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Kevin J. Hartnett
How many officers should be assigned to the patrol function in order to provide the level of services needed Decisions regarding allocation are influenced by factors such as the number of calls for service, officer response time, geographic area
Patrol is the Core Function of the Police Service Traditionally viewed as the task associated with accomplishing the primary goal of police organizations: Crime Fighting
The large percentage of Police Officer’s time is spent on a wide variety of citizen demands that are only peripherally related to law enforcement Calls for service studies show that less then half of all requests are crime related
Patrol performs a wide array of tasks that are not associated with crime control: Medical Assistance Utility Problems Animal Complaints Cats in trees, (ever see a cat skeleton in a tree?)
A majority of patrol’s time is spent “on patrol” This creates a “visible presence” Somewhat deters crime Promotes an impression of safety to citizens Decentralizes units in a geographic area so response time is quicker
“Big City Bias” Overgeneralizations: Minneapolis Domestic Violence Study vs. Omaha Study Little Research in the Field on Deployment Research done on what does not work, not what does Skolnick and Bayley Study on patrol allocation is debatable: The New Blue Line: Police Innovation in Six American Cities
1st ) Increasing Police does not always reduce crime 2nd) random patrol neither reduces crime nor improves chances of catching suspects 3rd) 2 man cars are no more effective then 1 man 4th) Saturation patrolling does reduce crime, temporally by displacing it
5th) The types of crime that terrorize citizens, mugging, robbery, burglary, rape, h omicide is rarely encountered by patrol units 6th) Improving response time has little effect on the likelihood of arresting criminals 7th) Crimes are not solved through criminal investigations J. Skolnick and D. Bailey, The New Blue Line: Police Innovation in Six American Cities (New York, NY: Free Press, 1986)
Strecher states that “The essence of science is the verification and advancement of what is already known with repeated and refined research. The value of most police research findings is limited by a lack of both replication and the refinement of the research” V.G. Strecher, Goal Orientated Policing: Major Police Studies and Findings. Unpublished Manuscript (Huntsville, Texas Sam Houston University 1993)
Assessing the value of rapid response only on the dynamic of apprehending criminals is myopic. Research on Rapid Response did lead to CAD, efficiency of patrol, greater citizen satisfaction
Patrol is the most visible and readily recognized function of modern police 60% or more of the sworn personal in many agencies are assigned to patrol Every American community wants 3 things from their police department: 1) immediate response to emergencies, 2) Reasonable Response Times to nonemergencys, 3) Visibility that provides a feeling of security
These are the essential elements of patrol allocation, deployment, and scheduling Rapid Response is a demand of citizens The effectiveness of patrol is still largely undetermined and under-researched Hence, “Patrol is Patrol”
The ability of the police to “solve” crime is limited, even with a cooperative relationship with citizens Some causes of crime are beyond the police control: poverty, broken families, substance abuse, unemployment
The FOCUS of police administrators should be on allocating and deploying officers to efficiently and effectively manage and reduce crime Reppetto tells us that “the way officers are trained, deployed, and managed has a substantial, if not primary impact on police productivity , T.A. Reppetto, The Influence of Police Organizational Style on Crime Control and Effectiveness, Journal of Police Science and Administration 3, no.3 (1975): 274-79
Crime prevention is not attainable through the use of “sit around and wait” patrol Emphasis should be on repression and suppression of crime through innovative and proactive deployment tactics, J.H. Auten, Crime Prevention and Police Patrol – Are They Compatible?, Police Chief 48, no. 8 (1981)
Very few crime prevention programs, especially patrol programs have been evaluated using scientifically recognized standards and methodologies including repeated tests under similar and differing social conditions
A meta-analysis reveled that, based on a review of over 500 crime prevention program evaluations meeting minimum scientific standards, there was minimal evidence to establish what works, what doesn’t, and what is promising in policing L.W. Sherman, et al, Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising (Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 1998)
Saturation Patrols Increased Field Interrogations Increased Traffic Enforcement High Visibility Patrol Hot Spots Order Maintenance Policing (Broken Window Theory)
The effectiveness of patrol is still largely undetermined and under researched when viewed in relation to the resources allocated to the patrol division. The police still patrol, but patrol allocation and deployment is still based on concepts and theories long since discarded. Sherman, Crime and Public Policy,
August Vollmer (1876-1955) earned a nationalreputation as an innovator and publicistof new ideas; and often is called the “fatherof modern law enforcement.” Vollmerreorganized the Berkeley PoliceDepartment, created new units within it, andincreased its capacities with motor vehiclesoutfitted with one-way radios that couldmonitor the police dispatchers. He hired college-educated officerswhen he could and was the first criminal justiceprofessor
Vollmer developed a list of functions many of which are still in use today: Crime Prevention Criminal Apprehension Public Service Traffic Control Emergency Services
Vollmer develop the territorial subunit, aka: The Beat, a means to allocate police resources based on workload analysis and calls for service. This early work led to many departments allocating units based on workload Some agencies still allocate resources evenly to this day
Orlando W. Wilson (1900-1972)Wilson was one of the first college- educated police officers (a street cop, not a college- educated police executive). Later, as a police manager and as an academic, he applied the basic principles of good management to law enforcement and helped inspire “professionalism“ in policing.
The basic purpose of patrol is the elimination of criminal opportunity The basic philosophy of Wilson is that patrol needs to create an impression of “Omnipresence” the police are everywhere Does not diminish a thief’s desire but limits the opportunity
Principles of Organization of O.W. WilsonTasks should be grouped together in one or more units under the control of one person. These tasks may be divided according to: (a) similarity in purpose, process, method, or clientele (functional), (b) the time (temporal), (c) the place of their performance (spatial), and (d) the level of authority needed in their accomplishment.
Lines of demarcation between the responsibilities of units should be clearly drawn by a precise definition of the duties of each, (a) duties of a unit should be made known to all members of the unit. (b) responsibility within the unit and between units should be placed exactly. (c) avoid duplication in execution and neglect resulting from the nonassignment of a duty.
Channels will be established through which information flows and through which authority is delegated. (a) These lines of control should correspond to the delegation of authority, the placement of responsibility, the supervision of work, and the coordination of effort. (b) Lines of control should be clearly defined and well understood by all members so that all may know to whom they are responsible and who, in turn, is responsible to them. (c) Exceptions to routine communication of information through channels should be provided for emergency and unusual situations
Structure and terminology should facilitate the understanding of the purposes and responsibilities of the organization by all its members. Avoid exotic arrangements and obscure jargon.Each individual, unit, and situation should be under the immediate control of one, and only one, person, thus achieving the principle of unity of command and avoiding the friction that results from duplication of direction and supervision.
The span of control of a supervisor should be large enough to provide economical supervision, but no more units or persons should be placed under the direct control of one person than he or she is able to manage.Each task should be made the unmistakable duty of someone; responsibility for planning, execution, and control should be definitely placed on designated persons.
Supervision should be provided for every member of the organization and for every function or activity.Each assignment or duty should carry with it commensurate authority to fulfill the responsibility.Persons to whom authority is delegated should be held accountable for the use made of it and for the failure to use it.
Also known as a “block chart,” “plumbing chart,” or a “wiring diagram,” the organizational chart embodies the ancient adage that a picture is worth 1,000 words. It uses rectangular boxes to represent offices, units, or important individual officers in an agency.
Bureaucratic-Scientific Management Model Human Relations Model Situational- Contingency Model
Organizational principles are applied somewhat rigidly, with the hierarchy principle given very high priority. Authority is very precisely allocated, with those higher up in the hierarchy having more power. Rules are explicit, and organizational discipline is enforced. The agency’s organizational chart clearly defines areas of jurisdiction and command-control relationships. Organizational communications, command, and control are expected to follow the chain of command.
Arising with the discoveries of the Hawthorne group, hierarchy and command aspects were not abandoned, but their importance declined. Lines of command, control, and communication were often ignored in favor of work groups, operating as co-equals, even when they were comprised of different ranks. Rules were replaced by flexible guidelines. This model found expression in the 1970s as team policing, community policing, and empowerment of client populations in criminal justice priority-setting became popular.
These models promote flexibility and situational management. The application of COMPSTAT in law enforcement and problem-oriented policing are both expressions of this approach. Criminal justice work- teams are created, reorganized, and disbanded as needed. There is more use of delegation and operational control practices than in scientific management, but less workplace democracy than in human relations applications. The scientific management principles re-emerged as good practices, but not rigid formulae.
The division of labor in a criminal justice organization will reflect functional, temporal, and spatial demands placed upon it by its mission. temporal order - arrangement of events in time spatial - pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space; "the first dimension to concentrate on is the spatial one"; "spatial ability"; "spatial awareness"
Functional Divisions of Labor Function is a factor in the Division of Labor.The units within a large organization often willhave specialized functions and the peopleassigned to these units will be specialists.The functions they are called upon to performdefine their unit within the larger organization.
Functional Divisions of LaborExamples from Law Enforcement:◦ patrol units◦ investigative units◦ CSI teams◦ dispatchers◦ juvenile officers◦ COPs program participants
One of the Earliest Patrol Allocation Model Patrol Units are deployed based on the total miles in the total area to be patrolled
Developed by O.W. Wilson in the 1940’s Each type of crime was given a hazard score, prioritizing the incidence of crime A total weighted sum for each region was calculated with personnel being allocated accordingly
Queuing models attempted to overcome the problems of geography and hazard formula models Combined probabilistic demands for service with geographic considerations to reduce response time for urgent calls for service
Based on the demand for police service predicted by hour and geographic area, using projections based on past demand data with variations for weekly and seasonal variations This was the first attempt to apply mathematical and probability modeling to police patrol allocation
Several mathematical models were developed to attempt to maximize the suppression of crime These models attempted to identify the probability of intercepting a crime in progress and the probability of the crime taking place The model suffered several flaws all of which are assumptional rather then mathematical
It was believed that the probability of space time coincidence of crime and patrol could be measured and that crime occurrence and patrol were independent Future studies would limit the utility of these models The variables that influenced these models continue to influence patrol allocation to this day
Computer program designed to assist and enable police departments to determine the number of patrol units during various days and times of the week Simple analytic model that does not attempt to equalize the calls for service workload across watches or shifts It’s goal is to deploy officers so response times can be optimized
Entirely controlled by user input Reflects no geographic structure Insensitive to location of patrol cars in a geographic area Differences in crime rates, call-for-service trends are not easily augmented into the program
PAM: Patrol Allocation Model, computerized and elaborated versions of PAM represent the current state of the art of patrol allocation Designed to determine the number of officers needed to be assigned to patrol based on established performance objectives: Visibility, Response Time, etc.
The number of needed officers is only as accurate as the data used in the model Models provide an estimate of the number of officers needed Models should not be used in lieu of professional expertise Models contain errors because they don’t account for variables in particular jurisdictions
Data used in allocation models is typically previous years data A problem with mathematical models is the failure of them to able to take into account the fact that policing is a dynamic system that adjusts to changes in the environment
Calls for Service Service Time: Average time between dispatch and clearing the call Roadway Miles: Impacts Visibility Patrol Speed: Average speed 24.5 mph Geographic Area Response Speed
Leave Time: Significant Impact on allocation decisions 1) Vacation Time 9) Light Duty 2) Comp Time 10) Special Assignments 3) Sick Leave 11) Jury Duty 4) Training 12) Workmen’s Comp 5) Holidays 13) Administrative leave 6) Personal Days 7) Military Service 8) Family and Medical Leave Act
If and officer is contracted to work 2,086 hours per year, (40 hours a week x 52 weeks) Taking Leave Rate into account, an officer is available 1,550 hours a year In order to fill one position around the clock, 5 days a week, 8 hours a day, almost six officers are needed
Policing Service Model: Decisions to take part or not in Community Service Initiatives effects staffing levels Visibility Objective: How often should a patrol unit pass a given point Response Time: Response goals set by administration Officer Availability: Officers available immediately Administrative Activities Self-Induced Self-Initiated Activity Unrecoverable Patrol Time Two-Officer Patrol Units
Administrative Activities: Meal Breaks, other Breaks, Court Time, Vehicle Maintenance, etc. Self-Initiated Activity: Traffic Stops, MV Arrests, etc. Unrecoverable Patrol Time: Time to clear a call, stuck in traffic, report writing Two-Officer Patrol Units: Allocation adjustments needed when staffing a unit with two officers
Maximizes Officer Availability Reduction in Fatigue Increased Communication between officers assigned to different shifts Maximize quality of life Reduction in Sick Time Higher Morale Savings Reduction in Overtime Efficient use of equipment
Matching staff levels to service demand Revising Schedules to accommodate vacations, comp time, sick leave Designing the schedule to accommodate policy directives, contract needs Equipment shortages Inadequate time between shift changes Fairness in scheduling holidays, weekends Overcoming lack of communication between shifts
Accommodating training, meetings, special assignments, administrative demands Overcoming restrictions on outside activities such as education Overcoming employee fatigue, boredom, low morale
Benefits: Traditional WorkSchedule, fatigue not an issue, shortestworkday, effective use of equipmentDrawbacks: Permanent Days Off,Calls held for oncoming shift, limited timeoff, lower morale
Benefits: Allows for overlapping shifts, less overtime, efficient shift changes due to overlapping, power shifts, all officers can be scheduled to work same day for training, Increased morale due to more time off Drawbacks: Expensive to implement, possible 10 to 20% increase in officer needed, Equipment shortage, costs may increase
Benefits: Fewer shift changes, rotating days off, increased morale, more time off, reduced sick time Drawbacks: Increased fatigue, alertness and safety decrease, Overtime costs increase
5-9 Scheduling Overlapping Shifts Power Shifts Variable Start Times
Shift Rotation Days Off Rotation Proportional Scheduling Scheduling Training Scheduling Vacation and Compensatory Time Administrative and Unplanned Absences
Directed Patrol Hot Spot Patrol Aggressive Patrol and Zero-Tolerance Patrol
Directed Patrol: Officers are directed to patrol a specific location for a specific period of time Watch for particular offenses Kansas City study showed that 1/3 of all patrol time could be directed patrol It is proactive and aggressive Patrol units are given instructions directing their activity Crime data needs to be analyzed
Hot Spot Patrols: Studies found a substantial amount of crime is concentrated in certain areas, “hot spots” Concentrated patrols targeting certain crimes, drugs, guns, etc. Studies vary, some short term success, some long term Data analysis needed before and after
Aggressive Patrol and Zero Tolerance: High level of patrol intervention Traffic enforcement Minor offense enforcement Field Interrogations
Problem-Orientated Policing: “POP” Incident driven policing, problem solving with the community The Broken Window Theory Compstat: accurate and timely intelligence, rapid deployment, effective tactics, ongoing assessment of effectiveness
Post 9/11 Reforms: Information sharing between agencies, eliminating “borders” Intelligence-Led Policing: Use of data effectively, establishment of goals with community involvement, input from patrol officers