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  1. 1. Debate: China "one child" policy(Redirected from Debate:China "one child" policy)Is Chinas "one child" policy sensible?[Edit]Background and contextThe one-child policy is the population control policy (or planned birth policy) of the PeoplesRepublic of China (PRC).The Chinese government introduced the policy in 1979 to alleviate the social and environmentalproblems of China. The policy is controversial both within and outside China because of theissues it raises; because of the manner in which the policy has been implemented; and because ofconcerns about negative economic and social consequences.The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the incomeof the family and other factors. However, there are still many citizens that continue to have morethan one child, despite this policy. In February 2008 Chinese Government official Wu Jianminsaid that the one-child policy would be reconsidered during the Chinese Peoples PoliticalConsultative Conference in March 2008, but at that time a representative of Chinas NationalPopulation and Family Planning Commission said that the policy would remain in place for atleast another decade.Demographics: Is Chinas "one child" policy demographically sound?Yes The "one child" policy can bemodified to improvedemographics. Some provinces allowfamilies where each parent was an "onlychild" to have two children. In 2007,except Henan province, all otherprovinces in PRC adopted this newadaption[46].No "One child" exacerbates Chinas agingpopulation problem "One child" will create a generation ofmen without women to marry HedaBayron."Experts: Chinas One-Child PopulationPolicy Producing Socio-EconomicProblems". VOAnews. 7 Mar. 2006 - "By2020, there will be about 40 million Chinesemen unable to marry, because too few girls
  2. 2. will have been born. Sociologists say thatcould trigger aggressive behavior amongfrustrated bachelors, including kidnappingand trafficking in women."Fairness/rights: Is the "one child" rule fair to Chinese citizens? Does it violate rights?Yes Extreme overpopulation warrants theextreme "one child" policy It is fair tocall Chinas "one child" policy"extreme". But, it is justified in thesimple sense that China faces an extremeoverpopulation crisis. Desperate timescall for desperate measures. The Chinesegovernment cannot be blamed for takingthese aggressive, but necessarymeasures. "One child" generally improves livingstandards of Chinese Chinese can simply pay a fine to havean extra child.In many regions ofChina, families that really want a secondchild can have one, and simply have topay a fine. But, in general, Chineseregional authorities do not go so far as toabsolutely ban having a second child.Therefore, the status quo merelydiscourages and disincentivizes having asecond child.No Chinese understand Chinas successdepends on "one child", populationcontrol. Many Chinese people are able tohave a second child and are willing to pay thefine. Yet, they choose not to do so on thephilosophical grounds that it is better for thecountry to not have a second child. "One child" policy violates right toreproduce and found family. The one-childpolicy has been criticized by human rightsadvocacy groups and Western religiousadvocacy groups who consider it contrary tothe human rights of reproduction. Manygovernments, including the United Stategovernment, argue that the policy violates aright to "found a family", which is protectedunder the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. China often forces abortions on women,violating human rights Chinese officialsoften force abortions on women against theirwill. This persists despite the fact that it hasbeen banned by Chinas central government.
  3. 3.  China outlaws physically forcingwomen to have abortions While Chinapreviously forced some women to haveabortions, it no longer does so, andexpressly forbids the practice. China plans on ending "one child"policy in the futureZhaoBaige, viceminister of the National Population andFamily Planning Commission - "Theone-child policy was the only choice wehad, given the conditions when weinitiated the policy. So as things develop,there might be some changes to thepolicy, and relevant departments areconsidering this."[1] China gives exemptions from "onechild" in special circumstances Modern Chinese people actuallyprefer only one childHedaBayron."Experts: Chinas One-Child PopulationPolicy Producing Socio-EconomicProblems". VOAnews. 7 Mar. 2006 -"Surveys among young urban Chineseshow many prefer to have only onechild, because of the cost of raisingchildren and because of their busy newlifestyles. Younger Chinese appear to befollowing the pattern set in Japan,Singapore, and many other countriesaround the world, the wealthier theybecome, the fewer children they want tohave." Chinas forced sterilization is cruel,violates rightsHedaBayron. "Experts:Chinas One-Child Population PolicyProducing Socio-Economic Problems".VOAnews. 7 Mar. 2006 - Four days afterMrs. Yao gave birth in October, localofficials descended on the Yao household inChinas Fujian province and dragged her andher husband to a hospital. There, the couplewas forced to undergo sterilization.Mr. Yao, 31, is angry at the heavy-handed action."My wife just had a 4 1/2 kilogram babyfour days earlier. It is wrong to ask her todo another operation," he said. "At leastwait until six months when she recovered.What they have done was very cruel." Chinas "one child" policyviolates natural law Ye Tingfang,a professor at the ChineseAcademy of Social Sciences: "theone-child limit is too extreme. Itviolates nature’s law and, in thelong run, will lead to mothernature’s revenge."
  4. 4. Population: Is the rule essential to controlling Chinas population size?Yes Chinas "one child" policy iskey to stabilizing globalpopulation growth Globalpopulation growth isconsidered by many to be acrisis. With 1.3 billion people,a fifth of the worldspopulation, China must be amajor part of the solution tothe global population crisis."One child" is a pillar of thisglobal solution. China would have far toomany children if not for "onechild". China estimates that ithas three to four hundredmillion fewer people todaywith the one child policy thanit would have had otherwise. Ending Chinas "one-child"policy would cause apopulation spike JosephChamie, former head of theUnited Nations populationdivision and now head of theCenter for Migration Studies -"Today the fertility level inChina is around 1.7 childrenNo "One child" is only partlyresponsible for reducing Chinasfertility rates Hasketh, Lu, andXing observed: "the policy itself isprobably only partially responsiblefor the reduction in the totalfertility rate. The most dramaticdecrease in the rate actuallyoccurred before the policy wasimposed. Between 1970 and 1979,the largely voluntary "late, long,few" policy, which called for laterchildbearing, greater spacingbetween children, and fewerchildren, had already resulted in ahalving of the total fertility rate,from 5.9 to 2.9. After the one-childpolicy was introduced, there was amore gradual fall in the rate until1995, and it has more or lessstabilized at approximately 1.7since then." "One child" is excessive,alternatives for reducing fertilityrates exist. India has achieved populationsustainability without "onechild". As argued above, there are
  5. 5. per woman. if China were torelax its one-child policy, thenit’s reasonable to expect thatfertility would rise. Howmuch? Well, if fertilityincreased to replacement levelof 2.1 (an increase of justunder a half a child), which isnot unreasonable given desiredfamily size, the country’sannual number of births wouldincrease by nearly 30 percent,or approximately five millionadditional births. Bymidcentury, this would add upto nearly a quarter-billion moreChinese than currentlyprojected by the U.N. Andgiven China’s impact on theenvironment, especiallygreenhouse gas emissions, thischange of policy clearlyportends a great deal."[2] One-child forestallsproblems associated withoverpopulation. The reductionin fertility rate and thuspopulation size reduced theseverity of problems that comewith overpopulation, likeepidemics, slums,overwhelmed social services(health, education, lawenforcement, and more), andways to achieve population-sizesustainability withoutimplementing a "one child" policy.There are alternative means. Indiais a good example of this, havingachieved broadly similar declinesin fertility without state coercion oroccasional brutality. It doesnt appear to be workingso far. So far no major populationdecreases have occured under the"one child" policy. This policywould need to take place forhundreds of years to work, but thatwould not be fair. It has shownminor changes, but theoverpopulation problem in Chinastill hugely exists.
  6. 6. strain on the ecosystem fromabuse of fertile land andproduction of high volumes ofwaste. "One child" changedtradition that more childrenis better The symbolism of"one child" is very importantin ending the conventionalbelief that more children isbetter.Gender: Does Chinas "one child" improve gender equality?Yes One-child policy improveshealth services for women.Itis reported that the focus ofChina on population controlhelps provide a better healthservice for women and areduction in the risks of deathand injury associated withpregnancy. At family planningoffices, women receive freecontraception and pre-natalclasses. Help is provided forpregnant women to closelymonitor their health. In variousplaces in China, thegovernment rolled out a ‘Carefor Girls’ programme, whichaims at eliminating culturaldiscrimination against girls inNo "One child" policy fosterspreference for sons; causesdemographic shift. China, likemany other Asian countries, has along tradition of son preference.Many argue that the one-childpolicy induces many families to useselective abortion, abandon femaleinfants, and even kill female infantsunder the influence of the sonpreference. Some families even killor starve the female infant and thentry again for a male child. Thecommonly accepted explanation forson preference is that sons in ruralfamilies may be thought to be morehelpful in farm work. Both ruraland urban populations haveeconomic and traditional
  7. 7. rural and underdeveloped areasthrough subsidies andeducation.[3] "One child" liberates femaleproductivity, improvesgender equality Women havetraditionally been the primarycaregivers for children;however, with fewer children,they have more time to investin their careers, increasing boththeir personal earnings and thenational GDP. However, criticsof the policy have asserted thatsuch a gain may eventually becancelled out by the increasedburden of caring for twoelderly parents singlehandedly.incentives, including widespreadremnants of Confucianism, toprefer sons over daughters. Sonsare preferred as they provide theprimary financial support for theparents in their retirement, and asons parents typically are bettercared for than his wifes. Inaddition, Chinese traditionally viewthat daughters, on their marriage,become primarily part of thegrooms family.Children: Is the one-child policy good for children?Yes "One child" policies improveChina for younggenerations. "One child"policies improve China bymaking its population sizemore sustainable and by,subsequently, improving theliving standards of Chinesecitizens now and in the future.This is certainly good forNo Chinas "one child" policycreates too many onlychilds "Report says 100 millionChinese have no siblings".Associated Press. July 7th, 2008 Chinas "one child" policyfosters spoiled children.Someparents may over-indulge theironly-child. The media referred tothe indulged children in one-child
  8. 8. young Chinese. It prevents sibling rivalry. Alot of children have siblingrivalry with their brothers orsisters. A lot of children alsohate their siblings or arebullied by them. This policyprevents that. Parents with one child willcare more for that child. Ifparents have one child, theywill look after them and carefor them more than if therewere three or four children.The child would in most casesbe loved more and get morepersonal attention.families as "little emperors". Sincethe 1990s, some people worry thiswill result in a higher tendencytoward poor social communicationand cooperation skills among thenew generation, as they have nosiblings at home. However, nosocial studies have investigated theratio of these over-indulgedchildren and to what extent they areindulged. With the first generationof one-child policy children (thoseborn in the 1980s) reachingadulthood, such worries arereduced. Chinas "one child" policy causesthe abandonment ofchildren Damien McElroy andOlga Craig. "Victims of Chinasone-child policy find hope".Telegraph. 19 June 2001 - "FIVEyoung girls, found starving andclose to death amid the rubbish tipsof Beijing, have been given a newlife thanks to the love andcompassion of a poor couple in theChinese capital.The girls were abandoned as babies -victims of Chinas one-child policycoupled with a traditional preference forsons. Each had been dumped to die byparents who either wanted their onlychild to be a boy or did not want theburden of a disfigured or disabled infant."
  9. 9.  Chinas "one child" policycauses"gendercide"According toThe Economist [4], at least100 million girls havedisappeared in China. Theywere either "aborted, killed, orneglected to death"- and thenumber is rising. "...[C]oupleswant two children—or, as inChina, are allowed only one—they will sacrifice unborndaughters to their pursuit of ason. That is why sex ratios aremost distorted in the modern,open parts of China andIndia."Support networks: Does the "one child" policy foster family supportnetworks?Yes The children will stillhave families. Childrenborn with no brothers orsisters will still have afamily. They will have amum and dad,grandparents and possiblyaunts, uncles and cousins.No The "one child" policyundermines family supportnetworks. As the one-childpolicy begins to near its nextgeneration, one adult child isleft with having to providesupport for his or her twoparents and four grandparents.This leaves the oldergeneration with more of adependency on retirementfunds or charity in order to
  10. 10. have support. If personalsavings, pensions, or statewelfare should fail, then themost senior citizens would beleft entirely dependent upontheir very small family orneighbors for support. If achild cant care for theirparents and grandparents, or ifthat child cant survive, theoldest generation could finditself destitute.Ending the policy: Would removing the laws undo all good done by the "OneChild" Policy?Yes Removing these lawswould see a lot morebabies born at aroundthe same time. If thelaws were removed today,in about nine months timea flood of babies wouldbe born in China. Peoplewould undo any goodmade by the laws and usetheir right to start havingas many babies aspossible. When people have backtheir rights, they will useNo
  11. 11. them. When the laws areremoved, the people ofChina will start havinglots of babies - thatsbound to happen and willundo the help made toChinas overpopulationproblems.Economics: Is the one child policy economically beneficial?Yes "One child" increasesGDP per capita, livingstandardsChina simplycannot sustain apopulation of 2 billionand provide the standardof living that it desires. Chinas "one child"policy helps eradicatepoverty Chinas "one child"policy increasesindividual savings. Theindividual savings ratehas increased since theintroduction of the OneChild Policy. This hasbeen partially attributed tothe policy in two respects.First, the average Chinesehousehold expends fewerNo Fees for second child areeconomically damaging. AU.S. official named Deweytestified that parents who beara second child are required topay a "social compensationfee", which ranges from halfof the local average annualincome to ten times that. Chinas one-child policyincreases crime "One-ChildPolicy, China Crime RiseLinked by Study". New YorkSun. 19 Nov. 2007 -"Communist Chinas one-childpolicy is to blame for as muchas 38% of the recent rapid risein crime in that country, a newresearch report finds.An associate professor of economics atColumbia University, Lena Edlund, hasfound that a 1% increase in the ratio of
  12. 12. resources, both in termsof time and money, onchildren, which givesmany Chinese moremoney with which toinvest. Second, sinceyoung Chinese can nolonger rely on children tocare for them in their oldage, there is an impetus tosave money for thefuture.[27] "One child" policymaintains a steadyemployment rate. Withoverpopulation, it iscommon that a populationwill see risingunemployment rates.males to females equates to an increase inviolent and property crime of as much as6%, "suggesting that male sex ratios mayaccount for 28% to 38% of the rise incrime." Ms. Edlund, who studied crimerates in China between 1988 and 2004,discussed her findings at a conferenceearlier this month at New YorkUniversity."Environment: Is the "one child" policy good for the environment?Yes "One child" policyhelps fight againstglobalwarming"ChinaSays One-ChildPolicy Helps ProtectClimate". Reuters.30 August 2007In solving the pollution and theNo
  13. 13. environment, China advocates thispolicy in helping reduce their carbondioxide output. The governmentsuggested that every human bodyexhale too much carbon dioxide, andcited statistics that reducing thecountries population would greatlyreduce carbon dioxide emissionsfrom human respiration. Chinas "onechild" policyslows thedepletion ofnaturalresources.Discrimination: Does Chinas "one child" policy avoid racism?Yes This policy isnot exactlyracist. The "onechild" possiblyis not racist, it issimply trying tocontrol Chinasextremepopulation.No Chinas "onechild" policy isinherentlyracist Paul Jalsevac."The inherentracism of populationcontrol." Chinas "onechild" policycausessocioeconomic
  14. 14. discriminationChinese opinion: Where does the Chinese population stand on thisissue?Yes No Protests have beenwidespread inChina against "onechild" DraganStankovic and John Chan."Protests in Chinaover the one childpolicy". WorldSocialist Website. 1June 2007Pro/con resourcesYes "China SaysOne-ChildPolicy HelpsProtectClimate".Reuters. 30August 2007 "FamilyPlanning inChina".InformationOffice of theState CouncilNo Brandon Keim."China: The WrongWay to DoPopulation Control".Wired. July 24,2007 "Report says 100million Chinesehave no siblings".Associated Press. 7July 2008 Damien McElroyand Olga Craig.
  15. 15. Of the PeoplesRepublic ofChina. 1995"Victims of Chinasone-child policyfind hope".Telegraph. 19 June2001 Claudia Joseph."Babies for sale:The scandal ofChinas brutal singlechild policy". 6 Oct.2007 HedaBayron."Experts: ChinasOne-ChildPopulation PolicyProducing Socio-EconomicProblems".VOAnews. 7 Mar.2006 "Can China Affordto Continue Its One-Child Policy?". EastWest Center. Mar.2005 "Family Planning inChina". InformationOffice of the StateCouncil Of thePeoples Republic ofChina. 28 Dec. 2004 "China: Humanrights violations andcoercion in one-