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# The Mole

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• Awesome explanation. Answers for the learning check on pg 97 though shouldn't be in g/mol but just grams

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• To play the movies and simulations included, view the presentation in Slide Show Mode.\n
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• 6.02 x 1023 softballs = volume of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 Olympic shot puts = mass of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 atoms H laid side by side would encircle Earth ~1,000,000 times\n
• 6.02 x 1023 softballs = volume of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 Olympic shot puts = mass of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 atoms H laid side by side would encircle Earth ~1,000,000 times\n
• 6.02 x 1023 softballs = volume of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 Olympic shot puts = mass of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 atoms H laid side by side would encircle Earth ~1,000,000 times\n
• 6.02 x 1023 softballs = volume of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 Olympic shot puts = mass of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 atoms H laid side by side would encircle Earth ~1,000,000 times\n
• 6.02 x 1023 softballs = volume of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 Olympic shot puts = mass of Earth\n6.02 x 1023 atoms H laid side by side would encircle Earth ~1,000,000 times\n
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• ### The Mole

1. 1. The Mole6.02 X 10 23
2. 2. The Mole• A counting unit• Similar to a dozen (12), except instead of 12, it’s 602 billion trillion 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000• 6.02 X 1023 (in scientific notation)• This number is named in honor of Amedeo Avagadro (1776 – 1856), who studied quantities of gases and discovered that no matter what the gas was, there were the same number of molecules present
3. 3. Mole
4. 4. Mole• A mole is just a number. Just like.....
5. 5. Mole• A mole is just a number. Just like..... a pair = 2
6. 6. Mole• A mole is just a number. Just like..... a pair = 2 a trio = 3
7. 7. Mole• A mole is just a number. Just like..... a pair = 2 a trio = 3 a quartet = 4
8. 8. Mole• A mole is just a number. Just like..... a pair = 2 a trio = 3 a quartet = 4 a dozen = 12
9. 9. Mole• A mole is just a number. Just like..... a pair = 2 a trio = 3 a quartet = 4 a dozen = 12
10. 10. Mole• A mole is just a number. Just like..... a pair = 2 a trio = 3 a quartet = 4 a dozen = 12 a mole = (mol) 602000000000000000000000
11. 11. Mole• A mole is just a number. Just like..... a pair = 2 a trio = 3 a quartet = 4 a dozen = 12 a mole = (mol) 602000000000000000000000
12. 12. 4Just How Big is a Mole?
13. 13. 4Just How Big is a Mole? • Enough soft drink cans to cover the surface of the earth to a depth of over 200 miles.
14. 14. 4Just How Big is a Mole? • Enough soft drink cans to cover the surface of the earth to a depth of over 200 miles. • If you had Avogadros number of unpopped popcorn kernels, and spread them across the United States of America, the country would be covered in popcorn to a depth of over 9 miles.
15. 15. 4Just How Big is a Mole? • Enough soft drink cans to cover the surface of the earth to a depth of over 200 miles. • If you had Avogadros number of unpopped popcorn kernels, and spread them across the United States of America, the country would be covered in popcorn to a depth of over 9 miles. • If we were able to count atoms at the rate of 10 million per second, it would take about 2 billion years to count the atoms in one mole.
16. 16. How Big is a Mole?One mole of marbles would cover the entire Earth(oceans included) for a depth of three miles.
17. 17. How Big is a Mole?One mole of marbles would cover the entire Earth(oceans included) for a depth of three miles.
18. 18. How Big is a Mole?One mole of marbles would cover the entire Earth(oceans included) for a depth of three miles.One mole of \$100 bills stacked one on top of anotherwould reach from the Sun to Pluto and back 7.5 milliontimes.
19. 19. How Big is a Mole?One mole of marbles would cover the entire Earth(oceans included) for a depth of three miles.One mole of \$100 bills stacked one on top of anotherwould reach from the Sun to Pluto and back 7.5 milliontimes.It would take light 9500 years to travel from thebottom to the top of a stack of 1 mole of \$1 bills.
20. 20. How BIG is a mole?
21. 21. How BIG is a mole?There are ~ 6.6 billion people on Earth
22. 22. How BIG is a mole?There are ~ 6.6 billion people on Earth
23. 23. How BIG is a mole?There are ~ 6.6 billion people on Earth
24. 24. How BIG is a mole?There are ~ 6.6 billion people on EarthHow many Earths would it take to equal the population of 1 mole?
25. 25. How BIG is a mole?There are ~ 6.6 billion people on EarthHow many Earths would it take to equal the population of 1 mole? 9.12 x 1013
26. 26. • If you had a mole of cats . . . They would create a sphere larger than Earth!
27. 27. • If you had a mole of \$\$\$\$\$ and you spent \$800 billion dollars a day how many years would it take to spend a MOLEion dollars?
28. 28. • If you had a mole of \$\$\$\$\$ and you spent \$800 billion dollars a day how many years would it take to spend a MOLEion dollars? 2.06 x 109 years
29. 29. • If you had a mole of H2O could you swim in it?
30. 30. • If you had a mole of H2O could you swim in it? NO!
31. 31. • If you had a mole of H2O could you swim in it? NO!
32. 32. • If you had a mole of H2O could you swim in it? NO! Water molecules are so small
33. 33. • If you had a mole of H2O could you swim in it? NO! Water molecules are so small that a mole of H2O = 18ml
34. 34. How small are atoms?
35. 35. How small are atoms?• There are more atoms in one gram of salt than grains of sand on all the beaches of all the oceans in all the world.
36. 36. • Just one granule of sugar contains 1 x 10 17 molecules
37. 37. • Just one granule of sugar contains 1 x 10 17 molecules
38. 38. • Just one granule of sugar contains 1 x 10 17 molecules
39. 39. • Just one granule of sugar contains 1 x 10 17 molecules• Each time you take a breath of air, you inhale about 2 x 1022 molecules of nitrogen and 5 x 10 21 molecules of oxygen.
40. 40. • In chemistry we don’t work with single atoms or molecules because they are too small to be weighed or measured
41. 41. • In chemistry we don’t work with single atoms or molecules because they are too small to be weighed or measured
42. 42. • In chemistry we don’t work with single atoms or molecules because they are too small to be weighed or measured• We have to work with LOTS of atoms in order to measure them
43. 43. • In chemistry we don’t work with single atoms or molecules because they are too small to be weighed or measured• We have to work with LOTS of atoms in order to measure them THAT’s WHERE THE
44. 44. • In chemistry we don’t work with single atoms or molecules because they are too small to be weighed or measured• We have to work with LOTS of atoms in order to measure them THAT’s WHERE THE MOLE COMES IN!
45. 45. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations
46. 46. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations6 CO2 + 12 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20
47. 47. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations6 CO2 + 12 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20
48. 48. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations 6 CO2 + 12 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20Balanced equations
49. 49. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations 6 CO2 + 12 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20Balanced equations –Law of conservation of mass / matter
50. 50. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations 6 CO2 + 12 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20Balanced equations –Law of conservation of mass / matter • ATOMS are not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction, they are only rearranged to form new substances.
51. 51. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations 6 CO2 + 12 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20Balanced equations –Law of conservation of mass / matter • ATOMS are not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction, they are only rearranged to form new substances. • # atoms on reactant side = # atoms on product side
52. 52. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations 6 CO2 + 12 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20Balanced equations –Law of conservation of mass / matter • ATOMS are not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction, they are only rearranged to form new substances. • # atoms on reactant side = # atoms on product side – The Coefficient for each molecule tells you how many “moles” of the molecule are in the reaction.
53. 53. Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations 6 CO2 + 12 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20Balanced equations –Law of conservation of mass / matter • ATOMS are not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction, they are only rearranged to form new substances. • # atoms on reactant side = # atoms on product side – The Coefficient for each molecule tells you how many “moles” of the molecule are in the reaction. • For example: 6 CO2 = 6 moles of CO2
54. 54. Learning Check #1Suppose we invented a new unit called a rapp.One rapp contains 8 objects.1. How many paper clips in 1 rapp? a) 1 b) 4 c) 82. How many oranges in 2.0 rapp? a) 4 b) 8 c) 163. How many rapps contain 40 gummy bears? a) 5 b) 10 c) 20
55. 55. Learning Check #1 - AnswersSuppose we invented a new unit called a rapp.One rapp contains 8 objects.1. How many paper clips in 1 rapp? a) 1 b) 4 c) 82. How many oranges in 2.0 rapp? a) 4 b) 8 c) 163. How many rapps contain 40 gummy bears? a) 5 b) 10 c) 20
56. 56. The Mole
59. 59. The Mole• 1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies• 1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X 1023 cookies• 1 dozen cars = 12 cars
60. 60. The Mole• 1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies• 1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X 1023 cookies• 1 dozen cars = 12 cars• 1 mole of cars = 6.02 X 1023 cars
61. 61. The Mole• 1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies• 1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X 1023 cookies• 1 dozen cars = 12 cars• 1 mole of cars = 6.02 X 1023 cars• 1 dozen Al atoms = 12 Al atoms
62. 62. The Mole• 1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies• 1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X 1023 cookies• 1 dozen cars = 12 cars• 1 mole of cars = 6.02 X 1023 cars• 1 dozen Al atoms = 12 Al atoms• 1 mole of Al atoms = 6.02 X 1023 atoms
63. 63. The Mole• 1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies• 1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X 1023 cookies• 1 dozen cars = 12 cars• 1 mole of cars = 6.02 X 1023 cars• 1 dozen Al atoms = 12 Al atoms• 1 mole of Al atoms = 6.02 X 1023 atomsNote that the NUMBER is always the same, but the MASS is very different!
64. 64. The Mole• 1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies• 1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X 1023 cookies• 1 dozen cars = 12 cars• 1 mole of cars = 6.02 X 1023 cars• 1 dozen Al atoms = 12 Al atoms• 1 mole of Al atoms = 6.02 X 1023 atomsNote that the NUMBER is always the same, but the MASS is very different!Mole is abbreviated mol (gee, that’s a lot quicker to write, huh?)
65. 65. A Mole of ParticlesContains 6.02 x 10 23 particles
66. 66. A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 10 23 particles1 mole C1 mole H2O1 mole NaCl
67. 67. A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 10 23 particles1 mole C1 mole H2O1 mole NaCl
68. 68. A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 10 23 particles1 mole C = 6.02 x 1023 C atoms1 mole H2O1 mole NaCl
69. 69. A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 10 23 particles1 mole C = 6.02 x 1023 C atoms1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 10 23 H2O molecules1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl “molecules”
70. 70. A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 10 23 particles1 mole C = 6.02 x 1023 C atoms1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 10 23 H2O molecules1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl “molecules” (technically, ions not molecules) 6.02 x 1023 Na + ions and
71. 71. A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 10 23 particles1 mole C = 6.02 x 1023 C atoms1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 10 23 H2O molecules1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl “molecules” (technically, ions not molecules) 6.02 x 1023 Na + ions and 6.02 x 1023 Cl– ions
72. 72. A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 10 23 particles1 mole C = 6.02 x 1023 C atoms1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 10 23 H2O molecules1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl “molecules” (technically, ions not molecules) 6.02 x 1023 Na + ions and 6.02 x 1023 Cl– ions Note that a particle could be an atom OR a molecule!
73. 73. Avogadro’s Number as Conversion Factor 6.02 x 1023 particles 1 mole or 1 mole 6.02 x 1023 particles Note that a particle could be an atom OR a molecule!
74. 74. Learning Check #21. Number of atoms in 1.0 mole of Al a) 500 Al atoms b) 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms c) 3.01 x 1023 Al atoms2. Number of moles of S in 6.02 X 1023 S atoms a) 1.0 mole S atoms b) 6.02 mole S atoms c) 1 x 1023 mole S atoms
75. 75. Learning Check #21. Number of atoms in 1.0 mole of Al a) 500 Al atoms b) 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms c) 3.01 x 1023 Al atoms2. Number of moles of S in 6.02 X 1023 S atoms a) 1.0 mole S atoms b) 6.02 mole S atoms c) 1 x 1023 mole S atoms
76. 76. Learning Check #2 - Answers1. Number of atoms in 1.0 mole of Al a) 500 Al atoms b) 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms c) 3.01 x 1023 Al atoms2. Number of moles of S in 6.02 X 1023 S atoms a) 1.0 mole S atoms b) 6.02 mole S atoms c) 1 x 1023 mole S atoms
77. 77. Learning Check #2 - Answers1. Number of atoms in 1.0 mole of Al a) 500 Al atoms b) 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms c) 3.01 x 1023 Al atoms2. Number of moles of S in 6.02 X 1023 S atoms a) 1.0 mole S atoms b) 6.02 mole S atoms c) 1 x 1023 mole S atoms
78. 78. STOICHIOMETRY- the study of the quantitative (#) aspects of chemical reactions.
79. 79. Molar Mass
80. 80. Molar Mass• The Mass of 1 mole in grams
81. 81. Molar Mass• The Mass of 1 mole in grams• Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass. This number is found on the periodic table, below the symbol for each element.
82. 82. Molar Mass• The Mass of 1 mole in grams• Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass. This number is found on the periodic table, below the symbol for each element.
83. 83. Molar Mass• The Mass of 1 mole in grams• Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass. This number is found on the periodic table, below the symbol for each element.
84. 84. Molar Mass• The Mass of 1 mole in grams• Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass. This number is found on the periodic table, below the symbol for each element.
85. 85. Molar Mass• The Mass of 1 mole in grams• Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass. This number is found on the periodic table, below the symbol for each element.
86. 86. Molar MassThe Atomic Mass # does not have units in theperiodic table. Often, chemists use “amu” for theatomic mass unit. To determine the molar mass,we change “amu” into “grams/mole” 1 amu = 1 gram check on your periodic table!!! 1 mole 1 mole of He atoms = 4.0 g 1 mole of C atoms = 12.0 g 1 mole of Mg atoms = 24.3 g 1 mole of Cu atoms = 63.5 g
87. 87. Learning Check #3Find the molar mass for the following elements: (round to the tenths place for decimals) A. 1 mole of Br atoms B. 1 mole of Sn atoms C. 2 moles of C atoms
88. 88. Learning Check #3 - AnswersFind the molar mass for the following elements: (round to the tenths place for decimals) A. 1 mole of Br atoms B. 1 mole of Sn atoms C. 2 moles of C atoms
89. 89. Learning Check #3 - AnswersFind the molar mass for the following elements: (round to the tenths place for decimals) A. 1 mole of Br atoms = 79.9 g/mol B. 1 mole of Sn atoms C. 2 moles of C atoms
90. 90. Learning Check #3 - AnswersFind the molar mass for the following elements: (round to the tenths place for decimals) A. 1 mole of Br atoms = 79.9 g/mol B. 1 mole of Sn atoms = 118.7 g/mol C. 2 moles of C atoms
91. 91. Learning Check #3 - AnswersFind the molar mass for the following elements: (round to the tenths place for decimals) A. 1 mole of Br atoms = 79.9 g/mol B. 1 mole of Sn atoms = 118.7 g/mol C. 2 moles of C atoms = 12 g/mole * 2 moles = 24 g/mol
92. 92. Molar Mass of Molecules & CompoundsADD UP THE MASS FROM ALL ATOMS IN THE MOLECULE !!!!!***The subscript tells you how many atoms for each element are present in the molecule1 mole of the molecule CaCl2 = 111.1 g/mol HOW???? 1 mole Ca x 40.1 g/mol + 2 moles Cl x 35.5 g/mol = 111.1 g/mol CaCl
93. 93. Learning Check #4What is the Molar Mass of themolecule K2O?****Units = g/mol
94. 94. Learning Check #4 - AnswersWhat is the Molar Mass of the moleculeK2O?****Units = g/mol 2 moles of K = 39 g/mol * 2 = 78 g/mol + 1 mole of O = 16 g/molTOTAL = 94 g/mol !!!!
95. 95. What is Dimensional Analysis?
96. 96. What is Dimensional Analysis?Dimensional analysis is just a fancy name for a method of calculating that:
97. 97. What is Dimensional Analysis?Dimensional analysis is just a fancy name for a method of calculating that:
98. 98. What is Dimensional Analysis?Dimensional analysis is just a fancy name for a method of calculating that:1. uses numbers in the form of fractions.
99. 99. What is Dimensional Analysis?Dimensional analysis is just a fancy name for a method of calculating that:1. uses numbers in the form of fractions.2. lets us convert from one type of unit measurement to another.
100. 100. What is Dimensional Analysis?Dimensional analysis is just a fancy name for a method of calculating that:1. uses numbers in the form of fractions.2. lets us convert from one type of unit measurement to another.3. In chemistry, this lets us convert from moles to grams or visa-versa
101. 101. What is a Unit?A unit is something that gives deﬁnition to a numerical value, quantity, or measurement.• Length : meters, centimeters, feet, inches, miles, kilometers• Mass : Kilograms, grams, pounds• Time : hours, minutes, seconds, days, months• Volume : cups, teaspoons, liters, milliliters, gallons, quarts• Currency: dollars, cents, dimes
102. 102. Turning Numbers (or quantities) into fractions called conversion factors: a ratio of equivalent measurements. ©Prentice Hall
103. 103. Turning Numbers (or quantities) into fractions called conversion factors: a ratio of equivalent measurements. ©Prentice Hall
104. 104. Conversion Factors Conversion factors can be written in 2 ways: The unit you want goes on top or thenumerator and the unit you want tocancel goes on the bottom ordenominator.
105. 105. Converting Moles and Grams Aluminum is often used for the structure of light-weight bicycle frames. How many grams of Al are in 3.00 moles of Al? 3.00 moles Al ? g Al
106. 106. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al
107. 107. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al
108. 108. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al
109. 109. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g Al
110. 110. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g Al
111. 111. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g AlWhy? Because I want to “cancel” mol and be left with g. g must be on top.
112. 112. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g AlWhy? Because I want to “cancel” mol and be left with g. g must be on top.
113. 113. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g AlWhy? Because I want to “cancel” mol and be left with g. g must be on top.3. Setup 3.00 moles Al x 27.0 g Al
114. 114. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g AlWhy? Because I want to “cancel” mol and be left with g. g must be on top.3. Setup 3.00 moles Al x 27.0 g Al 1 mole Al
115. 115. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g AlWhy? Because I want to “cancel” mol and be left with g. g must be on top.3. Setup 3.00 moles Al x 27.0 g Al 1 mole Al4. Math 3 * 27/1 = 81
116. 116. 1. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al2. Conversion factors for Al 27.0 g Al or 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g AlWhy? Because I want to “cancel” mol and be left with g. g must be on top.3. Setup 3.00 moles Al x 27.0 g Al 1 mole Al4. Math 3 * 27/1 = 815. Answer = 81.0 g Al