Railroads Impact• Cattle industry – Cowboys, diet, refrigerated cars – Cowtowns (Dodge, Tombstone, Sedalia, Denver, Kansas City)• Transcontinental- One of the Greatest achievements in US history – Central Pacific- Union Pacific – Gold Spike – Unified East and West – Encouraged and exploited immigration (irish, Chi) – Time Zones- Prof. Charles Dowd- backed by RR – Elimination of Buffalo Herds-
T he F all of the C owboyFrederick Remington
T he B ronc B usterFrederick Remington
William “Buffalo Bill”Cody’s Wild West Show
Legendary Female Western CharactersCalamity Jane Annie Oakley
“Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
The Traditional View of the West
Colt .45 RevolverGod didn’t make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
Legendary Gunslingers & Train RobbersJesse James Billy the Kid
Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
M in in gC e nte rs : 19 0 0
Anaconda Copper Mining Co. (MT)
Mining (“Boom”) Towns-- Now Ghost Towns Calico, CA
Long Horns• Long legs• Disease resistant• rugged
The Range Wars Sheep CattleHerders Ranchers
Land Use: 1880s
Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
Black “Exoduster”Homesteader s
The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
A Romantic View
The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
The “Chinese Question” Exclusion Act (1882) - Oriental Exclusion Act - Chinese Exclusion Act
Homestead Act• 1862• 160 acres for 5 years of improvement• 500,000 families took advantage• Best land taken by speculators and RR• Sooners- Land Race
• Oklahoma, once Indian terr. Is opened Oklahoma land race for settlement- 4 land races determine ownership• Sooners. - People that snuck across line b/f line start of race• Last real breakdown of frontier.
• Western boosters popularized the myth of the Garden to encourage settlement during the second half of the nineteenth century. Garden myth• Charles Dana Wilber was one of the leading advocates of this myth He based this claim on "scientific" evidence that purportedly proved that "rain follows the plow.”• The credibility of the Garden myth was strengthened by the unusually high levels of rainfall recorded throughout the 1870s and early 1880s, which further encouraged settlement.• Families began to leave with signs on their wagons, "In God we trusted, in Kansas we busted."
God speed the plow.... By this wonderful provision,which is only mans mastery over nature, the cloudsare dispensing copious rains ... [the plow] is theinstrument which separates civilization fromsavagery; and converts a desert into a farm orgarden.... To be more concise, Rain follows the plow.Charles Dana Wilber Rain Follows the Plow!
Ah, Nebraska Land, Sweet Nebraska Land! Upon thy burning soil I stand. And I look away, across the plains,And I wonder why it never rains.
Plains Problems• Lack of precipitation• Very Windy- tornados• Lack of building materials – wood• Very cold- short growing season• Dense Sod
What is the Message of this Picture?
The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
New Agricultural Technology (solutions) Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]“Prairie Fan”Water Pump
Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
More New Tech.Russian Wheat McCormick Reaper•Disease Resistant•Tolerates cold weather•Can handle drought
Frederick Jackson Turner The Significance of the Frontier in American Society (1893)
Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
Movement west• Solutions to Indian Problem- Assimilation, Relocation, extermination.- TJ• Black Hawk war- 1832- – Western Illinois, Iowa – Black Hawk- chief of Sawk tribe – Four month war – Ends with massacre of 200 – Froced onto rez.• Cherokee- Trail of Tears- AJ- 1835
Movement west• Trail of tears- 1835-AJ• Fort Laramie treaty-1851 – Native control of central plains – Natives promise to not attack passing settlers – Annual payments to natives – Ignored by US and Settlers – Natives forced onto rez.
Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851) Utes -Worthless land, -Out of way of RR -Destroyed by violent prospectors -Horace Greeley -Horse Colorado culture.Gold Rush (1859)
Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864 300 plus Cheyenne and Arapahoe. slaughtered in their sleep. Survivors paid off to keep silent
2nd Treaty ofFt. Laramie (1868)Treaty of MedicineLodge Creek (1867) Reservation Policy
Gold Found inthe Black Hills of the Dakota Territory! 1874
• West Point- low in class Custer!!• Fought at 1st bull run- 1861• Brig. Gen. in 1863• Present at Gettysburg• Chased Lee w/ Grant in 1865• Fought w/ Mexicans in their Revolution• Punished for infidelities w/ superiors wife.• Forced to serve in West and protect railways.• Poor relations with Indians.
The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Gen. George Armstrong CusterChief Sitting Bull
Battle Result• Custer- 7th Cav. Destroyed• 260 dead soldiers• Solidifies US popular opinion against natives• Victory?• Sitting bull, Crazy horse, Custer b/c legends.
Chief Joseph I will fight no more forever! Nez Percé tribal retreat (1877)
• Oliver Howard-US cav Gen.• Nez Pierce – 800, mostly elderly, children and women – Traveled 1700 miles – Pursued by 2000 soldiers – Joseph surrenders within 35 miles of Canadian border.
Geronimo, Apache Chief: Hopeless Cause
Helen Hunt JacksonA Century of Dishonor (1881)
Dawes Severalty Act (1887): Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
Dawes Severalty Act• 1887• Abandon the practice of dealing with natives as separate nations• Designed to break up tribes-which many felt stood in the way of assimilation• 160 acre plots for per family• Citizenship tro those that stayed on it 25 years• 47 million acres given to indians, 90 million left over
Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
Ghost dance• Resurrection• Fervor• Crazy horse/Sitting bull• Outlawed by whites
Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
Wounded knee Dec. 29, 1891• Last major indian event, considered the end of hostile actions• Began with Col. Forsyth attempting to disarm the Sioux.• Gun discharges, US Cav opens fire at close range with cannon and gatling guns.• 88 man, 44 women, and 18 children killed
Indian Reservations Today
Crazy Horse Monument: Black Hills, SD Lakota Chief
Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor Crazy Horse Monument His vision of the finished memorial.
Mt. Rushmore: Black Hills, SD
Native Stereotypes• Espera Oscar DeCorti
Commercial agriculture• Mass production of factories being applied to farms.• Commercial farmers specialized in cash crops, not self sufficiency – Makes them dependent on others. • Railroads • Banks, interest rates – Unlike industrialists, they could not control production rates and price
Farm Overproduction• Massive growth of farming in many nations led to a increase in “supply”• Prices plummet• Farmers all over the world can ship their product more easily because of communication and transportation achievements.• 1880’s many farms mortgaged and in debt to bank.
Farmers Grievances• Railroads- RR charges variable rates on goods, – farmers paid more. – Certain regions paid more – Also controlled storage areas at terminals and charged high rates• Banks – High interest, not enough money to pay off debt- foarmers supported more money- inflation – Prices- Too little for their crop, too much for things they bought.
The Agrarian Malaise• Cultural solitude/isolation on plains• Poor public services education• Urbanization-(hayseeds)• A new sense of sectionalism
Destruction of the Buffalo Herds The near extinction of the buffalo.
Ye llo w s t o n e N a t io n a l P a rk First national park established in 1872.
Conservation MovementJohn Muir With President Theodore Roosevelt