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  • One-child policyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGovernment sign in Nanchang:"For a prosperous, powerful nation and a happy family, please use birth planning."The one-child policy refers to the one-child limitation on most families in the population control policy(simplified Chinese: 计划生育政策; traditional Chinese: 計劃生育政策; pinyin: jìhuàshēngyùzhèngcè; literally"policy of birth planning") of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The Chinese government refers to it underthe official translation offamily planning policy.[1]It officially restricts the number of children married urbancouples can have to one, although it allows exemptions for several cases, including rural couples, ethnicminorities, and parents without any siblings themselves.[2]A spokesperson of the Committee on the One-ChildPolicy has said that approximately 35.9% of Chinas population is currently subject to the one-childrestriction.[3]The policy does not apply to the Special Administrative Regions of HongKong and Macau or Tibet.The policy was introduced in 1978 and initially applied to first-born children in 1979. It was created by theChinese government to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems in China,[4]and authoritiesclaim that the policy has prevented more than 250 million births from its implementation to 2000.[2]The policy iscontroversial both within and outside China because of the manner in which the policy has been implemented,and because of concerns about negative social consequences. The policy has been implicated in an increasein forced abortions,[5]female infanticide, and underreporting[6]of female births, and has been suggested as apossible cause behind Chinas gender imbalance. Nonetheless, a 2008 survey undertaken by the PewResearch Center reported that 76% of the Chinese population supports the policy.[7]The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the familyand other factors. Population and Family Planning Commissions (Chinese: 计划生育委员会) exist at every levelof government to raise awareness about the issue and carry out registration and inspection work. Despite thispolicy, there are still many citizens that continue to have more than one child.[citation needed][8]
  • In 2008, Chinas National Population and Family Planning Commission said that the policy will remain in placefor at least another decade.[9]In 2010 it was announced that the majority of the citizens first subject to thepolicy are no longer of reproductive age and it has been speculated that many citizens simply disregard orviolate the policy in more recent years. In response, the deputy director of the Commission stated that thepolicy would remain unaltered until at least 2015.[10][edit]OverviewThe one-child policy promotes one-child families and forbids couples from having more than one child in urbanareas. Parents with multiple children arent given the same benefits as parents of one child. In most cases,wealthy families pay a fee to the government in order to have second children.[edit]Current statusThe limit has been strongly enforced in urban areas, but the actual implementation varies from location tolocation.[11]In most rural areas, families are allowed to apply to have a second child if the first is a girl,[12]or hasa physical disability, mental illness or mental retardation.[13]Second children are subject to birth spacing(usually3 or 4 years). Additional children will result in large fines: families violating the policy are required to paymonetary penalties and might be denied bonuses at their workplace. Children born in overseas countries arenot counted under the policy if they do not obtain Chinese citizenship. Chinese citizens returning from abroadcan have a second child.[14]
  • The Danshan, Sichuan Province Nongchang Village people Public Affairs Bulletin Board in September 2005 notedthat RMB 25,000 in social compensation fees were owed in 2005. Thus far 11,500 RMB had been collected leaving another13,500 RMB to be collected.The social fostering or maintenance fee (simplified Chinese: 社会抚养费; traditional Chinese: 社會撫養費;pinyin: shèhuìfúyǎngfèi) sometimes called in the West a family planning fine, is collected as a multiple of eitherthe annual disposable income of city dwellers or the annual cash income of peasants as determined each yearby the local statistics office. The fine for a child born above the birth quota that year is thus a multiple of,depending upon the locality, either urban resident disposable income or peasant cash income estimated thatyear by the local statistics. So a fine for a child born ten years ago is based on the income estimate for the yearof the childs birth and not of the current year.[15]They also have to pay for both the children to go to school andall the familys health care. Some children who are in one-child families pay less than the children in otherfamilies. The one child policy was designed from the outset to be a one generation policy.[16]The one-child policy is now enforced at the provincial level, and enforcement varies; some provinces haverelaxed the restrictions. Many provinces and cities, such as Henan[17]andBeijing, permit two "only child"parents to have two children. As early as 1987, official policy granted local officials the flexibility to makeexceptions and allow second children in the case of "practical difficulties" (such as cases in which the father isa disabled serviceman) or when both parents are single children,[18]and some provinces had other exemptionsworked into their policies as well.[19]Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a new exception to the regulationswas announced in Sichuan province for parents who had lost children in the earthquake.[20][21]Similarexceptions have previously been made for parents of severely disabled or deceased children.[22]Moreover, in accordance with PRCs affirmative action policies towards ethnic minorities, all non-Han ethnicgroups are subjected to different rules and are usually allowed to have two children in urban areas, and threeor four in rural areas. Han Chinese living in rural areas, also, are often permitted to have twochildren.[23]Because of couples such as these, as well as urban couples who simply pay a fine (or "socialmaintenance fee") to have more children,[24]the overall fertility rate of mainland China is closer to two childrenper family than to one child per family (1.8). The steepest drop in fertility occurred in the 1970s before one childper family was implemented in 1979. Population policies and campaigns have been ongoing in China since the1950s. During the 1970s, a campaign of One is good, two is okay, and three is too many was heavilypromoted.[25]In April 2007 a study by the University of California, Irvine, which claimed to be the first systematic study of thepolicy, found that it had proved "remarkably effective".[26]Other reports have shown population aging andnegative population growth in some areas.[27][edit]Effects on population growth and fertility rate
  • Age pyramid for China showing smaller age cohorts in recent years.After the introduction of the one-child policy, the fertility rate in China fell from over three births per woman in1980 (already a sharp reduction from more than five births per woman in the early 1970s) to approximately 1.8births in 2008.[28](The colloquial term "births per woman" is usually formalized as the Total Fertility Rate (TFR),a technical term in demographic analysis meaning the average number of children that would be born to awoman over her lifetime if she were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates through herlifetime.)The Chinese government estimates that it had three to four hundred million fewer people in 2008 with the one-child policy, than it would have had otherwise.[29][30]Chinese authorities thus consider the policy as a greatsuccess in helping to implement Chinas current economic growth. The reduction in the fertility rate and thuspopulation growth has reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation, like epidemics, slums,overwhelmed social services (such as health, education, law enforcement), and strain on the ecosystem fromabuse of fertile land and production of high volumes of waste. Even with the one-child policy in place, "Chinastill has one million more births than deaths every five weeks."[30][edit]Non-population-related benefits[edit]Impact on health careIt is reported that the focus of China on population control helps provide a better health service for women anda reduction in the risks of death and injury associated with pregnancy. At family planning offices, womenreceive free contraception and pre-natal classes. Help is provided for pregnant women to closely monitor theirhealth. In various places in China, the government rolled out a ‗Care for Girls‘ program, which aims ateliminating cultural discrimination against girls in rural and underdeveloped areas through subsidies andeducation.[30]
  • [edit]Increased savings rateThe individual savings rate has increased since the one-child policy was introduced. This has been partiallyattributed to the policy in two respects. First, the average Chinese household expends fewer resources, both interms of time and money, on children, which gives many Chinese more money with which to invest. Second,since young Chinese can no longer rely on children to care for them in their old age, there is an impetus tosave money for the future.[31][edit]Economic growthThe original intent of the one-child policy was economic, to reduce the demand of natural resources,maintaining a steady labor rate, reducing unemploymentcaused from surplus labor, and reducing the rate ofexploitation.[32][33]The CPCs justification for this policy was based on their support of Mao Zedongssupposedly Marxist theory of population growth, though Marx was actually witheringly criticalof Malthusianism.[33][34][edit]Criticisms[edit]Other available policy alternativesOne type of criticism has come from those who acknowledge the challenges stemming from Chinas highpopulation growth but believe that less intrusive options, including those that emphasized delay and spacing ofbirths, could have achieved the same results over an extended period of time. Susan Greenhalghs (2003)review of the policy-making process behind the adoption of the OCPF shows that some of these alternativeswere known but not fully considered by Chinas political leaders.[35][edit]Policy benefits exaggeratedAnother criticism is directed at the exaggerated claimed effects of the policy on the reduction in the total fertilityrate. Studies by Chinese demographers, funded in part by the UN Fund for Population Activities, showed thatcombining poverty alleviation and health care with relaxed targets for family planning was more effective atreducing fertility than vigorous enforcement of very ambitious fertility reduction targets.[36]In 1988, Zeng Yi andprofessor T. Paul Schultz of Yale Universitydiscussed the effect of the transformation to the market on Chinesefertility, arguing that the introduction of the contract responsibility system in agriculture during the early 1980sweakened family planning controls during that period.[37]Zeng contended that the "big cooking pot" system ofthe Peoples Communes had insulated people from the costs of having many children. By the late 1980s,economic costs and incentives created by the contract system were already reducing the number of childrenfarmers wanted.As Hasketh, Lu, and Xing observe: "[T]he policy itself is probably only partially responsible for the reduction inthe total fertility rate. The most dramatic decrease in the rate actually occurred before the policy was imposed.Between 1970 and 1979, the largely voluntary "late, long, few" policy, which called for later childbearing,
  • greater spacing between children, and fewer children, had already resulted in a halving of the total fertility rate,from 5.9 to 2.9. After the one-child policy was introduced, there was a more gradual fall in the rate until 1995,and it has more or less stabilized at approximately 1.7 since then."[38]These researchers note further that Chinacould have expected a continued reduction in its fertility rate just from continued economic development, had itkept to the previous policy.[edit]Human rightsThe one-child policy is challenged in principle and in practice for violating the human right to determine the sizeof ones own family. A 2001 report exposed that a quota of 20,000 abortions and sterilizations was set for HuaijiCounty in Guangdong Province in one year due to reported disregard of the one-child policy. The effortincluded using portable ultrasound devices to identify abortion candidates in remote villages. Earlier reportsalso show that women as far along as 8.5 months pregnant were forced to abort by injection of salinesolution.[5]There have also been reports of women, in their 9th month of pregnancy or already in labor, havingtheir children killed whilst in the birth canal or immediately after birth.[39]Stephen Moore of the CatoInstitute announced that the one child policy is "an ongoinggenocide." He argued that freemarket capitalism will solve the overpopulation and overconsumption problems of developing nations.[40]In 2002, China outlawed the use of physical force to make a woman submit to an abortion or sterilization, but itis not entirely enforced.[30][41]In the execution of the policy, many local governments still demand abortions if thepregnancy violates local regulations.Although China has had a reputation for heavy handed eugenics policies as part of its population planningpolicies, the government has backed away from such policies recently, as evidenced by Chinas ratification ofthe Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which compels the nation to significantly reform itsgenetic testing laws.[42]Recent scholarship has also emphasized the necessity of understanding a myriad ofcomplex social relations that affect the meaning ofinformed consent in China.[43]Furthermore, in 2003, Chinarevised its marriage registration regulations and couples no longer have to submit to a pre-marital physical orgenetic examination before being granted a marriage license.[44]The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) funding for this policy is heavily criticized in the UnitedStates.[45]The United States Congress pulled out of the UNFPA during the Reagan years,[40]and U.S.President George W. Bush referred to human rights abuses as his reason for stopping the US$40 millionpayment to the UNFPA in early 2002.[46]In early 2003 the U.S. State Department issued a press release statingthat they would not continue to support the UNFPA in its present form because they believed that, at the veryleast, coercive birth limitation practices were not being properly addressed. The U.S. government has statedthat the right to "found a family" is protected under the Preamble in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.This, coupled with the International Conference on Population and Developments view that it is the right of the
  • individual, not the state, to determine the number of children, represents a clear conflict between Chinas policyand U.S. accepted and adopted human rights conventions.[47]President Obama resumed U.S. government financial support for the UNFPA shortly after taking office in 2009.Obama said, "I look forward to working with Congress to restore U.S. financial support for the U.N. PopulationFund. By resuming funding to UNFPA, the U.S. will be joining 180 other donor nations working collaborativelyto reduce poverty, improve the health of women and children, prevent HIV/AIDS and provide familyplanning assistance to women in 154 countries."[48][49][edit]The "four-two-one" problemAs the first generation of law-enforced only children came of age for becoming parents themselves, one adultchild was left with having to provide support for his or her two parents and four grandparents. Called the "4-2-1Problem", this leaves the older generations with increased chances of dependency on retirement funds orcharity in order to receive support. If personal savings, pensions, or state welfare fail, most senior citizenswould be left entirely dependent upon their very small family or neighbors for assistance. If, for any reason, thesingle child is unable to care for their older adult relatives, the oldest generations would face a lack ofresources and necessities. In response to such an issue, certain provinces maintained that couples wereallowed to have two children if both parents were only children themselves. As of 2009, all provinces in thenation adopted this new adaptation.[50][51]A majority of women in Jiangsu province eligible for a second childwould voluntarily have only one child, according to a 2010 survey.[52][edit]Possible social problems for a generation of only childrenSome parents may over-indulge their only child. The media referred to the indulged children in one-childfamilies as "little emperors". Since the 1990s, some people have worried that this will result in a highertendency toward poor social communication and cooperation skills among the new generation, as they have nosiblings at home. No social studies have investigated the ratio of these over-indulged children and to whatextent they are indulged. With the first generation of children born under the policy (which initially became arequirement for most couples with first children born starting in 1979 and extending into 1980s) reachingadulthood, such worries are reduced.[53]Some 30 delegates called on the government in the Chinese People‘s Political ConsultativeConference (CPPCC) in March 2007 to abolish the one-child rule, attributing their beliefs to "social problemsand personality disorders in young people". One statement read, "It is not healthy for children to play only withtheir parents and be spoiled by them: it is not right to limit the number to two children per family, either."[54]Theproposal was prepared by Ye Tingfang, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, whosuggested that the government at least restore the previous rule that allowed couples to have up to twochildren. According to a scholar, "The one-child limit is too extreme. It violates nature‘s law. And in the long run,this will lead to mother nature‘s revenge."[54][55]
  • [edit]Unequal enforcementGovernment officials and especially wealthy individuals have often been able to violate the policy in spite offines.[56]For example, between 2000 and 2005, as many as 1,968 officials in central Chinas Hunan provincewere found to be violating the policy, according to the provincial family planning commission; also exposed bythe commission were 21 national and local lawmakers, 24 political advisors, 112 entrepreneurs and 6 seniorintellectuals.[57]Some of the offending officials did not face penalties,[58]although the government did respondby raising fines and calling on local officials to "expose the celebrities and high-income people who violate thefamily planning policy and have more than one child."[57][edit]Side effects on female population"The Guanyin Who Sends Children" in a temple in the small town of Danshan, Sichuan.China, like many other Asian countries, has a long tradition of son preference.[30]The commonly acceptedexplanation for son preference is that sons in rural families may be thought to be more helpful in farm work.Both rural and urban populations have economic and traditional incentives, including widespread remnantsofConfucianism, to prefer sons over daughters. Sons are preferred as they provide the primary financialsupport for the parents in their retirement, and a sons parents typically are better cared for than his wifes. Inaddition, Chinese traditionally hold that daughters, on their marriage, become primarily part of the groomsfamily. Male-to-female sex ratios in the current Chinese population are high in both rural and urban areas.[38][edit]Gender-based birth rate disparityFor more details on this topic, see Missing women of Asia.The sex ratio at birth (between male and female births) in mainland China reached 117:100 in the year 2000,substantially higher than the natural baseline, which ranges between 103:100 and 107:100. It had risen from108:100 in 1981—at the boundary of the natural baseline—to 111:100 in 1990.[59]According to a report by theState Population and Family Planning Commission, there will be 30 million more men than women in 2020,potentially leading to social instability, and courtship-motivated emigration.[60]The correlation between the
  • increase of sex ratio disparity on birth and the deployment of one child policy would appear to have beencaused by the one-child policy.Other Asian regions also have higher than average ratios, including Taiwan (110:100) and SouthKorea (108:100), which do not have a family planning policy[61]and the ratio in South Korea reached as high as116:100 in the early 1990s but since then has moved substantially back toward a normal range, with a ratio of107:100 in 2005.[62]Many studies have explored the reason for the gender-based birth rate disparity in Chinaas well as other countries. A study in 1990 attributed the high preponderance of reported male births inmainland China to four main causes: diseases which affect females more severely than males; the result ofwidespread underreporting of female births; the illegal practice of sex-selective abortion made possible by thewidespread availability of ultrasound; and finally, acts of child abandonment and infanticide.[6]The number ofbachelors in China had already increased between 1990 and 2005, implying that Chinas lack of brides is notsolely linked to the one-child policy, as single-child families were only enforced from 1979.[63]In a recent paper, Emily Oster (2005) proposed a biological explanation for the gender imbalance in Asiancountries, including China. Using data on viral prevalence by country as well as estimates of the effect ofhepatitis on sex ratio, Oster claimed that Hepatitis B could account for up to 75% of the gender disparity inChina.[64]Monica Das Gupta (2005) has shown that "whether or not females go missing is determined by the existingsex composition of the family into which they are conceived. Girls with no older sisters have similar chances ofsurvival as boys. Girls conceived in families that already have a daughter, experience steeply higherprobabilities of being aborted or of dying in early childhood. Gupta claims that cultural factors provide theoverwhelming explanation for the "missing" females."[65]The disparity in the sex ratio at birth increases dramatically after the first birth, for which the ratios remainedsteadily within the natural baseline over the 20 year interval between 1980 and 1999. Thus, a large majority ofcouples appear to accept the outcome of the first pregnancy, whether it is a boy or a girl. If the first child is agirl, and they are able to have a second child, then a couple may take extraordinary steps to assure that thesecond child is a boy. If a couple already has two or more boys, the sex ratio of higher parity births swingsdecidedly in a feminine direction.[66]This demographic evidence indicates that while families highly value having male offspring, a secondary normof having a girl or having some balance in the sexes of children often comes into play. For example, Zeng et al.(1993) reported a study based on the 1990 census in which they found sex ratios of just 65 or 70 boys per 100girls for births in families that already had two or more boys.[67]A study by Anderson and Silver (1995) found asimilar pattern among both Han and non-Han nationalities in Xinjiang Province: a strong preference for girls inhigh parity births in families that had already borne two or more boys.[68]This evidence is consistent with the
  • observation by another researcher that for a majority of rural families "their ideal family size is one boy and onegirl, at most two boys and one girl".[69]A 2006 review article[70]by the Editorial Board of Population Research (simplified Chinese: 人口研究;pinyin: RénkǒuYánjiū), one of Chinas leading demography journals, argued that only an approach that makesthe rights of women central can succeed in bringing down Chinas high gender ratio at birth and improve thesurvival rate of female infants and girls. A section written by East China Normal University demographyprofessor CiQinying, "Research on the Sex Ratio at Birth Should Take a Gender Discrimination Approach,"argued that researchers must pay closer attention to gender issues in demography,[71][72]and a human rightsperspective in demographic research is crucial.[73][74]The authors of another review article, "Girl Survival in China: History, Present Situation and Prospects," whichwas presented at a 2005 conference supported by theUnited Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA),concluded that "The Chinese government has already set the goal of achieving a normal gender ratio at birthby 2010, and to achieve preliminary results in establishing a new cultural outlook on marriage and havingchildren. The government is working to change the system, way of thinking and other obstacles to attacking theroot of the problem. Only if equality of males and females is strongly promoted ... will the harmonious andsustainable development of society be possible."[75][edit]Abandoned or orphaned children and adoptionRural Sichuan roadside sign: "It is forbidden to discriminate against, mistreat or abandon baby girls."The social pressure exerted by the one-child policy has affected the rate at which parents abandon undesirablechildren, and many live in state-sponsored orphanages, from which thousands are adopted internationally andby Chinese parents each year. In the 1980s and early 1990s, poor care and high mortality rates in some stateinstitutions generated intense international pressure for reform.[76]According to Sten Johansson and Ola Nygren (1991) adoptions accounted for half of the so-called "missinggirls" in the 1980s in the PRC.[77]Through the 1980s, as the one-child policy came into force, parents whodesired a son but bore a daughter in some cases failed to report or delayed the reporting of the birth of the girl
  • to the authorities. But rather than neglecting or abandoning unwanted girls, the parents may have offered themup for formal or informal adoption. A majority of children who went through formal adoption in China in the later1980s were girls, and the proportion which was girls increased over time (Johansson and Nygren 1991).The practice of adopting out unwanted girls is consistent with both the son preference of many Chinesecouples and the findings of Zeng et al. (1993) and Anderson and Silver (1995) that under some circumstancesfamilies have a preference for girls, in particular when they have already satisfied their goals for sons.Research by Weiguo Zhang (2006) on child adoption in rural China reveals increasing receptivity to adoptinggirls, including by infertile and childless couples.[78]In 1992, China instituted its first Adoption Law. Officially registered adoptions increased from about 2,000 in1992 to 55,000 in 2001. According to one scholar, these figures "represent a small proportion of adoptions inChina because many adopted children were adopted informally without official registrations. . . ."[79]International adoption rates climbed dramatically after the early 1990s, increasing to the U.S. alone from about200 in 1992 to more than 7,900 in 2005.[80]According to the Los Angeles Times, many babies put up for adoption had not been abandoned by theirparents, but confiscated by family planning officials.[81][edit]InfanticideGender-selected abortion, abandonment, and infanticide are illegal in China. Nevertheless, the US StateDepartment,[82]the Parliament of the United Kingdom,[83]and the human rights organization AmnestyInternational[84]have all declared that Chinas family planning programs contribute to infanticide.Anthropologist G. William Skinner at the University of California-Davis and Chinese researcher YuanJianhuahave claimed that infanticide was fairly common in China before the 1990s.[85]It is unknown howprevalent infanticide has been in recent years.[edit]Fertility medicinesA 2006 China Daily report stated that wealthy couples are increasingly turning to fertility medicines tohave multiple births, because of the lack of penalties against couples who have more than one child in their firstbirth; according to the report, the number of multiple births per year in China had doubled by 2006.[86][edit]See alsoPeoples Republic of China portal Demographics of the Peoples Republic of China Demographic momentum
  •  Family planning Human rights in the Peoples Republic of China Only child Reproductive health Two-child policy Urbanization in China Heihaizi[edit]References1. ^ Information Office of the State Council Of the Peoples Republic of China(August 1995). "Family Planning in China". Embassy of the Peoples Republicof China in Lithuania. Retrieved 27 October 2008. Section III paragraph 2.2. ^a bBBC: China steps up "one-child policy".3. ^ "Most people free to have more child". 7/11/2007. Retrieved 2009-07-31.4. ^ Rocha da Silva, Pascal (2006). "La politique de lenfant unique enRépubliquepopulaire de Chine" ("The politics of one child in the PeoplesRepublic of China"). Université de Genève (University of Geneva). p. 22-8.(French)5. ^a bDamien Mcelroy (2001-04-08). "Chinese region must conduct 20,000abortions". London: Telegraph.6. ^a bFor studies that reported underreporting or delayed reporting of femalebirths, see the following: M. G. Merli and A. E. Raftery. 1990. "Are births under-reported in ruralChina? Manipulation of statistical records in response to Chinaspopulation policies", Demography 37 (February): 109-126 Johansson, Sten; Nygren, Olga (1991). "The missing girls of China: anew demographic account". Population and DevelopmentReview (Population Council) 17 (1): 35–51. doi:10.2307/1972351. Merli, M. Giovanna; Raftery, Adrian E. (2000). "Are births underreportedin rural China?". Demography 37 (1): 109 126.7. ^ "The Chinese Celebrate Their Roaring Economy, As They Struggle With ItsCosts". 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2009-07-31.8. ^ Arthur E. Dewey, Assistant Secretary for Population, Refugees andMigration Testimony before the House International Relations Committee
  • Washington, DC December 14,2004 http://statelists.state.gov/scripts/wa.exe?A2=ind0412c&L=dossdo&P=4019. ^ "China Sticking With One-Child Policy." The New York Times, March 11,2008. Retrieved on 7 November 2008.10. ^ "Chinas one-child policy little enforced -- and set toend". MarketWatch.March 29, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010.11. ^ See Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific report"Status of Population and Family Planning Programme in China by Province".12. ^ Hu Huiting (18 October 2002). "Family Planning Law and Chinas BirthControl Situation". China Daily. Retrieved 2 March 2009.13. ^ PBS (14 February 1984). "Family Planning Law and Chinas Birth ControlSituation". NOVA. Retrieved 13 October 2009.14. ^ Are the rich challenging family planning policy?15. ^ Summary of Family Planning notice on how FP fines are collected16. ^ Chen Youhua, 6/1999 issue of Population Research [RenkouYanjiu]"Research on Adjustment of Family Planning Policy"17. ^ "Regulations on Family Planning of Henan Province". Henan Daily. 5 April2000. Retrieved 29 October 2008. Article 13.18. ^ Scheuer, James (4 January 1987). "America, the U.N. and Chinas FamilyPlanning (Opinion)". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2008.19. ^ Sichuan, for example, has allowed exemptions for couples of certainbackgrounds; see Articles 11-13, "Revised at the 29th session of the standingcommittee of the 8th Peoples Congress of Sichuan Province". United NationsEconomic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 17 October 1997.Retrieved 31 October 2008.20. ^ One-Child Policy Lifted for Quake Victims‘ Parents, by Andrew Jacobs.New York Times, 27 May 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.21. ^ Baby offer for earthquake parents BBC. Retrieved on 31 October 2008.22. ^ China Amends Child Policy for Some Quake Victims23. ^ Yardley, Jim (11 May 2008). "China Sticking With One-Child Policy". TheNew York Times. Retrieved 20 November 2008.24. ^ "New rich challenge family planning policy." Xinhua.25. ^ "Chinas One-Child Policy". TIME. July 27, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
  • 26. ^ "First systematic study of China‘s one-child policy reveals complexity,effectiveness of fertility regulation". Today@UCI (University of CaliforniaIrvine). April 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-19.27. ^ Peoples Daily Online - Wuhan sees negative population growth28. ^ CIA World Factbook29. ^ Family Planning Law and Chinas Birth Control Situation30. ^a b c d eJohn Taylor (2005-02-08). "China - One Child Policy". AustralianBroadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2008-07-01.31. ^ Barry Naughton, The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth,Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2007.32. ^ 全慰天:社会主义经济规律与中国人口问题 Google Translated Version33. ^a bTain Z (March 1983). "[Studying Marxist theory on population andinitiating a new situation in demographic research]" (inChinese). RenkouYanjiu (2): 13–4. PMID 12313010.34. ^ Wen TZ (July 1981). "[Comrade Mao Ze-dongs contribution to Marxisttheory on population--in commemoration, of the 60th anniversary of the birthof the Chinese Communist Party]" (in Chinese). RenkouYanjiu (3): 8–11.PMID 12264239.35. ^ Susan Greenhalgh. 2003. "Science, Modernity, and the Making of ChinasOne-Child Policy", Population and Development Review 29 (June): 163-196.36. ^ U.S. Embassy Beijing June 1988 report PRC Family Planning: The MarketWeakens Controls But Encourages Voluntary Limits.37. ^ PRC journal Social Sciences in China [ZhongguoShehuiKexue, January1988].38. ^a bTherese Hasketh, Li Lu, and Zhu Wei Xing. 2005. "The effects of ChinasOne-Child Family Policy after 25 Years", New England Journal ofMedicine,353, No. 11 (September 15): 1171-1176.39. ^ Mosher, Steven W. (July 1993). A MothersOrdeal. Harcourt.ISBN 0151626626.40. ^a bDont Fund UNFPA Population Control41. ^ "Forced Sterilization".42. ^ "Implications of Chinas Ratification of the United Nations Convention onthe Rights of Persons with Disabilities".
  • 43. ^ "Genetic testing, governance, and the family in the Peoples Republic ofChina".44. ^ "Marriage Law of the People‘s Republic of China".45. ^ Smith, Chris (8 August 2004). "The United Nations Population Fund HelpsChina Persecute Women and Kill Children". National Right to Life Committee.Retrieved 2 March 2009.46. ^ Damien McElroy (2002-02-03). "China is furious as Bush halts UN abortionfunds". London: Telegraph.47. ^ SichanSiv (2003-01-21). "United Nations Fund for Population Activities inChina". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 19 February2003.48. ^ "UNFPA Welcomes Restoration of U.S. Funding," UNFPA News, January29, 2009.49. ^ HaiderRizvi, "Obama Sets New Course at the U.N.," IPS News, March 12,2009.50. ^ "Rethinking Chinas one-child policy". CBC. October 28, 2009. RetrievedJune 11, 2010.51. ^ "计生委新闻发言人:11%以上人口可生两个孩子 (English: "Spokesperson ofthe one-child policy committee: 11% or more of the population may have twochildren)" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2008.52. ^ "China may ease controversial one-child policy, allowing couples to havemultiple kids". New York Daily News. April 24, 2010. Retrieved June 8, 2010.53. ^ Daniela Deane (July 26, 1992). The Little Emperors. Los Angeles Times.pp. 1654. ^a b"Consultative Conference: ―The government must end the one-childrule‖". AsiaNews.it. 2007-03-16.55. ^ "Advisors say its time to change one-child policy". Shanghai Daily. 2007-03-15.56. ^ "Over 1,900 officials breach birth policy in C. China". Xinhua. 8 July 2007.Retrieved 11 November 2008. "But heavy fines and exposures seemed tohardly stop the celebrities and rich people, as there are still many people,who can afford the heavy penalties, insist on having multiple kids, the Hunancommission spokesman said."57. ^a b"Over 1,900 officials breach birth policy in C. China". Xinhua. 8 July2007. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  • 58. ^ "Over 1,900 officials breach birth policy in C. China". Xinhua. 8 July 2007.Retrieved 11 November 2008. "Three officials... who were all found to havekept extramarital mistresses, were all convicted for charges suchasembezzlement and taking bribes, but they were not punished for havingmore than one child."59. ^ Chen Wei (2005). "Sex Ratios at Birth in China". Retrieved 2 March2009.[unreliable source?]60. ^ "Chinese facing shortage of wives". BBC. 2007-01-12. Retrieved 2007-01-12.61. ^ See the Central Intelligence Agency report Sex ratio.62. ^ "Where Boys Were Kings, a Shift Toward Baby Girls,"New York Times,December 24, 2007.63. ^ "The worldwide war on baby girls". The Economist. March 8, 2010.Retrieved May 4, 2010.64. ^ Oster, Emily (December 2005). "Hepatitis B and the case of the missingwomen". Journal of Political Economy 113 (6): 1163–1216.doi:10.1086/498588.[dead link]65. ^ Monica Das Gupta, "Explaining Asias Missing Women," Population andDevelopment Review 31 (September 2005): 529-535.66. ^ This tendency to favour girls in high parity births to couples who hadalready borne sons was also noted by Coale, who suggested as well thatonce a couple had achieved its goal for the number of males, it was alsomuch more likely to engage in "stopping behavior", i.e., to stop having morechildren. SeeAnsley J. Coale (1996),"Five Decades of Missing Females inChina",Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 140 (4): 421-450.67. ^ Zeng Yi et al. 1993. "Causes and Implications of the Recent Increase in theReported Sex Ratio at Birth in China", Population and DevelopmentReview 19 (June): 283-302.68. ^ Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver. 1995. "Ethnic Differences inFertility and Sex Ratios at Birth in China: Evidence from Xinjiang", PopulationStudies49 (July): 211-226.69. ^ Weiguo Zhang, "Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China," Journal ofFamily Issues, 27 (March 2006), p. 306.
  • 70. ^ "China‘s Sex Ratio at Birth: From Doubts About its Existence to Looking fora Solution." Population Research 1/2006 issue原载《人口研究》2006年第1期]71. ^ "China‘s Sex Ratio at Birth: From Doubts About its Existence to Looking fora Solution." Population Research 1/2006 issue原载《人口研究》2006年第1期."If we do pay more attention to the problem of the rising sex ratio, still thefocus is on the rights of males such as the right to marry, and ignoreswomen‘s rights such as the right to survive, the right to reproduce, the right tohealth, etc. This approach inflicts even more harm on women. If thisapproach is taken, women will never be able to escape their subsidiaryposition and their role of satisfying the desires of others. Robbing females oftheir right to exist [shengmingquan生命权] is for the sake of giving birth tomales – that is putting the right to survive of males first. Moreover, protectingwomen‘s right to exist is merely for the purpose of provide a wife to sons. Ameasure to ensure that a counterpart is available to ensure that male canexercise his right to marry. In both case, the male is primary and the female issubsidiary."72. ^ "China‘s Sex Ratio at Birth: From Doubts About its Existence to Looking fora Solution." Population Research 1/2006 issue原载《人口研究》2006年第1期]."Therefore, how a researcher approaches the question of the sex ratio at birth– from what point for view, considering whose rights – is critical. Thisdepends upon the values of the researcher, the humanistic orientation of theresearcher and the consciousness the researcher has about gender andgender discrimination. Protecting the right to exist, the right to reproduce, andthe right to health of girls should be at the very core of policy and actionmeasures to control sex ratio at birth. That is because females are thebiggest victims of the rising sex ratio. The rising sex ratio is in fact robbingfemales of their right to exist and completely discriminates against females."73. ^ "China‘s Sex Ratio at Birth: From Doubts About its Existence to Looking fora Solution." Population Research 1/2006 issue原载《人口研究》2006年第1期]."Social controls on methods of selective reproduction are needed not onlybecause of the higher birth ratio that results but also because selective
  • reproduction harms the body and soul of the mother and robs unborn infants(regardless of being boy or girl) of their right to live. Selective reproductionitself should be more closely regulated and brought under control."74. ^ "China‘s Sex Ratio at Birth: From Doubts About its Existence to Looking fora Solution." Population Research 1/2006 issue原载《人口研究》2006年第1期]."Even aside from the question of the rising sex ratio at birth, we should alsointervene against and oppose elective abortion. Elective abortion robs unbornfemale infants of their right to live and their right to exist, accentuates thesocial custom of favoring males over females. Not only does it harm women‘sbodies it also reduces women to the role of a mere tool for reproduction.Women bodies and spirits are suffering grievous wounds. Therefore nomatter what the results of an elective abortion might be, we should interveneagainst and oppose elective abortion. The rise of the sex ratio at birth is onlyone among several reasons for intervening on selective reproduction."75. ^ http://www.wsic.ac.cn/Appendix/Download.aspx?AppendixMainId=SAM-1229 Li Shuzhuo, Wei Yan and Jiang Quanbao, "Girl Survival in China:History, Present Situation and Prospects", background materials for theAugust 2005 conference "Women and Health" available online in Chinese.The conference was sponsored by the United Nations Fund for PopulationActivities.76. ^ See Human Rights Watch report A Policy of Fatal Neglect in China‘s StateOrphanages and CHINESE ORPHANAGES A Follow-up.77. ^ Sten Johansson and Ola Nygren. 1991. "The Missing Girls of China: A NewDemographic Account", Population and Development Review 17 (March): 35-51.78. ^ Weiguo Zhang. 2006. "Child Adoption in Contemporary RuralChina", Journal of Family Issues 27 (March): 301-340.79. ^ See Weiguo Zhang (2006), cited earlier.80. ^ U.S. State Department report, "Immigrant Visas Issued to Orphans Comingto the U.S.", at http://travel.state.gov/family/adoption/stats/stats_451.html.81. ^ Demick, Barbara (20 Sept. 2009). "Chinese Babies Stolen by Officials forForeign Adoptions". Los Angeles Times.82. ^ See Associated Press article US State Department position.
  • 83. ^ See publication of the United Kingdom Parliament position regardingHuman Rights in China and Tibet.84. ^ See Amnesty Internationals report on violence against women in China.85. ^ Sarah Lubman (2000-03-15). "Experts Allege Infanticide In China MissingGirls Killed, Abandoned, Pair Say". San Jose Mercury News (California).86. ^ Associated Press (14 February 2006). "China: Drug bid to beat childban".China Daily. Retrieved 11 November 2008.[edit]Further reading Better 10 Graves Than One Extra Birth (ISBN 1-931550-92-1, LaogaiResearch Foundation) Greenhalgh, Susan, (2008). Just One Child: Science and Policy in DengsChina (ISBN 978-0-520-25339-1, University of California Press)[edit]External linksWikimedia Commons hasmedia related to: Populationpolicy in China Family Planning in China Illegal births and legal abortions – the case of China[hide]v • d • eTopics on human populationMajor articles World population · Family planning · Green revolution · Overpopulation · Over-consumption (water crisis) · Reproductive rights ·Biological topics Population biology · Population control (one-child policy · Immigration reduction) · Population decline · Population density · PopuPopulation ecologyCarrying capacity · Ecological footprint · I = P • A • T · Malthusian growth model · World3 model · Food security · World energy rdestruction · Optimum populationLiterary worksA Modest Proposal · An Essay on the Principle of Population · Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth · How Much Land Does a MPopulation Bomb · The Ultimate Resource · The Skeptical EnvironmentalistLists Most highly populated countries · Metropolitan areas by populationEvents andorganizationsInternational Conference on Population and Development · Optimum Population Trust · United Nations Population Fund · WorldRelated articles World Population Day · "The Day of Six Billion" · Easter Island downfall · Classic Maya collapse · Holocene extinction · Fertility