 17. semantic transparency• the meaning of the affixes involved in lexical processes is in many cases not clearly definable - Ex.: nouns {-less}, {-ise}: senseless verbs {-ion}, {-al}: rehearsal adjectives {-en}, {-ness}: quicken combination possibility limited! 17
  18. 18. enlarging the lexicon• there are various ways to enlarge the stock of words of the English language: - free morphemes may be combined with free morphemes - bound morphemes may be combined with bound morphemes - free morphemes may be combined with bound morphemes and vice versa 18
  19. 19. morphology vs. word-formation• adding a morpheme without creating a new linguistic sign is called a morphological process (synonym: grammatical process) - Ex.: {king} + {s} = {kings} 19
  20. 20. morphology vs. word-formation• adding a morpheme and thereby creating a new linguistic sign is called a word- formation process (synonym: lexical process) - Ex.: {king} + {dom} = {kingdom} 20
  21. 21. overview Morphological ProcessesInflection Lexical Processes Derivation Compounding ... 21
  22. 22. derivation• if a free and at least one bound morpheme are combined to form a new linguistic sign, this process is called derivation• derivation in English is possible because of the loss of inflections, i.e. changes from one word-class to the other are made constantly - Ex.: {neighbour} + {hood} 22
  23. 23. types of derivation• prefixation• suffixation• zero-derivationBack to Lexical Processes 23
  24. 24. prefixation• if the bound morpheme appears before the free morpheme, this bound morpheme is called a prefix and the process is called prefixation - Ex.: {un} + {wise}• most prefixes are class-maintaining, some are class-changing 24Back to Types of Derivation
  25. 25. types of prefixes (selection)• negative prefixes• privative/reversative prefixes• pejorative prefixes 25
  26. 26. negative prefixes (I)• in the meaning of “not, the converse of” with adjectives and {un-} unhappy, unexpected participles disobey, disintegration, with verbs, nouns, {dis-} disinterested adjectives non-smoker, with nouns, adjectives, {non-} non-perishable open-class adverbs with nouns and {in-} incomplete adjectives 26
  27. 27. negative prefixes (II)• in the meaning of “lacking in, lack of” combines with adjectives {a-} amoral, anarchy and some nouns 27
  28. 28. privative/reversative prefixes• in the meaning of “returning to a state which existed before” with verbs and deverbal {de-} defrost, denationalization nouns – cf. trp. 32 with verbs and {dis-} disentangle, discoloured denominal adjectives – cf. trp. 32 with verbs and nouns {un-} untie, unmask turned into verbs 28
  29. 29. pejorative prefixes• in the meaning of “bad” or “false” with verbs, participles {mis-} misinform, misconduct and abstract nouns with verbs, participles, {mal-} maltreat, malnutrition adjectives and abstract nouns with nouns and adjec- {pseudo-} pseudo-scientific tivesE xercises Prefixation 29
  30. 30. suffixation• if the bound morpheme appears after the free morpheme, this bound morpheme is called a suffix and the process is called suffixation - Ex.: {invest} + {ment}• most suffixes are class-changing, some are class-maintainingBack to Types of Derivation 30
  31. 31. types of suffixes• noun-suffixes• verb-suffixes• adjective-suffixes – you find out the type of suffix by asking for the created word-class and the word-class of the base - Ex.: baker noun the base: to bake deverbal -er deverbal noun-suffix 31
  32. 32. noun-suffixes• denominal – Ex.: {-er}, {-ship}, {-ful}: Londoner, friendship, useful• deverbal – Ex.: {-er}, {-ation}: baker, exploration• de-adjectival – Ex.: {-ness}: happiness 32
  33. 33. verb-suffixes• denominal – Ex.: {-ate}: hyphenate• de-adjectival – Ex.: {-ify}: simplify 33
  34. 34. adjective-suffixes• denominal – Ex.: {-like}: childlike• deverbal – Ex.: {-ive}: attractiveE xercises Suffixation 34
  35. 35. zero-derivation• by adding a zero-morpheme (seen as an analogy to the suffixation), the word does not change its form but its meaning and word-class; this process is called zero- derivation - Ex.: verb + {ø} = noun to {release} + {ø} = a {release}Back to Types of Derivation 35
  36. 36. complex derivation• derivation can apply more than once• the words are then built up in several layers - Ex.: activation active - activate - activation 36
  37. 37. order• derivation before inflection! - Ex.: {neighbour} + {hood} + {s} derivation {hood} before inflection {-s}E xercises Derivation 37
  38. 38. overview Morphological ProcessesInflection Lexical Processes Derivation Compounding ... 38
  39. 39. compounding• two (or more) free morphemes are combined to form a new linguistic sign• this process is called compounding or composition• its result is a compound - Ex.: {fire} + {engine}, {over} + {look}Back to Lexical Processes 39
  40. 40. compounding• there are various subdivisions: • by semantic criteria (meaning characteristics) • by word-class (formal characteristics) 40
  41. 41. subdivision by semantic criteria (I)• endocentric compounds - the compound denotes a sub-class of the items denoted by one of its constituents - Ex.: beehive hive sea-bird bird 41
  42. 42. subdivision by semantic criteria (II)• exocentric compounds - the compound does not denote a sub-class of the items denoted by one of its constituents - Ex.: redneck, scatterbrain 42
  43. 43. subdivision by semantic criteria (III)• exocentric compounds - an exocentric compound is a hyponym of an unexpressed semantic head (‘scatterbrain’) - if the formation with an unexpressed head contains no verbal constituent (as in ‘redneck’), it is called a bahuvrihi compound - bahuvrihi is a compound in Sanskrit, meaning ”much rice” 43
  44. 44. subdivision by semantic criteria (IV)• appositional/copulative compounds - the compound denotes either sub-class of the items denoted by its constituents - Ex.: maidservant, learner-driver, girlfriend 44
  45. 45. subdivision by semantic criteria (V)• dvandva compounds - the compound does not denote the sub-class of either constituent - Ex.: Rhineland-Palatinate, Austria-Hungary - dvandva is a compound in Sanskrit, meaning ”two and two” 45
  46. 46. subdivision by word-class (I)• headedness of compounds - the morpheme which determines the word-class of the entire word is called its head (or morpho- syntactic head) - in most compounds, the head is the rightmost morpheme 46
  47. 47. subdivision by word-class (II)• properties of the head - it determines a number of morpho-syntactic properties of a compound, such as • word-class • gender • inflectional properties • the case (in syntax) - Ex. in German: der Schuljunge vs. die Jungenschule 47
  48. 48. subdivision by word-class (III)• inversion compounds - compounds with the leftmost morpheme as the head are called inversion compounds (very little in number) - Ex.: looker-on, court martial, knight errant, whenever, herself 48
  49. 49. subdivision by word-class (IV)• compounds with bound words - both parts are independently attested - Ex.: swimming pool, rain coat - semi-productive formations, called combining forms - Ex.: television, church-goer, electrophile, hydrology 49
  50. 50. subdivision by word-class (V)• subconstituency - emphasis is the decisive matter - Ex.: American history teacher or American history teacher 50
  51. 51. types of compounds (formal criteria)• it is possible to combine nearly all word types together: – Examples: noun + noun: letter-opener verb + noun: drawbridge adjective + verb: greenhouse noun + adjective: waterproof adverb + verb: newly-wed 51
  52. 52. short historical excursion• 1803: Lewis and Clark expedition to the American Northwest• result: 367 new compounds added to the American lexicon - Ex.: bull snake, catbird, ground squirrel 52
  53. 53. overview Morphological ProcessesInflection Lexical Processes Derivation Compounding ... 53
  54. 54. other word-formation processes• abbreviation - clipping - acronymics• blending• back-formation• reduplication• “Tall Talk” 54
  55. 55. abbreviation• clipping• acronymicsBack to Other Word-Formation Processes 55
  56. 56. clipping (I)• shortening of a word out of a two- or more syllabic word• process and result are equally called clipping• the denotational meaning and the word- class do not change 56
  57. 57. clipping (II)• either a stressed or an unstressed syllable is retained• the clipped part does not need to be a morphemeBack to Abbreviation 57
  58. 58. sub-classes of clippings• fore-clippings - Ex.: telephone• back-clippings - Ex.: advertisement• medial clippings - Ex.: spectacles• fore-and-back-clippings - Ex.: influenza 58
  59. 59. acronymics• one word is formed by the (capital) initial letters or syllables of two or more words of one phraseBack to Abbreviation 59
  60. 60. sub-classes of acronyms (I)• alphabetical pronunciation (pronunciation of the single letters) - Ex.: FBI, CIA, BBC, RP, MP• orthoepic pronunciation (pronunciation as a whole word) - Ex.: NATO, UNESCO• non-reduced pronunciation (pronunciation of the abbreviated words) - Ex.: i.e. (id est), e.g. (example given) 60
  61. 61. sub-classes of acronyms (II)• descriptive pronunciation (pronunciation by describing the abbreviation) - Ex.: AAA (triple A)• pronunciation + apposition (pronunciation by inserting a sound) - Ex.: SCSI /skʌzɪ/ or /skɪzɪ/ 61
  62. 62. blending• two words (free morphemes) are melted (blended) together to form one single word• the process is called blending, its result is a blend(ing) or a telescope or portmanteau word• a new linguistic sign appears Back to Other Word-Formation Processes 62
  63. 63. sub-classes of blendings• concatenated blends1 - Ex.: happenident, bisalo• overlapping blends - Ex.: bedventure, frogurt, alcoholiday• implanted blends - Ex.: askillity, destarture, enfarcement 1) words do not overlap 63
  64. 64. back-formation• shortening of a word of a real or pretended suffix - Ex.: babysitting – to babysit editor – to editBack to Other Word-Formation Processes 64
  65. 65. reduplication• doubling of a word• slight changes in spelling can occur – Ex.: goody-goody, wishy-washy Back to Other Word-Formation ProcessesE xercises Other Word-Formation Processes 65
  66. 66. “Tall Talk”• the creation of high-sounding, “mouth- filling” words• can be traced back to folk characters like Paul Bunyan and Mike Fink - Ex.: A frontiersman could “teetotaciously exflunctiate” his opponent in a “con- bobberation”. Back to Other Word-Formation ProcessesE xercises Word-Formation 66
  67. 67. bibliography/further readingAdams, Valerie. An Introduction to Modern English Word- Formation. London: Longman, 1973.Bauer, Laurie. English Word-Formation. Cambridge: CUP, 1983.Lipka, Leonhard. An Outline of English Lexicology. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 21992.Marckwardt, Albert H. American English. New York: OUP, 1958. Repr. 1968.Mencken, Henry Louis. The American Language. An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States. New York: Knopf, 1949.Quirk, Randolph, et.al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985. 67
  68. 68. Check your knowledge!
  69. 69. exercises 1• identify the type of derivation: – amoral, desire, boyish – bottle, friendship, disorder – starlet, degrading, grade – subnormal, baker, telegraphS olutions Back 69
  70. 70. exercises 2• identify the type of prefixation: – asexual, disown, mishear – unpack, pseudo-intellectual, unfair – malodorous, disuse, desegregateS olutions Back 70
  71. 71. exercises 3• identify the right type of suffixation: – teenager, chlorinate, monkeylike – amplify, starvation, citizenship – kindness, possessive, boilerS olutions Back 71
  72. 72. exercises 4• identify the type of word-formation: – ha-ha, demo, advise – inspect, seesaw, DIY – ID, photo, EurovisionS olutions Back 72
  73. 73. exercises 5• identify the type of word-formation and some possible characteristics: 1. disunity 7. inhabitant 2. greyhound 8. ping-pong 3. codify 9. release 4. laze 10. baggage 5. useful 11. heliport 6. defrost 12. maltreat S olutions M ore Exercises 73
  74. 74. exercises 6• identify the type of word-formation and some possible characteristics 1. slavery 6. popcorn 2. longboat 7. butter 3. exam 8. pub 4. symbolize 9. sadden 5. UN 10. denationalisation S olutions Back 74
  75. 75. solutions 1- prefixation, zero-derivation, suffixation- zero-derivation, suffixation, prefixation- suffixation, prefixation, zero-derivation- prefixation, suffixation, zero-derivation Back to Exercises 1 75
  76. 76. solutions 2negative:- asexual, disuse, incomplete, unfairreversative:- desegregate, disown, unpackpejorative:- malodorous, mishear, pseudo- intellectual Back to Exercises 2 76
  77. 77. solutions 3noun: denominal: teenager, citizenship deverbal: boiler, starvation de-adjectival: kindnessverb: denominal: chlorinate de-adjectival: amplifyadjective: denominal: monkeylike deverbal: possessive Back to Exercises 3 77
  78. 78. solutions 4back-formation: advise(or), inspect(or)reduplicative: seesaw, ha-haclipping: demo(nstration), photo(graph)acronym: DIY (do it yourself), ID (identification card)blending: Eurovision (European television) Back to Exercises 4 78
  79. 79. solutions 51. prefixation, negative prefix2. compound, adj. + noun3. compound, adj. + noun4. back-formation, lazy5. suffixation, denominal suffix6. prefixation, reservative prefix 79
  80. 80. solutions 57. suffixation, deverbal noun-suffix8. reduplicative9. zero-derivation10. suffixation, denominal suffix11. blending, helicopter + airport12. prefixation, pejorative prefix Back to Exercises 5 80
  81. 81. solutions 61. suffixation, denominal noun-suffix2. compound, adj. + noun, endocentric3. clipping, examination4. suffixation, denominal noun-suffix5. acronym, United Nations 81
  82. 82. solutions 66. compound, verb + noun, exocentric7. zero-derivation8. clipping, public-house9. suffixation, de-adjectival verb-suffix10. pre- and suffixation, reversative prefix + de-adjectival noun-suffix Back to Exercises 6 82

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