SOCIAL PROBLEM (SOCA 3310)FOREIGN WORKERS IN MALAYSIA Group members: Nor wanibtismail (0824004) Siti nor baiyahbtabGhani (0918936) SitinurliyananasuhabtGhazali (0915366) Khairulnazirahbt Abdul khalid (0911254) Maznahtul ‘aliaabtayob (0913182)
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION MIGRATION IN ISLAM STATISTIC REASONS FOR MIGRATION NEGATIVE EFFECT POSITIVE EFFECT SOLUTION CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION Definition Foreign workers Those who work in a foreign country without initially intending to settle there and without the benefits of citizenship in the host country. Those who migrate willingly to the other countries to enter the work sector in those countries. Migration Directed, regular or systematic movement of group of objects, organisms or people.
Migration in Islam Hijrah -Hijrah is defined as striking off on a new path that allows one to become a better person. two types of Hijrah: 1) physical-migrate from one place to other place. 2) spiritual-a person who has committed actions that can be considered as sinful might make the spiritual Hijrah to be free from sin
There is also a general identity attached to all these workers :
Nepalese are often hired to work as the security guards.
Those from India are placed in Indian-Muslim restaurants and a popular 24 hours outlet in Malaysia.
Indonesian men and Bangladeshi are very synonymous to construction sectors.
As for women from Indonesia & Philippine, they are often hired as domestic helpers.
Myanmar people, mostly work in Chinese restaurant.
TABLE 1Statistic of Foreign Workers by Country of Origin (%)Source: Department of Immigration
TABLE 2Sector Distribution of Foreign Workers (%)Source: Department of Statistics and Department of Immigration
REASONS FOR MIGRATION Voluntary Economic-country’s wealth, broader empire, rural-urban, less developed state t0 developed state Political-stability in Malaysia Social-similar culture like Indonesia Demography They have relatives in the migrant country Forced Life pressure Political instability Wages very low Less job
Rex Varona (1998) emphasize that the dynamics of massive labor migration is dictated by "push" and "pull" (labour supply and demand) forces. These forces are rooted in poverty, joblessness, wage imbalances, economic restructuring, government policies, social pressures, etc. both in the sending and receiving countries
most workers moving among countries are unskilled workers migrating from countries to develop countries It is because many develop countries are now experiencing large inflow of unskilled foreign workers, especially in the sectors that requiring unskilled labour. situation has been made even worse by the fact that the Malaysian labour ,especially those attained medium ,or high education ,would not accept the low paid legitimated work in plantation ,mining and construction
Impressive growth of Malaysian economy Idris and Rahmah(2006) note the foreign come to Malaysia during the 1980s,Malaysian economy experienced a dramatic change in its structure, a shift from dependence on the role of agriculture towards manufacturing and services sectors. Because of these two, high demand rate for labor, which consequently, led to the problem labor shortage at all level of job of categories. To overcome to this problem, the Malaysian economies rely on foreign labor. The situation was seen an opportunity for the excess supply of unskilled workers of the neighboring countries like Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Myanmar.
Economic logic and political motivation =the 1950s and early 1960s, Indonesian migration into Malaysia was also encouraged by the Malayan Government for political reasons, as their easy integration into the Malay community allowed Malays to maintain a numerical edge in population over the Chinese and Indians
Urban migration of Malay youths =the urban migration of Malay youths opened the door for Indonesian labour in the agricultural sector. Push factors included unemployment and over-population in Java, =while the relatively higher wages found in the peninsula was a major pull factor. Added to that was the fact that the easy assimilation of most Indonesians into Malay society sometimes allowed the "guests" to benefit from affirmative action programmes of the NEP as well. Shared same in social the fact that Malaysia was not only a location of close proximity but also a nation whose majority population shared much with the Indonesians in terms of language, culture, and even ethnicity meant that it would be the obvious choice for Indonesian labour looking to move to greener pastures.
POSITIVE EFFECTS FOR THE HOST COUNTRIES COUNTRY/COMMUNITY Involvement women in economy sector Additional government revenues from taxes Cheap labor which reduces development costs Savings in training due of hiring educated domestic workers FAMILY/INDIVIDUAL Improve social status and prestige Improved child care Enjoyment of leisure and social activities Development of child’s knowledge of the English Language
IMPACT OF THE EMPLOYING FOREIGN WORKER IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Cultural pollution Social problem Political stability Economic issues Low wages for local workers &taking job away from locals Foreign labor caused work delay Low productivity quality due to time consuming to train news workers Heavy expenses in recruitment process &long permit process times Accommodation problems for foreign labor
Divided into three: The roles of the government The roles of the owner of industries The roles of the Malaysian
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT The government have to play major role to overcome the problem of many foreign workers at Malaysia. Foreign Worker Department should keep on eyes on the employee. Increase the levy of the workers. Increase the salary of labor job .
ROLES OF THE OWNER INDUSTRIES Do not neglect the Malaysian. Has to avoid unstable economy, if they take foreign workers our currency will be out from our country.
ROLES OF THE MALAYSIAN Learn the skill for that job. To not being picky or choosey in terms of find jobs. Start from the beginning.
FINDINGS Methodology :interview Sample of the study: Indonesian workers 5 respondents in Mahallah Safiyyah Objective of interview: 1) To know about the reason they came to Malaysia 2) To identify their feeling on work in Malaysia 3) To investigate how they came here whether through agency or by themselves
FINDING Average age of the respondents are 19 to 50 years old Reason came to Malaysia is in their country not have many jobs Relationship with the employer was fine, well-treated They felt happy and fun when come to Malaysia. Most came by themselves & have relative in Malaysia