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Types of Chemical Reactions

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This is a ppt on the different types of Chemical Reactions (6).

This is a ppt on the different types of Chemical Reactions (6).

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  • 1. Movie: types of chemical reactions: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-HHvx1VC_8
  • 2. Identify, give evidence for, predict products of, and classify the following types of chemical reactions: 1. Synthesis (combination) 2. Decomposition 3. Single Replacement 4. Double Replacement 5. Neutralization (acid/base) 6. Combustion
  • 3.  Synthesis  Decomposition  Neutralization  Single displacement  Double displacement  Combustion
  • 4. A chemical change: any change in which a new substance is formed. Evidence of a Chemical Change:  Release of energy as heat  Release of energy as light  Change in colour  Formation of a gas  Change in odour…
  • 5. 1. Neutralization: Acid(H) + Base(OH)  salt + H(OH) 2. Combustion: AB + oxygen  CO2 + H2O 3. Synthesis: A + B  AB 4. Decomposition: AB  A + B 5. Single displacement: A + BC  AC + B 6. Double displacement: AB + CD  AD + CB
  • 6. Synthesis reactions are also known as FORMATION reactions. Two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a compound. –A + B  AB where A and B represent elements – The elements may form ionic compounds, like… – Sodium metal and chlorine gas combine to form sodium chloride. – 2Na + Cl2  2NaCl Sodium added to chlorine gas
  • 7. TYPES: SYNTHESIS Example C + O2 C + O O  O C O C C O O C C O O C C C C C C C CC C General: A + B  AB
  • 8. OTHER EXAMPLES… 1. Elements that form ionic compounds: Magnesium metal reacts with oxygen gas to form magnesium oxide. •2Mg + O2  2MgO 2. Elements that form covalent compounds: Nitrogen gas and oxygen gas join to form nitrogen monoxide. •2N2 + O2  2N2O SYNTHESIS REACTION (iron + sulphur): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A5H6DVe5FAI
  • 9. • Decomposition reactions are the opposite of synthesis reactions. –A compounds breaks down into two or more products (often elements). –AB  A + B where A and B represent elements 1. Ionic compounds may decompose to produce elements, like the following: • Table salt, sodium chloride, can be broken down into sodium metal and chlorine gas by melting salt at 800ºC and running electricity through it. • 2NaCl  2Na + Cl2
  • 10. TYPES: DECOMPOSITION Example: NaCl Cl Na  General: Cl + Na AB  A + B
  • 11. TYPES: DECOMPOSITION Example 2HgO O Hg  O Hg General: Hg + O O Hg AB  A + B
  • 12. 2. Covalent compounds may decompose into elements, like the following: By running electricity through water, the water molecules decompose into hydrogen and oxygen gases. 2H2O  2H2 + O2 DECOMPOSITION REACTION: http://www.youtube.com/wa tch?v=NddwtXEA_Ak
  • 13. Single replacement reactions replace one element from a compound with another element.  A compound and an element react, and the element switches places with part of the original compound. A + BC  B + AC metal, or where A is a A + BC  C + BA where A is a non-metal
  • 14. TYPES: SINGLE DISPLACEMENT Example: Zn + CuCl2 Cu Cl + Cl General: Zn  Zn Cl + Cu Cl AB + C  AC + B
  • 15. 1. When A is a metal: Aluminum foil in a solution of copper(II) chloride produces solid copper and aluminum chloride. 2Al + 3CuCl2  3Cu + 2AlCl3 2. When A is a non-metal: When fluorine is bubbled through a sodium iodide solution, iodine and sodium fluoride are produced. Fl2 + 2NaI  I2 + 2NaF SINGLE REPLACEMENT: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKtynbVtMKc
  • 16. Double replacement reactions swap elements between 2 compounds that react together to form two new compounds.  Two compounds react, with elements switching places between the original compounds. AB + CD  AD + CB
  • 17. TYPES: DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT Example: MgO + CaS Mg + O General: Ca S  Mg S + Ca O AB + CD  AD + CB
  • 18. Two solutions react to form a precipitate (solid) and another solution. Ionic solution + ionic solution  ionic solution + ionic solid. CD  AD + CB AB +  When potassium chromate and silver nitrate react, they form a red precipitate, silver chromate, in a solution of potassium nitrate. K2CrO4 + 2AgNO3  Ag2CrO4 + 2KNO3 DOUBLE REPLACEMENT: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opY3FLrPTa4 silver chromate
  • 19. • Neutralization reactions occur when an acid (most compounds starting with H) and a base (most compounds ending in OH) react to form a salt and water. • Neutralization reactions are a type of double replacement. •Acid + base  salt + water HX + MOH  MX + H2O where X and M are elements
  • 20. 1. Sulfuric acid is used to neutralize calcium hydroxide: H2SO4 + Ca(OH) 2  CaSO4 + 2H2O 2. Phosphoric acid helps to neutralize the compounds that cause rust, such as iron(II) hydroxide. H3PO4 + 3Fe(OH)2  Fe3(PO4)2 + 6H2O NEUTRALIZATION: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_P5hGzA6Vb0
  • 21. Combustion reactions occur when a compound or element react with oxygen to release energy and produce an oxide.  Also sometimes referred to as hydrocarbon combustion. CXHY + O2  CO2 + H2O where X and Y represent integers METHANOL + oxygen: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98JuJ-G1qXY&feature=related
  • 22. 1. Natural gas (methane) is burned in furnaces to heat homes. CH4 + O2  CO2 + 2H2O + energy 2. An acetylene torch is used to weld metals together. 2C2H2 + 5O2  4CO2 + 2H2O + energy 3. Carbohydrates like glucose combine with oxygen in our body to release energy. C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Acetylene torch
  • 23. MOVIE TO REVIEW: http://www.bcscience.com/bc10/pgs/videos_013_chemical_reactions.html