SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN DATO’ SHEIKH AHMAD INTERNET NAME : Nur Khairul Ummi Habibah binti Jamri CLASS: 2 Arif IC NO : 980924-09-5174 NAME OF TEACHER : En. Abd. Jalil bin Ariffin
What is Internet?Internet (Inter-Network) is a group of computer network linking academic sites,government, commercial, organizational, and interpersonal. Internet provides accessto telecommunicationsservices and information resources to millions of wearers all acrossthe world. Internet services include direct communication (email,chat), discussions (Usenet News, email, mailing lists), distributedinformation resources (World Wide Web, Gopher), remote log in and file traffic (Telnet,FTP), and various other services .Networks that form the internet working on a set of standard protocols used toconnect computer networks and put address innetwork traffic. This protocol allowed arrange data format, errorhandling (error handling),traffic messages and other communications standards. Standard protocol of theInternet known as TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). Thisprotocol has the ability to work on all types of computers, without affectedby difference hardware or operating system used.A computer system connected directly to a network has a domain name and IPaddress (Internet Protocol) in numerical form with a certain format as anidentifier. Internet also has gateways to networks and other protocol-based treatment.
History of the InternetEmbryo Internet network we know today was first developed in 1969 by the U.S.Department of Defense in the name of ARPAnet (the U.S. Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency). ARPAnet was built with the aim to create a computer network thatspread to avoid the centralization of information at one point considered prone to bedestroyed when a fight. In this way is expected when one part of the network is broken,then the network bandwidth can be automatically moved to another channel.In the early 1980s, ARPANET split into two networks, namely ARPANET and Milnet (amilitary network), but both have ties to communication between fixed network can bedone. At first, this interconnection network called the DARPA Internet, but eventuallycalled the Internet only. Then, the Internet began to be used for academic interest bylinking several universities, each at UCLA, University of California at Santa Barbara,University of Utah, and Stanford Research Institute. This is followed by open the Usenetand Bitnet service that allows internet access by means of personal computer(PC). Subsequently, the standard protocol TCP / IP from the introduction in 1982, followedby the use of the DNS (Domain Name Service) in 1984.In the year 1986 was born the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET), whichconnects researchers across the country with five super computer centers. This networkevolved to link the various networks that consist of other academic and consortiumuniversity-research consortium. NSFNET and then start replacing the ARPANET as aresearch network in America in March 1990 to ARPANET officially dissolved. At NSFNETwas built, many established international network and connected to NSFNET.Australia,Scandinavian countries, England, France, Germany, Canada and Japan soon joined into thisnetwork.At first, the internet only offer text-based services, including remote access, email /messaging, and discussion via newsgroups (Usenet). Graphic-based services such as theWorld Wide Web (WWW) is currently still lacking. There was only called Gopher serviceswhich in some ways similar to web we know today, but the system still text-basedwork. Meaningful progress is achieved in 1990 when the World Wide Web began to bedeveloped by CERN (Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland) based on the proposalmade by Tim Berners-Lee. However, the first WWW browser that newly born two yearslater, precisely in 1992 with the name Viola.Pei Weis Viola launched by CERN WWW anddistributed together.Of course the first web browsers are still very modest, not as advancedas modern browsers we use today.Other means breakthrough occurred in 1993 when the Inter NIC was established to carry
out the domain registration services. Equivalent to the White House (White House) fromthe Internet and online in the United States Government National InformationInfrastructure Act release. The commercial use of the Internet began in 1994, pioneered bythe company Pizza Hut, and Internet Banking was first applied by First Virtual. A year later,CompuServe, America Online, and Prodigy begin providing service to Internet access forthe general public.Meanwhile, our new Indonesia can enjoy commercial internet service around the year1994. Previously, a number of universities such as University Indonesia has previouslyconnected to the Internet through a gateway that connects the university with the networkoutside the country.Development of the InternetInformation Technology and Telecommunications (Information and CommunicationTechnology / ICT) are the backbone of Web 2.0 applications. Development of Informationand Communications Technology and the early emergence of the phenomenon of webapplications is the Internet. Internet came from research for defense and security as well aseducation tool developed into a very influential business advocates. In connection with theapplication of Web 2.0, there are some important events in Internet history.
Started in 1957, through the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the United Statesis committed to develop an integrated communication network of interconnected scientificcommunity and military needs. This background by the occurrence of the cold war between the United States with the Soviet Union (in 1957 the Soviets launched sputnik). The first major development was the discovery of the most important Internet ARPAnamely packet switching in 1960. Packet switching is sending a message that can be brokenup in small packets that can package their own through various alternative paths if a pathis broken to achieve a predetermined goal. Packet switching also allows the network can beused in conjunction to make many connections, in contrast to telephone lines that requirespecial strips to make a connection. Then, when ARPANET became the national computernetwork in the United States in 1969, packet switching used extensively as a method toreplace the circuit switching communication used in public telephone connections. Internet major progress achieved in the history of the Internet is a network protocollayer expansion renowned for now that is the most widely used TCP / IP (TransmissionControl Protocol / Internet Protocol). Protocol is a body of rules for relatingantarjaringan. This protocol was developed by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf in 1974.Withthe standard protocol and widely agreed upon, then the local network that spread invarious places can be interconnected to form a giant network now reaches even theworld. Network using internet protocol is what is often referred to as the Internet.ARPANET network gets bigger since then and is managed by the private sector began in1984, then more and more universities joined and began to enter commercialenterprises. TCP / IP became generally agreed protocol so it can communicate with eachother on this internet network. The third major development is the awakening applications Internet World Wide Web in1990 by Tim Berners-Lee. Applications World Wide Web (WWW) has become theanticipated content of all Internet users. WWW makes all consumers can and will share allkinds of applications and content, and inter-linking for materials that are spread on theinternet. Since then the growth of Internet users has skyrocketed.
WWW (World Wide Web)Nowadays, the WWW or the commonly referred to as "web" is just the most popularInternet applications. So popular is to many people who are confused by internet webidentity.Technically, the web is a system where information in the form of text, images, sounds, etc.stored on an internet web server in the form of hypertext that be presented. Informationon the web in text form is generally written in HTML format (Hypertext MarkupLanguage). Other information presented in graphical form (in GIF, JPG, PNG), sound (in AUformat, WAV), and other multimedia objects (such as MIDI, Shockwave, Quick time movies,3D World).Web can be accessed by the web client software that is popular referred to as thebrowser. Browser to read web pages stored on the web server through a protocol calledHTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). Nowadays, there are a variety of browsersoftware. Some are quite popular and widely used, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer,Netscape Navigator, and Opera, but there are also some products that are less knownbrowsers and is only used in confined environments.As hypertext documents, documents on the web can have a link (connection) with otherdocuments, whether they are stored in the same web server or on another web server. Themanagement of the web link to facilitate the move from one page to another page, and"roam" from one server to another server. This web page search activity is termed normalbrowsing, there also cited it as surfing (surfing).Along with the increasing development of Internet networks around the world, so manywebsites available on the increase. To date, the number of web pages which can beaccessed via the internet has reached billions. To facilitate searches of Web pages,especially to find pages that contain a specific topic, then the web pengakses can use asearch engine (search engine). Searches performed on search engines for keywords(keywords) that are then matched by the search engine with database (data base) that hehad.Nowadays, search engines are often used among others is Google (www.google.com)and Yahoo (www.yahoo.com).