Rafer 1‘Mythic Symbols in Harry Potter’David RaferAlthough Rowling’s books contain a host of influences, the core of the Potter series isinescapably mythic. Considered as a mythic hero, Harry encounters archetypal figures such as theWise Old Man, embodied by Dumbledore, and the Shadow, encountered in the form of Voldemort.However, whilst ancient mythological materials are refashioned within Rowling’s modern fantasies,the creation of a ‘higher’ or Tolkienesque Secondary World in which we encounter mystic realitiesis undercut in Rowling’s wizard world by the intrusion of Muggle reality and the satirical mirror thatshe holds up to the world of the reader. However, Tolkien isn’t necessarily a major influence, forRowling pointed out that Tolkien ‘created a whole new mythology’ (Rowling, ‘Transcript’),something she doesn’t recognise in her own crafting of Potter’s magic world.Rowling has commented on her childhood enjoyment of fantasies by Edith Nesbit and C.S.Lewis. Although critical of Lewis’ treatment of awakening sexuality (Rowling, Interview with LevGrossman), she has previously praised his fantasy cycle, saying ‘Even now, if I was in a room withone of the Narnia books, I would pick it up and re-read it like a shot’ (Shapiro 28–29). Narnia’smythic material is drawn from a range of different mythologies and was criticised by Tolkien forproducing a rather disjointed effect (Sayer 312–313). This criticism could also be levelled atRowling. For example, in Goblet of Fire Wagnerian references and northern myth emerge alongsidea sphinx and mermen from Southern mythologies and classical literature as well as the Bulgarianveela (Colbert 245), Yorkshire grindylow and Irish leprechauns. Her collection of mythic elementsreflect the disjointed, fractured modern cultural experience. The Potter books trawl popular Englishmyth for hags, witchcraft, castle spectres and Arthurian influences as easily as they do Cerberus andcentaurs from Greek myth. Hagrid has to remove kelpies from a well in The Chamber of Secrets inwhich Harry encounters an elf and a basilisk. Other mythical allusions include the manticore, hailingfrom Asia, the kappas, originating in Japanese myth (Colbert 139), doxies, northern giants andvarious varieties of dragons. The list grows with each work, extended by Rowling’s own creationslike Blast-Ended Skrewts, a cross between a manticore and a firecrab.Such a host of mythical creatures begs the question as to their function within her tales,though clearly her treatment of myth is eclectic. Rowling often exploits mythical creatures for theirhumorous potential. We encounter a comic trickster house elf in Dobby whilst Gilderoy Lockhart’sbooks sport titles that subvert and mock many sinister myths, such as Break with a Banshee andGadding with Ghouls, etc. Gnomes are common-or-garden pests and Cornish pixies run amok due toLockhart’s incompetence. Rowling creates a metaphor for the mythical. Seeing inevitably bringswith it believing generating both familiarity and explanation, but the mythical is forever out of reachand in a sense without foundation and untrue. Things that Muggles believe to be mythical or unrealhave simply been removed from memory by the wizard ministry. This highlights an inner tensionwithin myth since myth can be perceived simply as lies and yet it is also viewed as having the powerto impart ‘higher’ truths. Whilst myth seems to have emerged from human irrationality andprimitive modes of thought, it also seems to have its own peculiar logic.Another inner tension of myth occurs between myth and the real since theorists have arguedthat myth arises from images emerging from real phenomena. John Pennington argues that
Rafer 2Rowling’s ‘novels, for all their “magical” trappings, are prefigured in mundane reality, relying toowholly on the real from which she simultaneously wants to escape’ (79). The wizard world isHarry’s wish-fulfilment for escape from Muggledom and hence from a depressing ‘reality’, wherehe is nothing special, to a magic world where he is a mythic hero whose adventures recall myththeorist Joseph Campbell’s phases of the hero monomyth (Mills 5). However, Rowling’s wizardshave office jobs, bureaucratic laws and tabloid journalism. The plight of elves is politicised andsocial concerns of background, race and class emerge, all of which seem curiously mundaneelements to intrude into an otherwise wondrous magic world. Rowling explained in a recentinterview that she wanted to ‘subvert the genre … Harry goes off into this magical world, and is itany better than the world he’s left?’ (Interview with Lev Grossman). This may explain why it oftenseems that Rowling’s mythic symbols are not quite mythic enough to satisfy readers who enjoyTolkien or Lewis. These writers offer clearly delineated spiritual fantasy worlds that rise above themundane instead of suggesting, as Rowling’s premise does, that the mythical and magical is simplyhidden amongst our own contemporary reality, like Sirius Black’s house squeezed between Mugglehouses, or an entire magic train platform existing in the gap between real platforms.Each mythology has its own character, fashioned by people, place, purpose and worldview,although a great deal of the inner content of myth remains obscured as myths have travelled andpermeated different cultures. These kinds of factors can create ambiguity in the interpretation ofmythic symbols. Kronzek and Kronzek note the way, for example, that ‘griffins came to symboliseboth good and evil’ (107) during the Middle Ages. The myth of the phoenix, although widelyviewed as a Christian symbol, originates in pagan Egyptian myth and is viewed as ‘a symbol ofimmortality’ (Colbert 93). Whilst the phoenix is a fundamental symbolist structure in the Potterbooks, there exists this curious sense of inner ambiguity inherent within the symbol (Kern 217–218).Debate continues concerning Rowling’s religious intentions for the Potter works. For example,Granger and Abanes view Potter as Christian and occult respectively but Rowling’s use ofsymbolism seldom seems as overtly Christian as Lewis’ Narnian symbolism although there is themediation of love from Harry’s mother (PS 216). The phoenix rising from its ashes recallsalchemical change (Kronzek and Kronzek 209) and the cycle of life renewal, but there’s also higherspiritual meaning when Fawkes conjures hope, loyalty and healing and symbolises Dumbledore’scovert Order of the Phoenix, the wizards on the side of good who fight the devilish evil ofVoldemort and his followers. The word ‘order’ has connotations of both a knightly order, to whichadmission is an honour, and may well suggest religious fraternity. The phoenix myth provides animage for rebirth, and the cycle of life and death, where Harry is the champion of life whilstVoldemort is in flight from death. Both Harry and Voldemort have wands with a core feather drawnfrom the same phoenix, though Voldemort’s wand is made of yew, an emblem of grief associatedwith graveyards (recalling the yew tree in the Riddles’ graveyard in Goblet) whilst Harry’s wand-wood is holly, associated with Christmas, the birth of Christ and salvation.There are many kinds of symbol deployed throughout the Potter series, including thoserelating to alchemy, the sacred, the numerological, the psychological, gender, power, time andhistory (Gallardo-C and Smith, passim). On arriving at Hogwarts, Harry encounters the formalsymbols for the Hogwarts Houses. These symbols structure Harry’s life at the school since thecategorisation of the Sorting distributes students according to their inner qualities and naturaldisposition and aptitudes into the four houses. The lion of Gryffindor symbolises courage, ‘daring,nerve and chivalry’ (PS 88); the snake of Slytherin symbolises ambition; the badger symbolises
Rafer 3Hufflepuff’s qualities of being loyal, hardworking and true; whilst the eagle symbolises the virtuesprized by Ravenclaw of wisdom, ‘wit and learning’ (PS 88). Even Harry’s teachers are ‘largelysymbolic’ (Eccleshare 24). Thus we have Professor Vector teaching Arithmancy and ProfessorPomona Sprout, teaching magical horticulture. Her first name is particularly apt considering thatOvid wrote of Pomona that ‘No other Latin wood nymph could tend a garden more skilfully’ (328).Myths often signify qualities in Rowling’s characters, thus Minerva McGonagall’s first name ‘refersto Minerva, Roman goddess of wisdom and the arts’ (Colbert 172) and Sirius Black’s given namereminds us of ‘the Dog Star … in the constellation known as the Great Dog’ (41) that hadsignificance in Egyptian mythology for the migration of the soul after death.Some of Rowling’s symbols can be read as simply standing for inner human qualities. Wemight consider that lust is symbolised by her use of the veela, for example. The boggart in Prisonerof Azkaban is ‘a symbol for fear itself, and something the hero must overcome’ (Kern 201). Rowlingallegorises Peter Pettigrew’s rat-like nature through his physical transformation into a rat. She alsoleaves a suggestion of the rat about him, following his transformation back into human form afterwhich she writes that ‘His skin looked grubby, almost like Scabbers’s fur, and something of the ratlingered around his pointed nose, his very small, watery eyes’ (PoA 269). Inner qualities are givenvisual allegorical expression when Hagrid fires his umbrella/wand at Dudley in Philosopher’s Stone,intending to turn Dudley into a pig but all that happens is that a pig’s tail appears on Dudleybecause, ‘he was so much like a pig anyway there wasn’t much left ter do’ (48). Dudley’s innerselfishness has already become outwardly expressed through his appearance as Rita Skeeter’sanimagus form of a bug can also be read in this way as an expression of her inner personality.Rowling’s use of the Hippogriff serves as an interesting example of a more complexsymbolism. A Hippogriff previously appeared in Ludovico Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso (1516) andalso in a throw-away comment about crossing a horse with a griffin made by Virgil (Colbert 131).For Edmund Kern, Buckbeakmight be read as a symbol of human potential or the pursuit of dreams. Churlishlytaunting human beings, the hippogriff becomes tame and loyal once mounted, capableof soaring quickly and to the highest altitudes … (eventually) Buckbeak literallybecomes the vehicle upon which Harry and Hermione successfully pursue a hopelesscause. Eschewing faintheartedness, they need only dare to try (201).This reading evokes a higher mythic facet to Buckbeak’s symbolic power. However, Rowling’streatment of the Hippogriff expands upon its literary myth. Hagrid’s ‘Blue Peter’ approach to thecare of Hippogriffs, turns Ariosto’s aspirational mythical creature into a ‘real’ animal that needs tobe tended more like a highly-strung thoroughbred race-horse than the mythical creature that Ariostoused to transport Astolfo to the moon. When trying to save Buckbeak, Ron Weasley is foundreading ‘The Handbook of Hippogriff Psychology and Fowl or Foul? A Study of HippogriffBrutality’ (PoA 221). Rowling thus transforms an initially elusive mythical beast into a characterwith form, shape and identity. Similarly, Professor Lupin is revealed to be a werewolf but, by thattime, he has become established as a friend and ally to Harry. Thus a curious sense of ‘otherness’associated with confronting the mythic is reduced and lost from the reading experience.A great deal of the fun of reading Rowling’s books lies in the interpretation of hersymbolism. However, the question arises as to the extent that her symbols move beyond allegoricalexplanation and open themselves to notions of ‘higher’ mythical radiance. In his introduction to theallegory The Pilgrim’s Regress, C.S. Lewis proposed that ‘when allegory is at its best, it approaches
Rafer 4myth, which must be grasped with the imagination, not with the intellect’ (19). He explained that ifhis allegorical symbols in Pilgrim’s Regress such as North and South and Mr Sensiblehave some touch of mythical life, then no amount of ‘explanation’ will quite catch upwith their meaning. It is the sort of thing you cannot learn from definition : you mustrather get to know it as you get to know a smell or a taste, the ‘atmosphere’ of afamily or a country town, or the personality of an individual (19).For Lewis myth ‘is a higher thing than an allegory’ (Letters 458) because reason and rationalisationhave limits that can be surpassed through imagination. Lewis maintained that myth gives us ‘a storyout of which ever varying meanings will grow for different readers and in different ages’ whilst intoan allegory ‘a man can put only what he already knows’ (458).A highly symbolic passage emerges in Philosopher’s Stone when Harry encountersVoldemort feeding upon a unicorn; this act symbolising the ultimate evil of the wizards feedingupon innocence and purity. For David Colbert ‘Even in Harry’s wizard world, with so manywondrous beasts, the unicorn is a symbol of the sacred’ (239) and the killer of the unicorn is cursedfrom the moment the unicorn’s blood touched his lips. The centaurs inform Hagrid that Mars, thesymbol of war or wrath, is ‘Unusually bright’ (PS 185). The centaur Firenze hopes the planets havebeen read wrongly on this occasion, implying that Harry’s fate is predetermined. Cirlot observes thatMars’ symbolism indicates a ‘necessity for the shedding of blood’ (204), significant for Harry whowill be forced to shed blood for Voldemort in Goblet. However, the higher mythical power of the‘pure and defenceless’ unicorn is undercut when Harry acknowledges that he’s ‘only used the hornand tail-hair in Potions’ (PS 188). A sense of the commoditisation of this sacred mythical creaturethus emerges, prefigured by unicorn horns for sale in Diagon Alley at 21 Galleons each (62) and thatrecurs with the greed that Slughorn displays when he realises the commercial potential of unicorntail-hair in Half-Blood Prince (455). The wizards have in fact made a commodity of such things asunicorns, dragons and other mythical creatures, buying and selling them within magic products.It is hard to draw much in the way of awe and mystery, the ‘otherness’ that should be evokedby the scene in the Forest which Julia Eccleshare criticises because ‘the symbolism of the deadunicorn stand(s) out as an unusual example of Rowling failing to inject magic into a scene which,closely resembling much of C.S. Lewis, falls surprisingly flat’ (24). Rowling projects thesehappenings as though we are watching shapes moving at a distance rather than emphasizing theimmediacy and intimacy of Voldemort’s spiritual transgression. Earlier in Philosopher’s StoneHagrid’s explanation that Harry’s scar is ‘what yeh get when a powerful, evil curse touches yeh’(45) is muted by Snape’s put-down that Harry is simply ‘Our new – celebrity’ (101), ‘celebrity’being both part of Harry’s hero myth and the blight inflicted upon him by Voldemort in perpetuity.Rowling follows traditional uses for dragons, having them guard golden eggs in theTriwizard tournament and hinting that they guard Gringotts’s vaults in book 1, but by book 5 theyare the butt of her joke about dragon pox and in Half-Blood Prince the Weasley twins weardragonskin jackets at Dumbledore’s funeral. In a similar vein Cerberus in Philosopher’s Stoneserves as a guard dog but his mythic power is lessened by Hagrid’s naming of ‘Fluffy’, suggesting apet poodle rather than the ravening guard of Hades encountered by the heroes of Greek myth. Again,as with the scene in the Forbidden Forest, this mythic encounter struggles to rise to that curiouslyLewisian notion of receiving ‘the Event’ of a myth that evokes awe and has a power that is ‘extra-literary’ (Lewis, An Experiment in Criticism 48). Lewis viewed this special kind of myth as ‘awe-
Rafer 5inspiring … (and) numinous’ (44), drawing upon Rudolf Otto’s The Idea of the Holy for his ratheridiosyncratic analysis of myth in Experiment in Criticism (1961). Myth, in this sense, ‘is notapplicable to The Lord of the Rings or to The Odyssey or to some other forms of original myth’(Purtill 13). Instead Lewis ‘defined an interesting category, something related to myth, that might becalled the “numinous idea”’ (13). Many works that are mythic fall short of some of Lewis’characteristics for this kind of numinous quality. For Lewis numinous myth is always grave,something that Rowling’s treatment seldom provides, and deals ‘with impossibles andpreternaturals’ (An Experiment in Criticism 44). These criteria seem more in keeping with suchcreations as the thestrals who are uncannily visible to those who have witnessed death. They aredescribed as bat-winged, horse-like, reptilianscompletely fleshless, their black coats clinging to their skeletons, of which every bonewas visible. Their heads were dragonish, and their pupil-less eyes white and staring.Wings sprouted from each wither — vast, black leathery wings that looked as thoughthey ought to belong to giant bats. Standing still and quiet in the gathering gloom, thecreatures looked eerie and sinister (OotP 178).Thestrals belong to that category of Rowling creations that includes Dementors and Voldemort,since they retain a garish nightmare quality that feeds their mythic power and works to conveyotherness even though they exist more fully as psychological archetypes.As mythic symbols these creations are pulled in different directions, being mainlypsychologised but also striving through their solemnity and archetypal significance to rise beyondthis kind of reduction. They are symbols from Rowling’s own Potter mythology and drawn from herpsyche but these kinds of symbols also live in our deeper inherited Jungian ‘collective unconscious’(Jung 67). We thus find the sacramental symbolism of the phoenix and unicorn alongside deeplypsychological symbols such as Dementors which for Rowling ‘symbolise the debilitating effects ofdepression’ (Kern 201). However, Dementors are not confined solely to the realms of psychology.Lupin explains that ultimately ‘they clamp their jaws upon the mouth of the victim and — and suckout his soul’ (PoA 183), a fate worse than death becauseYou can exist without your soul … as long as your brain and heart are still working.But you’ll have no sense of self any more, no memory, no … anything. There’s nochance at all of recovery. You’ll just - exist. As an empty shell. And your soul is gonefor ever … lost’ (183).However, Lupin doesn’t refer to this attack upon human spirituality as consigning victims todamnation. Unlike the Baptismal death of the old self before the birth of the new, dementors give apermanent loss of self although Lupin’s explanation never encroaches upon the ‘Platonic concept ofthe soul as a metaphysical entity created by God’ (Badham qtd. in Richardson and Bowden 548).Although Dementors allegorise a mental illness, they are countered by a curiously psychoanalyticyet also more numinous mythic symbol. In the scene where Dementors attack Harry by the lake inPrisoner of Azkaban, Rowling counters their reductivism with ‘a silvery light’ that gains in intensityuntil it is as ‘bright as a unicorn’ (282). This patronus, or guardian, is conjured from a wizard’s innerdepths. Harry’s patronus takes the form of a stag, the same animal-shape adopted by his animagusfather. Harry’s patronus is recognised by Dumbledore as Harry’s father when Dumbledore witnessesit at a quidditch match, Dumbledore later explaining to Harry, that ‘you did see your father lastnight, Harry … you found him inside yourself’ (312). Sirius’s soul is thus saved by what Freud
Rafer 6termed the ‘return of the repressed’ which in this case is Harry’s murdered father James Potter. Thetheme of the murdered father also motivates events in Goblet with Barty Crouch junior viewing theslaying of his father as an echo of Voldemort’s murder of his hated Muggle father. Sirius hadintended to commit the murder he’d been falsely imprisoned for but, thanks to Harry ‘saving’ hissoul, Sirius is not diminished by this act and later crosses the veil, symbolising the division betweenlife and death, in The Order of the Phoenix with his soul undiminished.Considering the creation of Lord Voldemort, the fact that fearful wizards prefer to callHarry’s nemesis ‘You Know Who’ emphasizes the demonisation of Voldemort. In a world wheremythical conceptions are real, Voldemort is evil incarnate. The power of fear is one of Voldemort’skey strengths, tying in to the power of irrationality in myth and the way that ‘Myth is an offspring ofemotion and its emotional background imbues all its productions with its own specific color’(Cassirer, An Essay on Man 82). However, this aspect of the wizards’ irrationality contrasts withVoldemort’s own manipulative reasoning since he argues Quirrell, for example, out of believing inthe concept of good and evil whilst promoting the more Hegelian view that there is only power. Thesymbols of the boggart and the grim change and lose their power over Harry after he faces up to thefear they present and thus he breaks the emotional hold that they have over him. In contrast, othersymbols grow through the books as greater emotion is vested in them. Thus Voldemort gainsappreciable mythic power and reality with each new book. Hagrid, for example, explains that peoplefeared thestrals as ‘bad omens’ because they ‘didn’ understand them’ (OoP 396) whereas NevilleLongbottom sees but doesn’t fear them.Voldemort’s mythical symbolic properties grow through both his evil acts and the inclusionof other symbols. Symbols associated with Voldemort include darkness, the division of light anddark into good and evil respectively being an entirely mythical conception with no basis inrationalism, and the snake that is the emblem of Slytherin house. The venom of the snake Naginikeeps Voldemort alive in book 4, Nagini recalls Indian myths of the naga snakes (Colbert 163–4)whilst Voldemort’s very appearance becomes snakelike as his soul is corrupted. His specific symbolis the Dark Mark with which he identifies his disciples, a ‘version of the Devil’s Mark, a notionfrom the Middle Ages … The stamp that makes these marks is nothing less than the Devil’s talon’(Colbert 59–60). This symbol is invested with specifically mythical modes of thought since the DarkMark taints all who submit to its impression, like a brand of evil. Voldemort also leaves the mark ofa scar upon Harry’s head which symbolises more than the psychological damage he’s caused by themurder of Harry’s parents. Critics Gallardo-C and Smith identify the scar as Harry’s ‘magical thirdeye’ suggesting that itfunctions not only as an outward symbol of the protagonist’s supposed power againstevil, but also operates as a reminder, like the mark of Cain, of the very evil it protectsagainst. The symbolism runs even deeper when considering the Hindu god Shiva —the destroyer of all material forms — whose vertical third eye, centered in hisforehead, “blazes with the fire of ten million suns, and can consume any creature withflame” (197).However, Voldemort continues to be most easily read as the Jungian archetypal Shadowfigure (Nikolajeva; Merrill). Jung wrote that ‘The devil is a variant of the “shadow” archetype, i.e.,of the dangerous aspect of the unrecognised dark half of the personality’ (Jung 78–79). Harry andVoldemort have similar powers, half-blood lineage, similar backgrounds, upbringing and
Rafer 7appearance. Even Tom Riddle notes the ‘strange likenesses between us’ (CS 233) during theirencounter in the chamber of Salazar Slytherin. As if to confirm his identity as a Jungianmythologem, Voldemort identifies himself in Philosopher’s Stone as ‘Mere shadow and vapour … Ihave form only when I can share another’s body … but there have always been those willing to letme into their hearts and minds’ (PS 213). We might read Voldemort as Harry’s Freudian desire tokill his own father and replace him in his mother’s affections. However, in Goblet the Shadow‘emerges from the cauldron’s womb’ and becomes ‘magically blood-related to Harry, a son to Harryas father’, as Harry himself is forced into giving Voldemort physical form once more (Mills 4).Even as a largely psychological symbol, Voldemort’s significance continues to feel greater.His mythical life lives beyond the limitation of simply being part of Harry’s repressed sexual desirebecause Voldemort has a mythic life beyond Freudian, or Jungian, interpretation as the Cave scenein Half-Blood Prince suggests. Here Dumbledore becomes Harry’s Underworld guide and ferrymanwhen they cross over a black Acheron-like expanse to seek one of Voldemort’s Horcruxes. Hisvictims rising from their submergence evoke a Dantean vision after Harry forces Dumbledore todrink a mysterious draught that could be the Draught of Living Death that Snape teaches Harryabout in their first ever potions class. This draught induces profound sleep indistinguishable fromdeath and thus gives the cave scene a suggestion of the myth of the Cave of Somnus where alsodwelt Thanatos. The Draught’s ingredients including asphodel, and in Greek myth ‘the first regionof Tartarus contains the cheerless Asphodel Fields’ (Graves 120–1). Entry to Voldemort’s Cave isgained by blood, recalling that the underworld gods’ ‘one delight is in libations of blood poured tothem by the living’ (120-1). These myths form facets of Voldemort’s greater resonance and magicdimension, through his participation in their patterns.Thus we have considered some of the curious tensions within the symbols of Rowling’s art.Voldemort is both the embodiment of evil, a devil incarnate for wizards, and also, as Hagrid andDumbledore explain to Harry, simply a wizard that went bad. Even though Harry appears to belocked into a mythic struggle that is celestially predetermined, Rowling suggests that Harry has thefreedom to make choices. When all is said by the Sorting Hat, he chooses to go into Gryffindor andnot to succumb to his Slytherin/dark side, and this is important because, for Rowling, evil in Pottercomes squarely down to the choices of individuals. They thus must bear responsibility for their ownactions.Works CitedAbanes, Richard, Harry Potter and the Bible: The Menace Behind the Magick, Camp Hill, PA:Christian Publications, 2001.ACD. ‘Harry Potter and the Literary Elitist,’ Sounds & Fury. 7 July 2004. www.soundsandfury.com/soundsandfury/2004/07/harry_potter_an.htmlCampbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. London: Fontana, 1993.Cassirer, Ernst. An Essay On Man: An Introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture, New Haven:Yale UP, 1972.——— . Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. Vol. 2: Mythical Thought. Trans. Ralph Manheim. NewHaven: Yale, 1955.
Rafer 8Cirlot, J.E. A Dictionary of Symbols, 2nded. Trans. Jack Sage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul,1971.Colbert, David. The Magical Worlds of Harry Potter: A Treasury of Myths, Legends andFascinating Facts. 3rded. London: Puffin, 2005.Eccleshare, Julia. A Guide to the Harry Potter Novels. London: Continuum, 2002.Granger, John. ‘Harry Potter and the Inklings: The Christian Meaning of The Chamber of Secrets’CSL:The Bulletin of the New York C.S. Lewis Society. 392 (November-December 2002):No. 6, Whole No. 392, pp. 1-14.——— . The Hidden Key to Harry Potter. Port Hadlock, WA: Zossima P, 2002.Graves, Robert. The Greek Myths: Volume 1. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1960.Gallardo-C, Ximena, and C. Jason Smith. ‘Cinderfella: J.K. Rowling’s Wily Web of Gender’Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays. Ed. Giselle Liza Anatol. Westport, CT: Praeger,2003.Jung, C.G., Jung on Mythology. Routledge: London, 1998.Kern, Edmund. The Wisdom of Harry Potter: What Our Favorite Hero Teaches Us about MoralChoices, New York: Prometheus Books, 2003.Kronzek, Allan Zola, and Elizabeth Kronzek. The Sorcerer’s Companion, a Guide to the MagicalWorld of Harry Potter. 2nded. New York: Broadway Books, 2004.Lewis, C.S. C.S. Lewis: Essay Collection and Other Short Pieces, London: HarperCollins, 2000.———. An Experiment in Criticism, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996.———. Letters of C.S. Lewis, Rev. ed. Ed. W. Hooper, W., San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1993.———. The Pilgrim’s Regress: An Allegorical Apology for Christianity, Reason and Romanticism.London: Font, 1977.Mills, Alice, ‘Archetypes and the Unconscious in Harry Potter and Diana Wynne Jones’s Fire andHemlock and Dogsbody’ Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays. Ed. Gisselle Anatol.Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.Merrill, Trista, M., ‘Crossing Boundaries on a Bolt of Lightning: Mythic, Pedagogical and Techno-Cultural Approaches to Harry Potter’ Ph.D. Diss. Binghampton U, State U of New York,2003.Nikolajeva, M. ‘Harry Potter – A Return to the Romantic Hero’ Harry Potter’s World,Multidisciplinary Critical Perspectives. Ed. Elizabeth, E. Heilman. New York:RoutledgeFalmer, 2003.Ovid. The Metamorphoses of Ovid. Trans. Mary Innes. London: Penguin, 1967.Pennington, John. ‘From Elfland to Hogwarts, or the Aesthetic Trouble with Harry Potter’ The Lionand the Unicorn, 26.1 (2002): 78-97.Purtill, Richard. J.R.R. Tolkien, Myth, Morality and Religion. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1984.Richardson, Alan & John Bowden, eds. A New Dictionary of Christian Theology. London: SCM P,2002.Rowling, J.K. Interview with Lev Grossman ‘J.K. Rowling Hogwarts and All’ Time Magazine 25July 2005. [QQQ says 17 July; Time says 25 July] QQQ /articles/2005/0705-time-grossman.htm
David Rafer 9———. ‘Transcript of J.K. Rowling’s live interview on Scholastic.com: 16thOctober 2000’Scholastic.Com. 21stMarch 2003, www.scholastic.com/harrypotter/author/transcript2.htmSayer, George. Jack, a Life of C.S. Lewis. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1997.Shapiro, M., J.K. Rowling: The Wizard Behind Harry Potter, New York: Griffin, 2000.