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1. Discuss Listening for Specific Info./Data ◦ Definition ◦ Types ◦ Organization 2. Discuss Listening Strategies for Spec. Info ◦ General Listening Strategies Revisited ◦ Outlining ◦ Practical Strategies for Spec. Info/Data 3. Start Practicing with some Exercises ◦ Exercise 1, as a group ◦ Exercise 2, (if we have time)
What do we mean by “listening for specific information and data”? How is it different from listening to narratives? Are there different types? Where do I find myself “listening for specific information” in real life?
Listening for Specific Information- ◦ Listening carefully to find the exact meaning of a text or part of a text, or to find a specific piece of information. (Source: University of Cambridge, ESOL Examinations via: https://www.teachers.cambridgeesol.org/ts/ exams/glossary)
So which one is it? ◦ Understand the whole meaning of a text? ◦ Understand part of a text? ◦ Find a specific piece of information? Actually, it‟s all of the above: ◦ Listen for Gist ◦ Listen for Topics and Important Information ◦ Listen for Specific Information and details
Means Listening for the Overall Meaning ◦ General Idea of a Listening ◦ Usually do it first, to determine if it‟s worth listening closely When do we Listen for Gist? ◦ Main Idea of the Message ◦ Title ◦ Purpose ◦ Function
Means Listening for the Topics/Key Issues ◦ Understanding the structure of the listening ◦ Topics vs. Supporting Information (examples) ◦ Facts vs. Opinions When do we Listen for Topics and Important Info.? ◦ Structure (Outline) ◦ Major Points/Issues ◦ Organize the Info.
Means Listening for Particular facts ◦ Getting discrete data (numbers, dates, values…) ◦ Important details (cause and effect…) ◦ Opinions and minor information When do we Listen for Specific Information and Details? ◦ Personally Important Info. ◦ Fill in specific data ◦ Answer a Question
What type of Listening do you need to master for this? ◦ Inactive, Selective, Active, or Reflective?
What type of Listening do you need to master for this? ◦ Inactive, Selective, Active, or Reflective? ◦ The Answer is… ◦ Selective Listening
Selective Listening ◦ Do you need everything? In each situation, you ignore a portion of the listening ◦ Scanning This type of listening is like “scanning” when you read, find what you want and throw away the rest… ◦ Focusing your Attention Saves your energy and focus for what is relevant (not everything you hear matters…)
Do you remember when we compared “Listening to Narratives” and “Listening for Specific Information”? Which one do you remember was easier?
Narratives Specific Information/Data ◦ Info is easier to ◦ Info is more gather because it complicated to pertains to one of the gather because it elements of a pertains to a topic Narrative… about the main idea or subject of the listening…(we‟ll deal with this next week)
Narratives Specific Information/Data ◦ Involve active ◦ Involves selective listening as you listening as you scan follow the sequence for the information of events. you need. ◦ You can‟t ignore any ◦ You can ignore parts part of the listening. (or even most) of the listening.
This is a key difference between “Listening to Narratives” and “Listening for Specific Information” ◦ In Narratives, you have to listen carefully and find how the characters, setting, and plot relate. ◦ With Specific Information, you have to scan everything you hear for the information you want.
There aren‟t exactly types ◦ Almost everything you hear that isn‟t a story ◦ There are different levels of interest… Expository text…mostly
You can hear them anywhere and everywhere, in fact, you do it everyday: ◦ Radio (news and interest pieces) ◦ TV (like in Abu Dhabi National Geographic) ◦ Lectures (in class and otherwise) ◦ Conversations ◦ Airports, train stations, etc…
This week, we will deal with longer clips of exposition ◦ About 2-4 minutes long (about double the narrative clips) Listening for Specific Information/Data requires you to listen selectively ◦ The clips are longer but you don‟t need everything you hear. ◦ This skill may be a little more difficult for you to master.
What are the Elements? ◦ There aren‟t exactly any basic elements because of such a great variety…but… ◦ Organization is typical Main Idea - Topics - Some Examples or Description Sometimes it‟s simpler, List format Description
Introduction ◦ Main Idea ◦ Thesis (overall argument or point) Topic 1 ◦ Topic is introduced ◦ Examples ◦ More Examples ◦ Some Description or Data Topic 2 ◦ Same as Topic 1 section Topic 3 ◦ Same as Topic 1and 2 section … Conclusion ◦ Restate the Main Idea ◦ Prove the thesis
Is there a difference? Not, really… ◦ When listening for data… Numbers Figures Categories (all of which are embedded in the topic sections) Very discrete information (solid data)
Very Important Skill ◦ Mastering this will help you a lot in English Listening… Live Conversation News Classroom Lectures Helps you to know when to focus your listening energy
Questions Comments Ideas Relax for a bit…quiet time…whatever…
Practical Strategies forListening for Specific Information and Data
2 General Ones ◦ Bottom-Up Strategies You start from words, then phrases, then sentences Word-Segmentation skills Ability to separate words and sentences Recognizing them to identify meaning Deals with Speed, Intonation, Pauses… ◦ Top-Down Strategies You start from Main ideas, Context, bigger issues Metacognitive Awareness Thinking about listening, weaknesses, solutions, the topic Deals with Predicting, Monitoring, Evaluating…
Requires us to Listen many times ◦ Even slowing down the tape if we have to ◦ (This is why you will transcribe your assignments) ◦ I advise you to transcribe on your own Requires us to Listen and Read the transcript ◦ To highlight what you didn‟t get ◦ Identify words, phrases, or situations that are hard(We‟ll do a little of this in class, the assignments should cover it pretty well too…)
Involves different processes ◦ Using Prior knowledge ◦ Predicting ◦ Monitoring ◦ Evaluating ◦ Reflecting Practically (how we do these processes) ◦ Discuss the topic (before listening) ◦ Take notes (while listening) ◦ Checking what you heard (with others, after listening) ◦ Identifying problems and fixing themDEFINITELY – LISTEN MORE THAN ONCE
Key to Listening for Specific Information is knowing what you want… ◦ Do you want just the gist? ◦ Do you want the main ideas or the topics? ◦ Do you want some specific information or data?
Introduction If you want the gist… ◦ Main Idea ◦ Thesis (overall argument or point) Topic 1 Where do you look? ◦ ◦ Topic is introduced Examples ◦ More Examples ◦ Some Description or Data ◦ Which part? Topic 2 ◦ Same as Topic 1 section ◦ Beginning Topic 3 ◦ Same as Topic 1and 2 section ◦ Middle … ◦ End Conclusion ◦ Restate the Main Idea ◦ Prove the thesisHow much do you need tolisten? Not that much really…
Introduction If you want the ◦ Main Idea topics… ◦ Thesis (overall argument or point) Topic 1 ◦ Topic is introduced ◦ Examples Where do you look? ◦ More Examples ◦ Some Description or Data Topic 2 ◦ Same as Topic 1 section ◦ Which part? Topic 3 ◦ Same as Topic 1and 2 section ◦ Beginning … ◦ Middle Conclusion ◦ Restate the Main Idea ◦ End ◦ Prove the thesisHow much do you need to Probably a little more,listen? but not everything…
Introduction If you want specific ◦ Main Idea information or some ◦ Thesis (overall argument or point) Topic 1 data… ◦ Topic is introduced ◦ Examples ◦ More Examples ◦ Some Description or Data Where do you look? Topic 2 ◦ Same as Topic 1 section Topic 3 ◦ Same as Topic 1and 2 section ◦ Which part? … ◦ Beginning Conclusion ◦ Restate the Main Idea ◦ Middle ◦ Prove the thesis ◦ EndHow much do you need to A little more, but only atlisten? certain times…
Organization is Very Important Outlining – helps a lot ◦ Structure of the listening ◦ Separates the Main Idea, Topics, and Examples ◦ Focus on certain parts (know where to look) ◦ Organizes discrete information and data
Problems with Outlines ◦ Doesn‟t always follow a “nice” structure ◦ Sometimes examples, sometimes description ◦ Some topics take longer than others ◦ Not always easy to separate topics and ideas We‟re going to work on creating useful outlines, or at least taking effective notes while listening…
Before Listening ◦ Think about the Main Idea/Topic Title Anything you know about it? **VERY IMPORTANT** Ask yourself, what do I want (or need) to know? ◦ Think about some issues you may have Listening weaknesses (speed, pronunciation, etc…) Words, phrases, situations ◦ Think about some solutions What are you going to focus on What are you going to try this time
You have to know what you want first… ◦ the gist? ◦ the topics? ◦ some specific information/data? For example, Listening ◦ the gist? Kingdom of Morocco ◦ the topics? history, cities, people… ◦ spec. info? population in 2010 was nearly 32 million
Then you need to know where to look… ◦ the gist? ◦ the topics? ◦ some specific information/data? For example, Listening ◦ the gist? In the Beginning, first 30 seconds ◦ the topics? In the Body, each discussed for some time ◦ spec. info? In the Body, mentioned within a topic
The Gist? ◦ Listen carefully at the beginning, very selective The Topics? ◦ Listen to the whole thing, very selectively just for the structure Specific Info./Data? ◦ Listen to the whole thing, pay close attention to the examples, facts, and descriptions (if you know the topic beforehand, it helps a lot)
While Listening ◦ Identify the Questions Make Headings on paper (Main Idea? ◦ Take Notes of Information Write down topics and ideas Write down any specific information or data ◦ Make an Outline Organize the info you write into a structure Follow the format we used as an example Try to visualize it (in your head or on paper)
After Listening ◦ Review the Information Look at your notes Remember what you heard (and thought about) ◦ Check with Others around you Did they get the same information? Where did you guys differ? ◦ Identify Areas Areas of Confusion or Disagreement Any gaps in your Outline? Areas where you didn‟t get anything… ◦ Reflect What was my problem? What can I do different next time?
That‟s why I said you need a Notebook ◦ Get used to writing while you listen Don‟t forget, LISTEN AGAIN AND AGAIN… Any Questions, Comments… Lets Practice…
Title: NO TITLE ◦ First, let‟s practice listening for gist… ◦ Listen to the first 30 seconds, ◦ Figure out the title and main idea Ready?
Title: “Horror Films” ◦ Now, listen for topics and main ideas ◦ Listen to the whole clip, what are the topics? ◦ Try to make an outline ◦ What different things about horror films does she talk about? Ready?
Title: “Horror Films” ◦ Now, listen for specific information and data ◦ Answer these questions: How old was she when her mother caught her watching a scary movie? What was the name of the movie? What movies are considered “slasher movies”? What happens if a zombie bites you, in “Dawn of the Dead”? What‟s the name of the movie from New Zealand? What do they call a “hurricane” in the UK? What was in the mist, in the movie, “The Mist‟? Ready?
“Horror Films” I want to talk about horror films and why I like them andwhat my favourite types are. When I was young, I watched the classic horror films likeNightmare On Elms Street and Friday The 13th. My mum toldme that when I was about six, she came downstairs in the middleof the night because there was a noise, and it was me watchingThe Omen on TV in the dark on my own. So I guess Ive alwaysliked horror films. I really like what I called slasher films - thereally gory, bloody, violent films like Final Destination and TheHills Have Eyes. I just find them quite funny and I like the specialeffects. I dont really find them scary at all. I think the scariestsort of films are the ones that are very tense, like Hitchcockfilms. I think the scariest one for me is The Birds because its justvery sinister the way that the birds come and sit and look at thepeople. And you know that its going to be really bad very soon.
But I think my favourite ... favourite sort of horror films are zombie movies. Ivewatched loads of zombie movies and I really like them. Again I dont really think they arevery scary. Dawn Of The Dead is my absolute favourite horror film I think. Its a filmwhere people just wake up one morning and there are zombies everywhere. If a zombiebites you, you turn into a zombie. And the survivors end up in a shopping mall in ashopping centre and they are surrounded by zombies. And it does not have a happyending. There is a British comedy horror film called Shaun Of The Dead which is a bit of ajoke on the idea of the Dawn Of The Dead which is also really great. The most recentone I watched was a New Zealand film called Black Sheep which is about zombie sheep.That was pretty funny as well. The most recent horror film I watched was on a plane last time I went back to theUK. It was a Stephen King film based on a Stephen King book - I think a short story. Andit was called The Mist. It was about people who lived in a small town in America andthere was a hurricane, or typhoon as we call them here. And after the typhoon, theywanted to go into town to get some supplies to fix up the house. And it started to getmisty or foggy. It was quite a strange mist - it didnt look normal. And these peopleended up in a hardware store in the town all trapped together because there were sort ofmonsters in the mist - these unrealistic giant creatures that were in the mist that werekilling people. There was quite a lot of blood and guts and people died in horrible wayswhich is what I like about horror films. I would recommend it if you like horror films asmuch as I do.
Title: NO TITLE ◦ First, let‟s practice listening for gist… ◦ Listen to the first 30 seconds, ◦ Figure out the title and main idea Ready?
Title: “Interview Techniques” ◦ Now, listen for topics and main ideas ◦ Listen to the whole clip, what are the topics? ◦ Try to make an outline ◦ How does he organize the talk? Ready?
Title: “Interview Techniques” ◦ Now, listen for specific information and data ◦ Answer these questions: As a rule of thumb, which questions should you ask first? Where should you interview a person? What should you do when you start the interview? How should you be during the interview? Should you ask leading questions? What should you do when ending an interview? What is the “last task”? Ready?
“Interview Techniques” I know it sounds obvious, but you really must prepare before theinterview. Find out as much as you can about the person you‟re going tointerview, and the subject matter of the interview. Prepare yourquestions in advance. Think about the order you will ask them. A rule ofthumb is to ask questions about facts first, leaving opinion questionsuntil later. Most people find questions about facts much easier toanswer, so they start to feel more at ease. Spend a little time imagininghow you hope the interview will go. Visualise yourself in thesituation, introducing yourself, asking the first question. Think about where the interview will take place. Try to interview theperson in a place which is appropriate to the interview – their place ofwork, for example. Interviewing a person on their territory can put themat ease, and also provide you with colour for your story. How you start the interview can influence how successful it willbe. Be confident and courteous. Start by introducing yourself, andstating the reason for the interview. Set your ground rules. Forexample, you may want to insist that the interviewee says in advance ifthey want what they say to be off the record.
During the interview, you should be polite but firm. Ask yourquestions in a confident manner, and listen carefully to theanswers. Very often an inexperienced interviewer will simply go throughtheir list of questions, not realising that some of them have already beenanswered. Use your list of questions as a base for the interview, not arigid script. Ask follow-up questions. Ask for evidence to support anyclaims made by the interviewee. Don‟t be afraid to ask „How do youknow that?‟ But never ask leading questions. Let the person say whatthey want to say, not what you want them to say. When ending the interview, you should go back over the mainthings that have been said. This gives you a chance to review yournotes. You should then ask the interviewee if they want to add anythingelse. And finally, ask if you can contact them again should you need to. OK, so the interview is over, but you have one last task. As soon aspossible, sit down and look at your notes. Are they clear? Is thereanything else you can add to them? Do this while you can still rememberwhat was said. And write down all the colour you can remember – aboutthe person and the place.