Kevin Byrne's Presentation on Treehugging, Ecomapping, and Our Uncertain Future

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Kevin Byrne's Presentation on Treehugging, Ecomapping, and Our Uncertain Future

  1. 1. Treehugging, Ecomapping, and Our Uncertain Future Design Camp 8 May 5, 2007 Kevin Byrne Minneapolis College of Art + Design U.S.A.
  2. 2. 1. Treehugging • Gut check, technical • Language/labels experimentation • Treehugging anniversaries • Visual treehugging via ecomaps
  3. 3. 1999 NEETF/Roper Report Card Test Your Knowledge! 1. How is most of the electricity in the U.S. generated? Is it: Survey Response a. By burning oil, coal, and wood 28% b. With nuclear power 14 c. Through solar energy 4 d. At hydro electric power plants? 37 Don’t know 18 2. What is the most common cause of pollution of streams, rivers, and oceans? Is it... a. Dumping of garbage by cities 17% b. Surface water running off yards, city streets, paved lots, and farm fields 24 c. Trash washed into the ocean from beaches 5 d. Waste dumped by factories? 44 Don’t know 9 3. What do you think is the main cause of global climate change, that is, the warming of the planet Earth? Is it... a. A recent increase in oxygen in the atmosphere 5% b. Sunlight radiating more strongly through a hole in the upper ozone layer 26 c. More carbon emissions from autos, homes, and industry 45 d. Increased activity from volcanoes worldwide? 5 Don’t know 19 4. To the best of your knowledge, what percentage of the world’s water is fresh and available for use? Is it... a. 1% 13% b. 5% 20 c. 10% 27 d. 33%? 17 Don’t know 23
  4. 4. Google hits (circa 2007) • Tree huggers = 2 million hits • Environmentalism = 4 million • Sustainable development = 61 m
  5. 5. 2007 Highlight Anniversaries • 45th Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring published • 4o Environmental Defense Fund (DDT fight) • 37 Earth Day, Joni Mitchell’s Big Yellow Taxi • 35 Clean Water Act (U.S.A.) • 28 Three Mile Island nuclear accident • 25 U.N. World Charter published • 22 Sinking of Rainbow Warrior, Auckland, NZ • 20 U.N. Brundtland Report released • 15 Earth Summit (Rio), Ecofootprint coined • 10 Kyoto Protocol signed, Roper Green Report •5 U.N. Sustainability Summit (Jo’berg) held
  6. 6. What is sustainable development? •Our childrens’ future: don’t mortgage it •Think about systems: ideas & resources must flow in circles •Triple-bottom-line: people, planet, and profit •Sustainable design: plan & make stuff
  7. 7. More Google hits • Ecomap = 100,000 hits • Cartography = 8 million • Green map = 185 million • Internet map = .5 billion
  8. 8. Static/paper ecomaps by scale global… • Simple, interesting… • Maplecroft • Sheffield University national… • Sudan’s minefields and ethnic mayhem • Maori migration • Constructed U.S.A.
  9. 9. MAPLECROFT Climate and Energy Series M e o m i c g e a T i M l r e i a Carbon resources - levels of proven reserves of oil, gas and coal. Darker Greenhouse gas emissions - levels of greenhouse gas emissions per e shades represent higher levels of reserves. capita. Darker shades represent higher levels of emissions. c
  10. 10. Water Resources Produced by the SASI group (Sheffield) and Mark Newman (Michigan) Water resources here include only freshwater, because saline (sea) water requires treatment before most uses. Only 43 600 cublic kilometres of freshwater is available as a resource each year, despite more than twice this amount falling as precipitation (rain and snow). Much is lost through evaporation. Those countries with higher rainfall often have larger water resources. Of all the water available, the regions of South America and Asia Pacific have the most. People living in Kuwait use sea water that is processed at a desalination plant. As such Kuwait has no area on this map because there are no freshwater resources there. Territory size shows the proportion of all worldwide freshwater resources found there. MOST AND LEAST WATER RESOURCES WORLD WATER RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION Rank Territory Value Rank Territory Value 1 Sao Tome and Principe 227 190 Qatar 0.46 Eastern Europe 2% South America 30% 2 Sierra Leone 223 191 Oman 0.32 North America 15% 3 Costa Rica 220 192 Turkmenistan 0.29 4 Liberia 208 193 Niger 0.28 Land area 5 Colombia 203 194 Bahamas 0.20 Eastern Asia 7% Western Europe 4% Technical notes 6 Bhutan 202 195 Egypt 0.18 Japan 1% • These data are from the United Nations Central Africa 4% Environment Programme. 7 Panama 198 196 United Arab Emirates 0.18 Middle East 11% Southeastern Africa 2% • Only freshwater resources are shown here. 8 Taiwan 186 197 Saudi Arabia 0.11 Northern Africa 3% • *Kuwait had no recorded freshwater resources Southern Asia 4% • See website for further information. 9 Papua New Guinea 177 198 Mauritania 0.04 Asia Pacific 17% 10 Malaysia 177 199 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 0.03 centimetres of water per year (cubic centimetres of water volume per square centimetre of land area)* “The Amazonian basin, where ten of the twenty largest rivers in the world are to be found ... represents one fifth of the entire fresh water reserves of the planet. ” Brazilian Government’s Ministry of External Affairs, 2002 www.worldmapper.org © Copyright 2006 SASI Group (University of Sheffield) and Mark Newman (University of Michigan) Map 102
  11. 11. Water Use Produced by the SASI group (Sheffield) and Mark Newman (Michigan) Four thousand cubic kilometres of water are used by people each year around the world, for domestic, agricultural and other industrial purposes. This does not include non- consumptive uses such as energy generation, mining, and recreation. China, India and the United States use the most water. These are also the territories where the most people live. But water use per person is about three times higher in the United States than it is in India and China. Whilst everybody needs water, people use hugely varying quantities. On average, people living in Central Africa each use only 2% of the water used by each person living in North America. Territory size shows the proportion of worldwide water use occuring there. MOST AND LEAST WATER USAGE WORLD WATER USE Rank Territory Value Rank Territory Value Eastern Asia 17% South America 5% 1 Bangladesh 64 191 Djibouti 0.04 Eastern Europe 4% 2 Bahrain 44 192 Namibia 0.03 Middle East 11% 3 Mauritius 31 194 Angola 0.03 4 Belgium 27 193 Mongolia 0.03 North America 16% Land area 5 Japan 24 195 Botswana 0.03 Asia Pacific 9% Technical notes 6 Netherlands 24 196 Chad 0.02 Western Europe 6% • Data are from the United Nations Environment Programme. 7 Pakistan 23 197 Papua New Guinea 0.02 • See website for further information. 8 Maldives 23 198 Dem Republic Congo 0.02 Japan 2% Southern Asia 24% Central Africa 0.076% 9 Viet Nam 23 199 Congo 0.01 Southeastern Africa 1% Northern Africa 4% 10 India 22 200 Central African Republic <0.01 centimetres of water use per year (cubic centimetres of water volume per square centimetre of land area) “... the right to water emanates from and is indispensable for an adequate standard of living as it is one of the most fundamental conditions for survival.” Céline Dubreuil, 2006 www.worldmapper.org © Copyright 2006 SASI Group (University of Sheffield) and Mark Newman (University of Michigan) Map 104
  12. 12. Carbon Damage Produced by the SASI group (Sheffield) and Mark Newman (Michigan) This map shows estimated carbon damage due to emissions. Carbon damage is estimated by the World Bank as being US$20 per tonne of carbon dioxide emitted. Another way to show carbon damage would be to show the variable costs incurred due to varying effects of carbon emissions. Carbon damage could also be measured in non-economic terms. One problem in showing carbon damage is that we do not yet know the precise form, distribution and severity of the damage from global warming. This map shows what a uniform financial fee for carbon emissions would be: 25% would be paid by the United States, 18% by China, and 11% by Western Europe. Territory size shows the proportion of all carbon damage caused by that territory. This is measured as the weight of carbon dioxide emitted; carbon damage is assumed. HIGHEST AND LOWEST CARBON DAMAGE CARBON DAMAGE 50 Rank Territory Value Rank Territory Value carbon damage in billions of US$ in 2003 45 North America 1 Trinidad & Tobago 157 190 Madagascar 0.58 40 2 United States 151 191 Burkina Faso 0.57 Western Europe Middle East 3 Kuwait 125 192 Uganda 0.50 35 Eastern Asia 4 Greenland 119 193 Ethiopia 0.46 30 Eastern Europe Southern Asia Land area 5 Bahamas 119 194 Malawi 0.45 25 Southeastern Africa South America Technical notes 6 Australia 112 195 Democratic Republic of Congo 0.32 Asia Pacific Northern Africa 20 • Data are from the World Bank’s 2005 World 7 Singapore 107 196 Cambodia 0.30 Japan Development Indicators. Central Africa 15 • *Data are estimated for territories with no data. Chad was recorded as causing US$0 of carbon 8 Estonia 101 197 Burundi 0.27 10 damage, and would rank 200 in the table. 9 Canada 99 198 Mali 0.27 5 • Carbon damage is estimated as US$20 per tonne in 1995 prices. 10 Saudi Arabia 97 199 Central African Republic 0.26 0 • See website for further information. carbon damage in US$ per person, per year, 2003* “Can there be compensation for the loss of a country, its history, its culture, its way of life? How do you put a price on that? Who will pay it?” Eun Jung Cahill Che, 2002 www.worldmapper.org © Copyright 2006 SASI Group (University of Sheffield) and Mark Newman (University of Michigan) Map 315
  13. 13. MAP 2: MÄORI REGIONAL MIGRATION, 1996–2001 (Source: 2001 Census of Population and Dwellings, population aged 15+, Statistics New Zealand) Note: Regional migration refers to the movement by Mäori between Census night 1996 and Census night 2001. NORTHLAND AUCKLAND 5949 BAY of PLENTY 8418 14,655 NORTHLAND 594 831 -777 -6726 AUCKLAND -7824 WAIKATO -13,824 10,701 GISBORNE 996 2670 WAIKATO BAY of Significant inter-regional migration PLENTY -828 -3498 -9705 GISBORNE MA TARANAKI HAWKE’S BAY NA 3001 to 4000 people from 1996 to 2001 HAWKE’S WA 2061 BAY 4104 TARANAKI TU WA 2001 to 3000 people from 1996 to 2001 MANAWATÜ/ -255 WANGANUI NG -2316 1000 to 2000 people from 1996 to 2001 -411 AN UI -4515 5886 NOTE: Only those inter-regional migrations WELLINGTON involving more than 1000 people per annum TASMAN - have been shown. NELSON - WELLINGTON 2067 number MARLBOROUGH -1005 of persons 6861 429 -6891 3642 387 255 WEST COAST Gross population gain 495 -300 -1638 Net gain -687 TASMAN/NELSON/ and or WEST COAST MARLBOROUGH -6606 Gross population loss Net loss -606 CANTERBURY 4214 4323 846 NOTE: All squares representing SOUTHLAND CANTERBURY population gain and loss are proportional in size 1077 to the actual stated figures. -3477 -567 OTAG O -1644 OTAGO SOUTHLAND 1989 192 Mäori regional migration, -1797 gain and loss by region, 1996 – 2001 CARTOGRAPHIC ART COMPANY 09/2004
  14. 14. Fig. 1.The spatial distribution and density of ISA for the conterminous United States.The aggre- gated area of ISA is nearly the size of the state of Ohio.
  15. 15. Ecomaps by scale (cont’d) regional/urban/indigenous… • Islands of Salish Sea (B.C., Canada) • Stonecountry (Roper River, Australia) • Twin Cities impervious pavement community/neighborhood… • Green System Maps • Footprint maps • Examples from undergrad coursework
  16. 16. 2003 Georgia Basin/Puget Sound Research Conference Map #4. Texada Island, Coordinator, Lee Thorpe, Artist Amanda Martinson
  17. 17. Agriculture Forest Shrub & Herbaceous Water 0 % Impervious Urban/Developed 100 % Impervious Miles 0 4.5 9 18 Figure 4. Maps of impervious surface area in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (above) and in the City of Woodbury, Minnesota (left). Each map depicts land cover and the percent of impervious surface area; one at a multi-county scale and one at a city scale. The percentage of impervious surface area is depicted as a continuous variable, ranging from 0 to 100% imperviousness based on greenness. Areas shaded in black have the highest percentage of imperviousness (low greenness), while areas shaded in white have the lowest percentage of imperviousness (high greenness). These maps were created using Landsat TM imagery from the year 2000, calibrated from aerial photograph measurements. Miles 0 1 2 4 3
  18. 18. WHAT’S A GREEN MAP? A Green Map is a locally created map of the natural and cultural environment All use Green Map System’s globally designed Icons to promote green resources and citizen involvement ¶ ƒ £ ‹ ‰ _ ] x a W F ~ k G g 2 ß s Q œ ® w r ¨ : e Œ c C D b B › d ƒ £ P i ‡ I j | 2 / * ¶ F , H N n ª Ô h O p ˆ ´ E R † T ° ¬ · q Tour 1 Green Map Atlas · Guided Tour · www.greenatlas.org · © Green Map® System 2004
  19. 19. Ten inspiring Green Map Stories Each unique Story follows a consistent structure. This design template: – facilitates translation into any language – helps you compare different mapmaking approaches – sets a format for future Atlas volumes covering other regions or themes Tour 5 Green Map Atlas · Guided Tour · www.greenatlas.org · © Green Map® System 2004

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