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Kevin Byrne’s Study: Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Contamination in a Hypothetical Minnesota County
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Kevin Byrne’s Study: Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Contamination in a Hypothetical Minnesota County

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  • 1. Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Contamination in Hazard County for Week 5 of Saint Mary U’s Advanced Modeling __________________________________________ Kevin Byrne October 6, 2009
  • 2. Goal To visualize groundwater contamination over time at a Winona (MN) EPA “superfund site” for the benefit of both GIS analysts and people living or working near the site.  
  • 3. My Methodology-Steps 1. Data were examined and I pondered the problem and its variables. 2. I did a box diagram of the process. 3. Data were assembled, edited, and organized. 4. Features (wells, spots locations) were added as points into a shapefile. 5. A spreadsheet was created of focused data then spatially joined to the shapefile. 6. Spatial Analyst was used to explore the best match of chemical concentrations and well elevations to IDW terraces and contours. I completed a synthesis of layers, labels, points and lines, and cartographic hierarchy into time series maps in .PDF. 7. I exported key graphics for import into Photoshop, conducted image-optimization, exported in .PNG format, then imported files overlays into Google Earth. 8. An EPA superfund site in Winona, MN was located that matched most of the criteria for this assignment. 9. Within Google Earth I entered a placemark and image overlays to the site to visualize it via “fly-around” perspectives that might benefit GIS analysts and people living or working near the site. Results here combined #6 above with .KMZ files.  
  • 4. Variables • site’s contextual backdrop • feature locations • elevations • contamination concentrations • time factor and corresponding data trends • implications for people near the site  
  • 5. ASSETS & DATA LAYERS ANALYZE SYNTHESIZE GOAL - chemicals doc ArcMap Spatial Analyst layers, labels, features > shapefile - .xls docs - wells points + lines, PDF - CAD graphics - spots spatial hierarchy and chem. layers IDW design join export Visualize groundwater to contamination over custom .xls table carto export sequence shape- time at a superfund elev. layers CONTOURS graphics from file edit site in Winona CAD underlay ArcMap e.g., 'at or import to Google over Ph'shop, Earth, query 11,000 ppb' image edit, KMZ chemical contours export for ES - superfund site
  • 6. The diagram to the left is a network of modules in EVS-Standard that was used to produce the figure at the bottom of this page. EVS-Standard is a truly modular software package in which the user graphically interconnects modules to produce customized applications to meet any need. This modular paradigm is the key to the flexibility and power of EVS. The ability to create custom applications and a host of other powerful modules separates EVS-Standard from the more limited EVS for ArcView. This m od a gas s el and visua tation d lization e o site wit monstrates th f a benzene h very p few sa e power of E lume beneath mple d ata loc VS even on a ations. The above model shows the trichloroethylene groundwater plume below the Vickers site. Monitoring we ll screens colored by TCE level are combined with the 40 ppb plume. Transparent surfaces show ground level, the water table and the bottom of the aquifer. Three-dimensional buildings were added to provide spatial references. Data courtesy: Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program. 1
  • 7. WHAT IS BENZENE? Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. What happens to benzene when it enters the environment? • Industrial processes are the main source of benzene in the environment. • Benzene can pass into the air from water and soil. • It reacts with other chemicals in the air and breaks down within a few days. • Benzene in the air can attach to rain or snow and be carried back down to the ground. • It breaks down more slowly in water and soil, and can pass through the soil into underground water. • Benzene does not build up in plants or animals
  • 8. WHAT IS/ARE TOTAL XYLENES? Xylene, xylenes, and total xylene are used interchangeably. These different forms are referred to as isomers. The term total xylenes refers to all three isomers of xylene. Xylene is also known as xylol or dimethylbenzene. Xylene is primarily a synthetic chemical. Chemical industries produce xylene from petroleum. Xylene also occurs naturally in petroleum and coal tar and is formed during forest fires. It is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. Xylene is one of the top 30 chemicals produced in the United States in terms of volume. It is used as a solvent (a liquid that can dissolve other substances) in the printing, rubber, and leather industries. Along with other solvents, xylene is also used as a cleaning agent, a thinner for paint, and in varnishes. It is found in small amounts in airplane fuel and gasoline. Xylene is used as a material in the chemical, plastics, and synthetic fiber industries and as an ingredient in the coating of fabrics and papers. Isomers of xylene are used in the manufacture of certain polymers, such as plastics. Xylene evaporates and burns quickly. Xylene does not mix well with water; however, it does mix with alcohol and many other chemicals. Most people begin to smell xylene in air at 0.08-3.7 parts per million parts of air (ppm) and begin to taste it in water at 0.53-1.8 ppm.
  • 9. GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS John's Junk Yard Hoffmann 211 Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, Winona, Minnesota Total Total Well Sample Date Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene Xylenes TMB MTBE Naphthalene 1/1/04 20,000 23,200 4,200 14,100 2,400 2,200 950 3/1/04 18,400 19,700 3,800 12,500 2,000 1,700 710 MW-1 6/1/04 12,300 16,100 3,100 11,000 1,700 1,300 550 9/1/04 9,600 12,900 2,400 9,800 1,100 980 220 1/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 3/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 MW-2 6/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 9/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 1/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 3/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 MW-3 6/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 9/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 1/1/04 1,600 3,500 720 1,700 1,300 980 450 3/1/04 1,000 2,700 440 1,300 800 720 330 MW-4 6/1/04 600 1,900 270 880 570 560 280 9/1/04 320 1,000 130 490 320 380 170 1/1/04 2,700 4,100 980 5,200 2,100 2,200 660 3/1/04 2,100 3,500 700 4,800 1,600 1,700 520 MW-5 6/1/04 1,400 2,900 540 3,900 1,000 1,100 410 9/1/04 950 2,000 400 3,000 690 740 300 1/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 3/1/04 3 30 10 35 7 0.90 0.75 MW-6 6/1/04 40 190 50 490 80 13 9 9/1/04 590 700 240 990 330 80 45 1/1/04 <0.25 <0.25 <0.25 <0.75 <1.10 <0.25 <0.25 3/1/04 0.95 25 8 27 4 0.65 0.45 MW-7 6/1/04 28 170 45 380 65 7 5 9/1/04 510 640 210 800 280 54 30 1/1/04 150 880 250 1,000 140 100 70 3/1/04 210 930 280 1,200 160 140 90 MW-8 6/1/04 250 1,100 310 1,500 190 210 120 9/1/04 140 810 220 950 110 100 55 NR 140 GW Enforcement Standard 5 1,000 700 10,000 480 60 40 NR 140 GW Preventive Action Limit 0.5 200 140 1,000 96 12 8 Notes: All results listed in parts per billion (ppb) BOLD - Indicates result value exceeds the WI DNR NR 140 Enforcement Standard (ES) Italics - Indicates result value exceeds the WI DNR NR 140 Preventive Action Limit (PAL) GW - Groundwater MTBE - methyl tert-butyl ether TMB - trimethylbenzene " < " - Indicates the contaminant could not be detected above the concentration listed (i.e. less than the value shown)
  • 10. GROUNDWATER ELEVATION DATA John's Junk Yard Hoffmann 211 Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, Winona, Minnesota Well # MW-1 Well # MW-2 Well # MW-3 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 678.50 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 681.00 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 679.50 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 663.50 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 666.00 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 669.50 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 10.00 Depth to Depth to Depth to Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Date Elevation Date Elevation Date Elevation top of well) top of well) top of well) 1/1/04 5.50 673.00 1/1/04 7.50 673.50 1/1/04 4.50 675.00 3/1/04 5.00 673.50 3/1/04 7.00 674.00 3/1/04 4.00 675.50 6/1/04 4.50 674.00 6/1/04 6.50 674.50 6/1/04 3.50 676.00 9/1/04 6.00 672.50 9/1/04 8.00 673.00 9/1/04 5.00 674.50 Well # MW-4 Well # MW-5 Well # MW-6 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 677.50 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 676.50 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 675.00 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 662.50 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 661.50 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 660.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Depth to Depth to Depth to Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Date Elevation Date Elevation Date Elevation top of well) top of well) top of well) 1/1/04 5.00 672.50 1/1/04 6.00 670.50 1/1/04 8.50 666.50 3/1/04 4.50 673.00 3/1/04 5.50 671.00 3/1/04 8.00 667.00 6/1/04 4.00 673.50 6/1/04 5.00 671.50 6/1/04 7.50 667.50 9/1/04 5.50 672.00 9/1/04 6.50 670.00 9/1/04 9.00 666.00 Well # MW-7 Well # MW-8 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 674.00 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 669.00 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 659.00 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 649.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 20.00 Depth to Depth to Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Date Elevation Date Elevation top of well) top of well) 1/1/04 6.00 668.00 1/1/04 6.50 662.50 3/1/04 5.50 668.50 3/1/04 6.00 663.00 6/1/04 5.00 669.00 6/1/04 5.50 663.50 9/1/04 6.50 667.50 9/1/04 7.00 662.00 Notes: All measurement are reported in feet above mean sea level (MSL)
  • 11. 681 684 681 666 678 679 679.5 680 675 677 675 676.5 677.5 665 678 674 676 671 674 676 Legend 668 669 surface elevation in feet 683 - 684 673 681 - 682 679 - 680 677 - 678 674 - 676 672 - 673 670 - 671 668 - 669 665 - 667
  • 12. 15 F G 00 50 0 500 MW2 10 50 00 A 2000 0 10 00 2500 1500 500 3500 5000650 1000 0 105 0 500 00 00 00 E 0 4500 12000 8 5 500 00 500 50 1 000 1 6 H 60 1 MW1 MW3 I 50 4500 155 0 40 00 00 75 25 1100 00 0 00 550 150 00 300 0 70 0 0 2000 B 50 0 J MW6 MW5 MW4 0 50 C K 500 MW7 L D M 500 N Legend benzene Jan. 1 500 O benzene June 1 MW8 surface elevation in feet 683 - 684 681 - 682 P 679 - 680 677 - 678 674 - 676 672 - 673 670 - 671 668 - 669 665 - 667
  • 13. F 50 G 0 0 0 10 MW2 15 00 50 A 2000 0 2500 1500 500 3500 5000 650 0 500 155 0 4500 E 500 00 12 00 50 0 0 0 H 85 60 00 MW1 MW3 I 40 105 0 0 9500 75 0 0 0 550 0 300 0 7000 0 B 50 0 500 J MW6 MW5 MW4 0 50 C K 500 MW7 1000 L D M N Hazard Co. Groundwater Contamination Plumes O benzene (ppm) on Jan. 1 MW8 surface elevation in feet 683 - 684 681 - 682 P 679 - 680 677 - 678 674 - 676 672 - 673 670 - 671 668 - 669 665 - 667
  • 14. F G 0 0 10 30 0 60 200 20 40 10 0 500 0 70 MW2 0 0 0 10 200 200 A 900 60 1000 700 0 1500 1300 100 200 2200 2400 0 30 800 0 4000 40 10 0 1600 0 31 0 6200 0 40 0 E 00 20 0 23 180 700 H 20 0 I 3200 100 560 5400 100 17 0 0 21 3 30 0 00 00 300 00 73 0 46 110 120 19 700 20 00 2 0 0 0 100 1400 100 0 100 30 400 0 200 J MW5 MW4 20 0 200 MW6 40 200 0 C 30 K 100 500 200 MW7 L 10 0 300 D M 400 0 10 N Hazard Co. Groundwater Contamination Plumes 100 300 O benzene (ppm) on Sep. 1 surface elevation 0 MW8 10 in feet 683 - 684 681 - 682 P 679 - 680 677 - 678 674 - 676 672 - 673 670 - 671 668 - 669 665 - 667
  • 15. F G 10 MW2 00 A 2000 4000 8000 1000 E 13000 600 100 00 H 00 70 MW1 MW3 I 0 50 90 11000 0 0 0 0 300 0 B J MW6 MW5 MW4 C K MW7 1000 L D M N Hazard Co. Groundwater Contamination Plumes O xylene (ppm) on Jan. 1 MW8 surface elevation in feet 683 - 684 P 681 - 682 679 - 680 677 - 678 674 - 676 672 - 673 670 - 671 668 - 669 665 - 667
  • 16. F G MW2 A 2000 6000 1000 E H 300 8000 0 0 I 50 MW3 0 400 10 700 0 00 0 0 B J MW6 MW5 MW4 C K MW7 L D M N Hazard Co. Groundwater Contamination Plumes O xylene (ppm) on June 1 surface elevation 0 MW8 100 in feet 683 - 684 P 681 - 682 679 - 680 677 - 678 674 - 676 672 - 673 670 - 671 668 - 669 665 - 667
  • 17. F G 10 MW2 00 A 2000 4000 8000 1000 E 13000 600 100 0 H 0 00 70 MW1 MW3 I 0 50 90 11000 0 0 0 0 300 0 B J MW6 MW5 MW4 C K MW7 1000 L D M Hazard Co. Groundwater Contamination Plumes N only xylene > enf. std. on Jan. 1 O all xylene on Jan. 1 (pts. per billion) MW8 surface elevation in feet 683 - 684 681 - 682 P 679 - 680 677 - 678 674 - 676 672 - 673 670 - 671 668 - 669 665 - 667
  • 18. F G 1335 136 2 13 1341 MW2 1365 1355 6 133 1337 1 13 4 34 6 13 1363 13 6 3 6 2 133 5 0 2 1361 13 13 134 39 5 5 3 1340 13 13 8 44 E H 1343 13 I 13 MW1 MW3 5 9 13 1358 B 5 7 13 J 4 0 MW6 MW5 MW4 134 9 13 C 13 K 1332 42 33 13 13 5 6 5 9 3 133 1341 MW7 L 13 5 D M 4 13 4 6 13 13 134 13 4 5 42 3 4 4 13 4 9 N 13 13 133 4 4 133 8 13 1 7 13 40 7 39 13 48 O 13 5 MW8 0 13 5 1 P Hazard Co. Contaminated Groundwater Assessment surface elevation
  • 19. F G MW2 A E H MW1 MW3 I B J MW6 MW5 MW4 C K MW7 L D M N Hazard Co. Groundwater Contamination Plumes O surface elevation MW8 xylene on Jan. 1 in parts per million 0.000166546 - 1,564.815903 P 1,564.815904 - 3,129.63164 3,129.631641 - 4,694.447377 4,694.447378 - 6,259.263113 6,259.263114 - 7,824.07885 7,824.078851 - 9,388.894587 9,388.894588 - 10,953.71032 Hazard Co. Groundwater 10,953.71033 - 12,518.52606 Contamination -Plumes 12,518.52607 14,083.3418
  • 20. F G MW2 A E H MW1 MW3 I B J MW6 MW5 MW4 C K MW7 L D M N Hazard Co. Groundwater Contamination Plumes O surface elevation MW8 xylene on June 1 in parts per million 0.000436245 - 1,220.772957 P 1,220.772958 - 2,441.545478 2,441.545479 - 3,662.317999 3,662.318 - 4,883.09052 4,883.090521 - 6,103.863041 6,103.863042 - 7,324.635562 7,324.635563 - 8,545.408083 Hazard Co. Groundwater 8,545.408084 - 9,766.180604 Contamination -Plumes 9,766.180605 10,986.95313
  • 21. F G MW2 A E H MW1 MW3 I B J MW6 MW5 MW4 C K MW7 L D M N Hazard Co. Contaminated O Groundwater Assessment MW8 surface elevation benzene on Jan. 1 parts per million P 17388.889 - 19500 15277.778 - 17388.889 13166.667 - 15277.778 11055.556 - 13166.667 8944.444 - 11055.556 6833.333 - 8944.444 4722.222 - 6833.333 2611.111 - 4722.222 500 - 2611.111
  • 22. F G MW2 A E H MW1 MW3 I B J MW6 MW5 MW4 C K MW7 L D M N Hazard Co. Contaminated O Groundwater Assessment MW8 surface elevation benzene on Sep. 1 parts per million P 8455.556 - 9500 7411.111 - 8455.556 6366.667 - 7411.111 5322.222 - 6366.667 4277.778 - 5322.222 3233.333 - 4277.778 2188.889 - 3233.333 1144.444 - 2188.889 100 - 1144.444
  • 23. GROUNDWATER ELEVATION DATA John's Junk Yard Hoffmann 211 Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, Winona, Minnesota Well # MW-1 Well # MW-2 Well # MW-3 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 678.50 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 681.00 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 679.50 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 663.50 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 666.00 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 669.50 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 10.00 Depth to Depth to Depth to Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Date Elevation Date Elevation Date Elevation top of well) top of well) top of well) 1/1/04 5.50 673.00 1/1/04 7.50 673.50 1/1/04 4.50 675.00 3/1/04 5.00 673.50 3/1/04 7.00 674.00 3/1/04 4.00 675.50 6/1/04 4.50 674.00 6/1/04 6.50 674.50 6/1/04 3.50 676.00 9/1/04 6.00 672.50 9/1/04 8.00 673.00 9/1/04 5.00 674.50 Well # MW-4 Well # MW-5 Well # MW-6 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 677.50 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 676.50 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 675.00 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 662.50 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 661.50 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 660.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Depth to Depth to Depth to Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Date Elevation Date Elevation Date Elevation top of well) top of well) top of well) 1/1/04 5.00 672.50 1/1/04 6.00 670.50 1/1/04 8.50 666.50 3/1/04 4.50 673.00 3/1/04 5.50 671.00 3/1/04 8.00 667.00 6/1/04 4.00 673.50 6/1/04 5.00 671.50 6/1/04 7.50 667.50 9/1/04 5.50 672.00 9/1/04 6.50 670.00 9/1/04 9.00 666.00 Well # MW-7 Well # MW-8 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 674.00 Top of Well / Surface Elevation 669.00 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 659.00 Bottom of Well Screen Elevation 649.00 Total Depth of Well 15.00 Total Depth of Well 20.00 Depth to Depth to Measurement Groundwater Measurement Groundwater Groundwater (from Groundwater (from Date Elevation Date Elevation top of well) top of well) 1/1/04 6.00 668.00 1/1/04 6.50 662.50 3/1/04 5.50 668.50 3/1/04 6.00 663.00 6/1/04 5.00 669.00 6/1/04 5.50 663.50 9/1/04 6.50 667.50 9/1/04 7.00 662.00 Notes: All measurement are reported in feet above mean sea level (MSL)
  • 24.   Software and Data Sources • Environmental Visualization System report • Professor John Ebert • Omnigraffle • ArcMap • EPA Superfund Sites web URL • Google Earth Pro • Adobe Acrobat Pro