What enlightened/awaking have you had in teaching? What guides your teaching now? Do you know research that supports those choices?
Losen & Orfield (2002)- unconscious racial biased stereotypes and other race linked factors impact identification of African Americans males in MR.
Obi & Obiarkor (2001)- need for more sensitive and responsive to linguistic and cultural difference.
Artiles, Harry, Reschly, & Chinn (2002)- “beyond the work scope” it is a societal issue, teachers can bring subtle awareness but not correct the issue. Strive to make a positive change.
Points: T he referral system is initiated by white middle class female teachers. The same student data places white males in LD labels. Historically white parents go to IEP meeting for placement and decision making. Beginning in just the 1960’s Black Americans just started to have a relationship with public schools and they may have been turned off to school in general, warranting the lack of involvement.
High Stakes Testing
Holbrook (2001)- Kills students self-esteem and discredits their positive attributes.
Thrulow & Johnson (2000 )- Testing may provide benefits for children with disabilities.
Margaret Spelling (2005)- Secretary of Education: Maintains that NCLB considers all students valuable and supports testing all students.
Education At The Brink notes that in a recent interview with PBS, Spellings implied that anyone who didn’t support the one-size-fits-all, all-testing-all-the-time policy at the foundation of No Child Left Behind must be less than a loyal citizen - and racist as well.
Points: First time in educational history ALL students have been valued and looked at as equals, CEC’s position is in favor of testing with the understanding that appropriate testing accommodations need to be arranged. That we need to measure knowledge and not the extent in which students disabilities get in the way. Hallahan and collogues (2004) points out that accommodations have gone too far and students have an unfair advantage over non-disabled peers. In the pursuit to normalizing education, special ed has gone to the extreme perpetuating student’s disabilities and enabling children in actuality creating learned helplessness, not to triumph over the disability.
Does Inclusion Work?
Hines (1999)- Research shows no ill effects to general education population students.
IDEA 97- Supports inclusion.
Hallahan (2001)- Maintains Inclusion does not work because we are sending kids back to the very classrooms they have been unsuccessful in when the failure started. They need intense instruction from Special Ed teachers. He feels students lose access to the curriculum when not delivered by the specialist.
Lipsky and Gartner (1998)- Maintain that IDEA97 supports Inclusion and says there are ingredients that contribute to successful inclusionary practices.
Effective Behavior Management: Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. (1998). The First Days of School recommends making expectations clear, model behaviors, look professional and warrant respect in turn always be respectful to ALL students. Lovitt (1977)- As teachers did more to please their students the students did more to please their teachers, this is the idea of mutual respect. Sprick, R., Garrison, M. & Howard, L. (1998). CHAMPs . S ay to set up procedures for success, everything can be broken down procedurally. Sprick (1985)- Suggests a 3:1 ratio of positive over negative reinforcement in the classroom, he also says when teachers are positive more learning occurs and negative behaviors are fewer. Alderman (1990)- Notes a positive learning environment and student learning is enhanced when teachers believe ALL children can learn and teacher can make a difference. Borich (1992)- Maintains that the key to motivation is to bring internal and external motivators together to engage students in active learning. He encourages teachers to find students interests aspirations and use personalized learning to motivate. What Do Kids Need? Before we can understand children’s behavior, we must understand their needs. In addition to their physical needs — food, clothing, shelter — kids need fun, freedom, power, and a sense of belonging. If these needs aren’t met in positive ways, problems develop. Freedom: If I don’t get some choice in the way I work or what I learn, I won’t work at all. Behavior is a form of communication, ... once you understand what her behavior communicates about her needs, you can help her learn more appropriate behaviors. Fun: If my teacher never cracks jokes, seems to enjoy teaching, or thinks up interesting lessons, I’ll make my own fun. Belonging: If I don’t feel I’m a one of the smart kids, I’ll be one of the kids who has problems and show I don’t care. Power: If I can’t be a class leader, know a lot in a class discussion, or do an assignment well, I’ll be the class clown and get noticed. How Do You Find the Cause? Behavior is a form of communication , you’ll need to figure out your child’s message. You can help her learn more appropriate behaviors. What Happens Next? After you’ve figured out the "why" of your child’s behavior, these questions will help you develop a plan of action. What new skill — behavior — should your child learn to replace the problem behavior? How will she learn the new behavior? Who will model (show her how to do it) - you, another child, the teacher? Where will she role play (practice) it? Who will cue (remind) her to use it? What changes need to be made in the child’s environment — time of day, space, materials, interactions? What reinforcers will help her use the new behavior – stickers, a special activity or privilege, praise? How often should it be given? Who should give it? How should problem behavior be handled if it happens again? Are there specific words, cues , or consequences that should be used to stop the behavior quickly? How will everyone (parents, teachers, and child) involved work together? How often should they communicate? Behavior Management Token reinforcement Systems: Three Parts: 1. Behaviors to be reinforced clearly stated. 2. Procedures to give out reinforcing stimulus (Token) 3. Set of rules are governed to explain destitution of reinforcing objects. A token is an item given after the targeted behavior is observed. Token systems avoid boredom b/c tokens can be trades with a verity of items. Scaffolding/Fazing out (fading) can be accomplished and the amount of tokens can be modified as the desired behavior increases. Token systems work with EH students better than social reinforcement systems. Blachham and Silberman (1980)- stress Token Systems must be developed and applied thoughtfully. Positive Behavior Supports and Plans must be in place for students with EBD before crisis arise.
Instructional Strategies Historically- Beck cited in Binder & Watkins (1990)- One of the Most successful uses reported of PT was in Great Falls Montona at the Sacajawae Elementary School where instructors used 20-30 minutes PT time in daily routines and student scored 19-40% better overall on the Iowa State Test of Basic Skills. Incorporate a rich literature base in the classroom read daily to children, couple reading with writing regularly, teach comprehension strategies explicitly and model them regularly. "Successful beyond our dreams"
Focuses on Observable behavior
Frequency Measure of Performance.
Learner Knows Best!
Precision Teach as a discipline can be defined as: White (1986)- PT is successful with very young and very old, severely handicapped to graduate level students. Balance taken from the Project Central web site. Balance
Precision Teaching developed by Ogden R. Lindsley in the 1960’s at the University of Kansas. Is based on direct measurement, repeated measurement, graphing on Celeration Charts, long-range and short-range goal monitoring, student focused, and instructional decision making. Free-Operant conditioning (Free, at ones own pace) drives PT. Lindsley identified 5 benefits:
Observation system Cost Less then teacher managed.
Produces valid and reliable records.
Effects were greater than teacher managed systems. Helps learner to feel more in control of learning because of giving them responsibility centers them and helps them to see positive attributes that lead to success. Ellis (1986) Students with learning problems tend to attribute success to ease of task or luck and failures to low ability.
Develops trust of Learner. Meadows (1998) Rapport and Trust two valuable teacher traits.
Develops self-monitoring skill required in later life. Mercer and Mercer (2005) report a useful tool for teaching self-management is self-recording.
The FOUR steps of Precision Teaching:
Select the skill
Practice the skill
Monitor the skill
Choose next instructional steps
Barton and Billmeyer (1998)- Define strategic teaching as being purposeful and thoughtful about planning instruction.
Get ready with your pencils and the Frame worksheet….
Draft Comps synthesize in writing the knowledge gained through coursework and experiences during your graduate program. Behavior Management Critical Issues Instructional Strategies Kelly J. Grillo The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (What’s important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Essential details Main idea
Use the next sheet this whole term to get your refs in your mind….
Draft KU-CRL Comps synthesize in writing the knowledge gained through coursework and experiences during your graduate program. Behavior Management Critical Issues Instructional Strategies Compare and contrast the works of major contributors to the field Learning strategies (Strategic instruction Model) and study skills List and describe various theories of behavior management Citation #1: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Citation #2: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Citation #3: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Citation #1: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Citation #2: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Citation #3: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Critical Issues Sample Question: If you had to identify some major research in the field of special education within the past 10 years, what studies would you select? Defend your selections, provide a rationale for selection of the issue, discuss pros and cons of issues. Citation #2: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Citation #1: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Citation #3: Author, (Year) Basic Summary Kelly J. Grillo The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (What’s important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Essential details Main idea