Sardar Sarovar Dam
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Sardar Sarovar Dam

on

  • 11,264 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
11,264
Views on SlideShare
11,264
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
348
Comments
4

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Sardar Sarovar Dam Sardar Sarovar Dam Document Transcript

  • 1. Introduction • Dam is a solid barrier constructed at a suitable location across a river valley to store flowing water. This confinement of water creates lakes or reservoirs. • Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. • Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. • A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Storage of water is utilized for following objectives: • Hydropower • Irrigation • Water for domestic consumption • Drought and flood control • For navigational facilities • Other additional utilization is to develop fisheriesSOCET CIVIL 1
  • 2. Structure of Dam Structure of Dam • Heel: contact with the ground on the upstream side • Toe: contact on the downstream side • Abutment: Sides of the valley on which the structure of the dam rest • Galleries: small rooms like structure left within the dam for checking operations. • Diversion tunnel: Tunnels are constructed for diverting water before the construction of dam. This helps in keeping the river bed dry. • Spillways: It is the arrangement near the top to release the excess water of the reservoir to downstream side • Sluice way: An opening in the dam near the ground level, which is used to clear the silt accumulation in the reservoir side.SOCET CIVIL 2
  • 3. Classification of Dam 3.1 Classification of Dam According to use Storage Dam: For water Storage, irrigation, industrial, etc. • Gravity Dam :- • In a gravity dam, the force that holds the dam in place against the push from the water is Earths gravity pulling down on the mass of the dam. • These dams are heavy and massive wall-like structures of concrete in which the whole weight acts vertically downwards. • Bhakra Dam is the highest Concrete Gravity dam in Asia and Second Highest in the World. Gravity DamSOCET CIVIL 3
  • • Earthen Dam:- • They are trapezoidal in shape • Earth dams are constructed where the foundation or the underlying material or rocks are weak to support the masonry dam or where the suitable competent rocks are at greater depth. • Earthen dams are relatively smaller in height and broad at the base • They are mainly built with clay, sand and gravel, hence they are also known as Earth fill dam or Rock fill dam. Earthen DamSOCET CIVIL 4
  • • Rock fill Dam :- • Like an earth dam it is composed of fragmental materials, with each particle independent of the others. • The mass stability is developed by the friction and inter-reaction of one particle on another rather than by any cementing agent that binds the particles together. Rock fill DamSOCET CIVIL 5
  • • Arch Dam :- • An arch dam is a type of dam that is curved and commonly built with concrete. • The arch dam is a structure that is designed to curve upstream so that the force of the water against it, known as hydrostatic pressure, presses against the arch, compressing and strengthening the structure as it pushes into its foundation or abutments. • An arch dam is most suitable for narrow gorges or canyons with steep walls of stable rock to support the structure and stresses. • Since they are thinner than any other dam type, they require much less construction material, making them economical and practical in remote areas. • The development of arch dams throughout history began with the Romans in the 1st century BC and after several designs and techniques were developed, relative uniformity was achieved in the 20th century. Arch DamSOCET CIVIL 6
  • Diversion Dam : For Irrigated the River Water & Divert in to the Canal • Weir :- • A weir (also sometimes called an overflow dam) is a type of small overflow dam that is often used within a river channel to create an impoundment lake for water abstraction purposes and which can also be used for flow measurement. WeirSOCET CIVIL 7
  • • Barrage:- • A barrage is a type of dam which consists of a line of large gates that can be opened or closed to control the amount of water passing the dam. • The gates are set between flanking piers which are responsible for supporting the water load. They are often used to control and stabilize water flow of rivers for irrigation systems. • According to the World Commission on Dams, a key difference between a barrage and a dam is that a dam is built for storing water in a reservoir, which raises the level of water significantly. • A barrage is built for diverting water, and is generally built on flat terrain across wide meandering rivers, raising the water level only a few feet. Barrages are larger than headwork. • Barrages that are commonly used to dam a lagoon or estuary as a method to capture tidal power from tidal inflows are known as tidal barrages. BarrageSOCET CIVIL 8
  • Detention Dam : Stop the Water During the flood in Canal or river, And then Slow Water Flow from the Dam • Dike:- Dike • Debris Dam:- Debris DamSOCET CIVIL 9
  • 3.2 Classification of Dam According to Hydraulic Design Overflow Dam: Extra water flow over the head of dam. • Spillway:- Section of Spillway Non-Overflow Dam: Head of the dam is over the HFL (High Fluid Level). • Gravity Dam • Earthen Dam • Rock fill DamSOCET CIVIL 10
  • 3.3. Classification of Dam According to Material Rigid Dam: Hard material like Concrete, Plaster, Steel & Wood used in construction. This type of Dam is called Rigid Dam. • Gravity Dam • Arch Dam • Buttress Dam:- • A buttress dam or hollow dam is a dam with a solid, water-tight upstream side that is supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses or supports. • The dam wall may be flat or curved. Most buttress dams are made of reinforced concrete and are heavy, pushing the dam into the ground. Water pushes against the dam, but the buttresses are inflexible and prevent the dam from falling over. • Buttress or hollow gravity dams were originally built to retain water for irrigation or mining in areas of scarce or expensive resources but cheap labour. • A buttress dam is a good choice in wide valleys where solid rock is rare. Buttress DamSOCET CIVIL 11
  • • Steel Dam:- • A steel dam is a type of dam (a structure to impound or retard the flow of water) that is made of steel, rather than the more common masonry, earthworks, concrete or timber construction materials. • Relatively few examples were ever built. Of the three built in the US, two remain, the Ash fork- Bainbridge Steel Dam, built in 1898 in the Arizona desert to supply locomotive water to the ATSF, and the Red ridge Steel Dam, built 1905, in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to supply water to stamp mills. • The third, the Hauser Lake Dam in Montana, was finished in 1907 but failed in 1908. • Steel dams were an experiment to determine if a construction technique could be devised that was cheaper than masonry, concrete or earthworks, but sturdier than timber crib dams. Steel DamSOCET CIVIL 12
  • Non-Rigid Dam: Ruff Material like small stones used in construction of this type of Dam. • Timber Dam:- • A dam whose main load-carrying structural elements are made of wood, primarily coniferous varieties such as pine and fir. • Timber dams are made for small heads (2-4 m or, rarely, 4-8 m) and usually have sluices; according to the design of the apron they are divided into pile, crib, pile-crib, and buttressed dams. • The openings of timber dams are restricted by abutments; where the sluice is very long it is divided into several openings by intermediate supports: piers, buttresses, and posts. • The openings are covered by wooden shields, usually several in a row one above the other. Simple hoists—permanent or mobile winches—are used to raise and lower the shields. Timber DamSOCET CIVIL 13
  • 4. About Sardar Sarovar Dam • The Sardar Sarovar Project is one of the largest water resources projects of India covering four major states - Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan. • Dams spillway discharging capacity (30.7 lakhs cusecs) would be third highest in the world. • With 1133 cumecs (40000 cusecs) capacity at the head regulator, and 532 km. length, the Narmada Main Canal would be the largest irrigation canal in the world. • The dam will be the third highest concrete dam (163 meters) in India, the first two being Bhakra (226 metres) in Himachal Pradesh and Lakhwar (192 meters) in Uttar Pradesh. • In terms of the volume of concrete involved for gravity dams, this dam will be ranking as the second largest in the world with an aggregate volume of 6.82 million cu.m. • The first is Grand Coule Dam in USA with a total volume of 8.0 million cu.m. • This dam with its spillway discharging capacity of 87,000 cumecs (30.70 lac), will be the third in the world, Gazenba (1.13 lac cumecs) in China and Tucurri (1.0 lac cumecs) in Brazil being the first two. Sardar Sarovar DamSOCET CIVIL 14
  • Country India Location Navagam, Gujarat Coordinates 21°49′49″N 73°44′50″E Status Operational Owner Narmada Control Authority Dam and spillways Type of dam Gravity, concrete Height (foundation) 163 m (535 ft) Length 1,210 m (3,970 ft) Impounds Narmada River Spillway capacity 87,000 m3/s (2,999,900 cu ft/s) • Worlds Second Largest Concrete Gravity Dam (by volume) after Grand Coulee • Worlds Third Highest Spillway discharging capacity - 87,000 m3/second • Designed Live Storage Capacity of the Reservoir 5860 MCM (4.75 million acre feet) • Hydropower - 1,450 MW installed capacity (1 billion kWh every year) • Irrigation - 1.905 million Ha (1.8 million Ha. in Gujarat benefitting 1 million farmers) • Drinking Water - 9633 villages and 131 towns (29 million people) • Canal Network - 75,000 km length • Main Canal - 458.318 km long, capacity 1,133 m3/second, 633 structures • No. of Employees – 4673 • Estimated Cost - Rs. 392.4 billion (8 billion USD)SOCET CIVIL 15
  • • For chute spillway Radial gates, 7 in number and size 60 x 60 and for service spillway, 23 Radial gates of size 60 x 55 are to be provided to negotiate the design flood. • 10 number of temporary construction sluices, each of size 2.15 m x 2.75 m. are provided in the boby of the spillway at RL 18 m. • Another set of 4 permanent river sluices are provided at RL 53.0 m. • The lower sluices were closed in February, 1994. • The design of the dam allows for a horizontal seismic coefficient of 0.125g and it also covers an additional risk due to reservoir induced seism city. • Most sophisticated seismological instruments for monitoring and evaluation of the stresses in the body of the dam as well as the effect on the periphery of the reservoir are under installation. • A new era of water revolution has begun. The water has started flowing from Kevadia to Kutch... Villagers are provided water through pipelines instead of tankers...Rivers & Ponds are recharged...More than 15,000 villages are covered under Narmada Water supply project. • Narmada main canal has reached up to Gujarat-Rajasthan border 458 km and Sub canal distribution network has covered more than 1000km. • It was the late Sardar Vallabhabhai Patel who conceived the idea of constructing a dam over the river Narmada in 1946-47 for the optimum use of Narmada waters for the welfare of the Nation. • Today The Sardar Sarovar Project is one of the largest water resources projects of India covering four major states - Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Guajrat and Rajasthan. Dams spillway discharging capacity (30.7 lakhs cusecs) would be third highest in the world. With 1133 cumecs (40000 cusecs) capacity at the head regulator, and 532 km. length, the Narmada Main Canal would be the largest irrigation canal in the world. • The project will generate between 856 to 1007 million units per year of cheap and Eco-friendly, indigenous hydropower. • Project would meet the drinking water needs of 8215 villages, 135 urban centers and benefits three sanctuaries.SOCET CIVIL 16
  • Index Map of Sardar SarovarSOCET CIVIL 17
  • 5. History of Sardar Sarovar Dam5.1 Historical Background • The plan for harnessing the river for irrigation and power generation in the Narmada basin was initiated in 1946. • Seven projects including the Bharuch project were identified during the initial Survey and 4 projects Bharuch (Gujarat), Bargi, Tawa and Punasa in Madhya Pradesh were given top priority for investigation. • After the completion of investigation, the proposed dam at Gora in Gujarat with the full reservoir level (FRL) 161 ft (49.80m) was selected and the foundation stone was laid by the late Prime Minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on 5th April, 1961. • However as more detailed, modernised contour sheets from the Survey of India were available thereafter, possibility of raising the height of the dam for optimum utilisation of water was considered. • In 1964, to resolve the dispute about sharing of the Narmada Waters between the Governments of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, the Government of India appointed an expert committee under the Chairmanship of late Dr. Khosla which recommended a higher dam with FRL 500 ft (152.44m) in 1965. • However, Govt. of M.P. was not agreeable to development of Narmada water as per Khosla Committee report and hence the Narmada Water Dispute Tribunal (NWDT) was constituted by the Government of India in 1969, under the Inter State River Water Disputes Act, 1956. NWDT pronounce its award in 1979.5.2 Controversy Protest • The dam is one of Indias most controversial dam projects and its environmental impact and net costs and benefits are widely debated. • The World Bank was initially a funder of the SSD, but withdrew in 1994. • The Narmada Dam has been the centre of controversy and protest since the late 1980s. • One such protest takes center stage in the Spanner films documentary Drowned Out (2002), which follows one tribal family who decide to stay at home and drown rather than make way for the Narmada Dam. • An earlier documentary film is called A Narmada Diary (1995) by Anand Patwardhan and Simantini Dhuru.SOCET CIVIL 18
  • • The efforts of NBA to seek social and environmental justice for those most directly affected by the Sardar Sarovar Dam construction feature prominently in this award winning film (Film fare Award for Best Documentary-1996). • The figurehead of much of the protest is Medha Patkar, the leader of the "Narmada Bachao Andolan," the "Save Narmada Movement." • The movement was cemented in 1989, and was awarded the Right Livelihood Award in 1991.5.3 Height Issues • In February 1999, the Supreme Court of India gave the go ahead for the dams height to be raised to 88 m (289 ft) from the initial 80 m (260 ft). • In October 2000 again, in a 2 to 1 majority judgment in the Supreme Court, the government was allowed to construct the dam up to 90 m (300 ft). • In May 2002, the Narmada Control Authority approved increasing the height of the dam to 95 m (312 ft). • In March 2004, the Authority allowed a 15 m (49 ft) height increase to 110 m (360 ft). • In March 2006, the Narmada Control Authority gave clearance for the height of the dam to increase from 110.64 m (363.0 ft) to 121.92 m (400.0 ft). • This came after 2003 when the Supreme Court of India refused allow the height of the dam to increase again. The Supreme Court decision • Despite popular protest, the Supreme Court gave clearance for the height to be increased to 121.92 m (400 ft), but in the same judgment Justice Mr. Bharucha gave directions to Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra (the Grievance Redressal Authorities of Gujarat) that before further construction begins, they should certify (after inspection) that all those displaced by the raise in height of 5 meters’ have already been satisfactorily rehabilitated, and also that suitable vacant land for rehabilitating them is already in the possession of the respective States. • This process shall be repeated for every successive 5 meter increase in height.SOCET CIVIL 19
  • 6. Project benefitsThe benefits of the dam as listed in the Judgment of Supreme Court of India in 2000 were: • "The argument in favour of the Sardar Sarovar Project is that the benefits are so large that they substantially outweigh the costs of the immediate human and environmental disruption. • Without the dam, the long term costs for people would be much greater and lack of an income source for future generations would put increasing pressure on the environment. • If the waters of the Narmada river continuous to flow to the sea unused there appears to be no alternative to escalating human deprivation, particularly in the dry areas of Gujarat. • The project has the potential to feed as many as 20 million people, provide domestic and industrial water for about 30 million, employ about 1 million, and provide valuable peak electric power in an area with high unmet power demand (farm pumps often get only a few hours power per day). • In addition, recent research shows substantial economic multiplier effects (investment and employment triggered by development) from irrigation development. • Set against the futures of about 70,000 project affected people, even without the multiplier effect, the ratio of beneficiaries to affected persons is well over 100:1.6.1 Irrigation Irrigation SystemSOCET CIVIL 20
  • • The Sardar Sarovar Project will provide irrigation facilities to 18.45 lac hector of land, covering 3112 villages of 73 talukas in 15 districts of Gujarat. • It will also irrigate 2, 46,000 ha. Of land in the strategic desert districts of Barmer and Jallore in Rajasthan and 37,500 ha. • In the tribal hilly tract of Maharashtra through lift. About 75% of the command area in Gujarat is drought prone while entire command in Rajasthan is drought prone. • Assured water supply will soon make this area drought proof.6.2 Drinking water supply Drinking Water Network of Narmada Canal • A special allocation of 0.86 MAF of water has been made to provide drinking water to 131 urban centers and 9633 villages (53% of total 18144 villages of Gujarat) within and out-side command in Gujarat for present population of 18 million and prospective population of over 40 million by the year 2021. • All the villages and urban centers of arid region of Saurashtra and Kachchh and all "no source" villages and the villages affected by salinity and fluoride in North Gujarat will be benefited.SOCET CIVIL 21
  • • Water supply requirement of several industries will also be met from the project giving a boost to all-round production. Water sharing chart6.3 Power • There will be two power houses viz. River Bed Power House and Canal Head Power House with an installed capacity of 1200 MW and 250 MW respectively. • The power would be shared by three states - Madhya Pradesh - 57%, Maharashtra - 27% and Gujarat 16%. • This will provide a useful paking power to western grid of the country which has very limited hydel power production at present. • A series of micro hydel power stations are also planned on the branch canals where convenient falls are available.6.4 Flood Protection • It will also provide flood protection to riverine reaches measuring 30,000 ha. Covering 210 villages and Bharuch city and a population of 4.0 lac in Gujarat.6.5 Wild Life • It is also proposed to develop wild life sanctuaries viz. "Shoolpaneshewar wild life sanctuary" on left Bank, Wild Ass Sanctuary in little Rann of Kachchh, Black Buck National Park at Velavadar, Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary in Kachchh, Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary and Alia Bet at the mouth of River.SOCET CIVIL 22
  • 6.6 Additional Production • SSP would generate 5,000 million units of electricity. On completion, annual additional agricultural production would be Rs. 1600 crores, power generation Rs. 400 crores and water supply Rs. 175 crores, aggregating about Rs. 2175 crores every year equivalent to about Rs. 6.0 crores a day. • In addition, there will be benefits of fisheries development, recreational facilities, water supply for industries, agro industrial development, protection of conserved forest from grazers and secondary benefits viz employment generation, increase in vegetal cover in 3.4 M. Ham of GCA, gains due to compensatory forest, tree plantation 100 times and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) fixation to large extent by 70 times. • Benefits to small and marginal Scheduled Caste/ Scheduled Tribe farmers would be as under: Marginal farmers (< 1 ha.) 28.0 % Small farmers (1 to 2 ha.) 24.4% Scheduled Tribe 8.7% Scheduled Caste 9.1%SOCET CIVIL 23
  • 7. The Narmada River & Basin • The Narmada, the largest flowing westward, rises near Amarkantak range of mountains in Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth largest river in the country and the largest one in Gujarat. • It traverses Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat and meets the Gulf of Cambay. The total length of the river from source to sea is 1312 kilometers (815 miles) while the length up to dam site is 1163 kilometers. (723 miles). • The width of the river channel at dam site during high floods is 488 meter (1600 feet) and that during summer is 45.70 meter. (150 feet). • The maximum recorded flood on 7th September 1994 was 70,847 cusecs (2.5 million cusecs) while minimum recorded flow in summer was 8.5 cusecs (300 cusecs.) The dam is designed for 87,000 cusecs (3.07 million cusecs) flood. Map of Narmada RiverSOCET CIVIL 24
  • Narmada Basin Narmada River • The total basin area of the river is 97,410 square kilometer comprising 85,858 square kilometer in Madhya Pradesh, 1658 square kilometer in Maharashtra and 9894 square kilometer in Gujarat. • The drainage area up to dam site is 88,000 square kilometer. The mean annual rainfall in the basin is 112 centimeters. • The annual run of the dam site at 75 percentage of dependability is 27.22 MAF. The World Bank computed the yield of 28.57 MAF while the yield computed in May 1992 by the Central Water Commission, Government of India is of 26.60 MAF, i.e. about 27.00 MAF. The utilisation of Narmada River basin today is hardly about 10%. • Thus water of the Narmada continues to flow to the sea unused.SOCET CIVIL 25
  • Watershed Area of Narmada RiverSOCET CIVIL 26
  • 8. Components of the Sardar Sarovar Dam8.1. Sardar Sarovar Reservoir Reservoir Capacity 9,500,000,000 m3 (7,701,775 acre·ft) Active capacity 5,800,000,000 m3 (4,702,137 acre·ft) Catchment area 88,000 km2 (34,000 sq mi) Surface area 375.33 km2 (144.92 sq mi) Normal elevation 138 m (453 ft) Reservoir length 214 km (133 mi) Max. reservoir width 16.10 km (10.00 mi) • The Full Reservoir Level (FRL) of the Sardar Sarovar Dam is fixed at RL 138.68 metres (455 feet). The Maximum Water Level is 140.21 metres (460 feet.) while minimum draw down level is 110.64 metres (363 feet.). The normal tail water level is 25.91 metres (85 feet.). • The gross storage capacity of the reservoir is 0.95 M. ham. (7.7 MAF) while live storage capacity is 0.58 M.ham. (4.75 MAF). • The dead storage capacity below minimum draw down level is 0.37 M. ha. m. (2.97 MAF). The reservoir would occupy an area of 37,000 ha and would have a linear stretch of 214 kilometer of water and an average width of 1.77 kilometer. • The submergence at Full Reservoir Level (FRL) is 37,690 ha. (86,088 acres), which comprises 11,279 ha agricultural land, 13,542 ha forests and 12,869 ha river bed and waste land. • In all 245 villages of the three states viz. 193 Villages of Madhya Pradesh, 33 villages of Maharashtra and 19 villages of Gujarat are affected. • Only 3 villages of Gujarat are fully affected, while the remaining 16 villages are partly affected. In Madhya Pradesh, out of 193 villages, more than 10% agricultural land will be submerged only in 79 villages, in 89 villages less than 10% agricultural land or only houses will be submerged under FRL, due to back water of 1 in 100 years flood. In 25 villages, only Government waste land will be submerged.SOCET CIVIL 27
  • Data Showing Reservoir Level Vs Submergence Area for Sardar Sarovar Project Sr. NO. RESERVOIR LEVEL IN M. SUBMERGENCE AREA IN HA. 1 30 481 2 36 779 3 42 1083 4 48 1610 5 54 2031 6 60 2635 7 66 3218 8 72 3904 9 78 4799 10 84 5799 11 90 6881 12 96 8218 13 102 9068 14 108 10571 15 110.64 MDDL 11500 16 114 12763 17 120 15771 18 126 20563 19 132 26332 20 138 36120 21 138.68 FRL 37030 22 140.21 MWL 42000 23 144 54593 24 150 78517 25 165 151075SOCET CIVIL 28
  • Data Showing Reservoir Level Vs Storage Capacity for Sardar Sarovar Project Sr. NO. RESERVOIR LEVEL IN M. STORAGE CAPACITY IN MCM. 1 30 0 2 36 36 3 42 93 4 48 187 5 54 286 6 60 384 7 66 566 8 72 843 9 78 1059 10 84 1410 11 90 1806 12 96 2274 13 102 2767 14 108 3331 15 110.64 MDDL 3700 16 114 4061 17 120 4918 18 126 6005 19 132 7381 20 138 9241 21 138.68 FRL 9460 22 140.21 MWL 10070 23 144 11931 24 150 15895 25 156 21435 26 162 29240 27 165 32651SOCET CIVIL 29
  • 8.2. Sardar Sarovar Dam Length of main concrete gravity dam 1210.00 m Maximum height above deepest foundation level 163.00 m Top R.L. of Dam 146.50 m Catchments area of River above dam site 88,000 Sq. km Live storage Capacity 0.5860M.Ha.m 4.75 MAF Length of Reservoir 214.00 km Maximum width 16.10 km Average width 1.77 km Spillway gates Chute Spillway 7 Nos. 60’ x 60’ Service Spillway 23 Nos. 60’ x 55’ Spillway Capacity 87000 cumecs 30 lakhs cusecs • A concrete gravity dam, 1210 meters (3970 feet) in length and with a maximum height of 163 meters above the deepest foundation level, is under construction across river Narmada. • The dam will be the third highest concrete dam (163 meters) in India, the first two being Bhakra (226 metres) in Himachal Pradesh and Lakhwar (192 meters) in Uttar Pradesh. • In terms of the volume of concrete involved for gravity dams, this dam will be ranking as the second largest in the world with an aggregate volume of 6.82 million cu.m. • The first is Grand Coule Dam in USA with a total volume of 8.0 million cu.m. • This dam with its spillway discharging capacity of 87,000 cumecs (30.70 lac), will be the third in the world, Gazenba (1.13 lac cumecs) in China and Tucurri (1.0 lac cumecs) in Brazil being the first two. • For chute spillway Radial gates, 7 in number and size 60 x 60 and for service spillway, 23 Radial gates of size 60 x 55 are to be provided to negotiate the design flood. 10 number of temporary construction sluices, each of size 2.15 m x 2.75 m. are provided in the boby of the spillway at RL 18 m. Another set of 4 permanent river sluices are provided at RL 53.0 m. The lower sluices were closed in February, 1994.SOCET CIVIL 30
  • • The design of the dam allows for a horizontal seismic coefficient of 0.125g and it also covers an additional risk due to reservoir induced seism city. • Most sophisticated seismological instruments for monitoring and evaluation of the stresses in the body of the dam as well as the effect on the periphery of the reservoir are under installation.8.3. Hydro Power House Power station Operator Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited Commission date June 2006 Turbines Dam: 6 x 200 MW Francis pump-turbine Canal 5 x 50 MW Kaplan-type Installed capacity 1,450 MW • There are two power houses for the Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP). Power benefits are shared among Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat in the ratio of 57:27:16 respectively. River Power house 1200 MW Canal Head Power house 250 mw Unit Date of Commissioning (CHPH) Date of Commissioning (RBPH) Unit - 1 09/10/2004 01/02/2005 Unit - 2 23/08/2004 30/04/2005 Unit - 3 31/08/2004 30/08/2005 Unit - 4 03/09/2004 13/10/2005 Unit - 5 15/12/2004 07/03/2006 Unit - 6 - 20/06/2006SOCET CIVIL 31
  • River Bed Power House Hydro Power House • The RBPH is an underground power house stationed on the right bank of the river located about 165 meters downstream of the dam. • It has six number of Francis type reversible turbine generators each of 200 MW installed capacity. The T.G. Sets are supplied by M/S Sumitomo Corporation, Japan and M/S BHEL. • These units can operate at minimum reservoir water level of 110.64 meters. These six units have been commissioned in a phase manner during Feb-05 to June-06. • The generation of energy depends upon inflow of water from upstream projects and need of water for irrigation in Gujarat.SOCET CIVIL 32
  • Tunnel to RBPH Dam Sub-StationSOCET CIVIL 33
  • Canal Head Power House Canal Head Power House • The CHPH is a surface power station in a saddle dam on right bank of the reservoir having total installed capacity of 250 MW (5 x 50 MW). • These five units have been commissioned in a phased manner during Aug-04 to Dec-04. These units can be operated with minimum reservoir water level of 110.18 meters. • The CHPH is being operated in consultation and as per advice of NCA/WREB based on irrigation requirement of Gujarat/Rajasthan and availability of water in reservoir and release from upstream project of Madhya Pradesh. • The energy generated from both the power houses is to be evacuated through 400 KV level through interconnecting transformers at GIS, situated in RBPH switch yard. The 400 KV Switchyard is indoor type having Gas Insulated Switch Gear and Bus bars. • The energy is transmitted to party states i.e. Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in the proportion of 16:27:57 respectively through 400 KV double circuit transmission lines, namely SSP- Kasor, SSP-Asoj, SSP-Dhule and SSP-Nagda respectively. All the transmission lines are commissioned and charged.SOCET CIVIL 34
  • View of CHPH8.4. A-FrameSOCET CIVIL 35
  • 8.5. Energy Generated Year CHPH RBPH Total 2004-05 173.613 MUs 89.775 MUs 263.388 MUs 2005-06 189.798 MUs 1761.898 MUs 1951.696 MUs 2006-07 228.071 MUs 3372.009 MUs 3600.080 MUs 2007-08 316.874 MUs 4118.817 MUs 4435.691 MUs 2008-09 337.040 MUs 1980.633 MUs 2317.673 MUs 2009-10 520.889 MUs 1980.438 MUs 2501.327 MUs 2010-11 327.520 MUs 3261.186 MUs 3588.706 MUs 2011-12 508.542 MUs 3850.746 MUs 4359.288 MUs Cumulative Up to March 2012 2602.347 MUs 20415.502 MUs 23017.849 MUs April 2012 20.571 MUs 129.016 MUs 149.587 MUs May 2012 15.370 MUs 256.754 MUs 272.124 MUs June 2012 24.225 MUs 129.336 MUs 153.561 MUs Cumulative till June 2012 2662.513 MUs 20930.668 MUs 23593.121 MUs8.6. Canal System Map of Narmada CanalSOCET CIVIL 36
  • Narmada Canal Main Canal Full Supply Level (F.S.L.) at H.R. 91.44 m (300 ft) Length up to Gujarat – Rajasthan Border 458.00 km Base width in head reach 73.01 m Full Supply depth (F.S.D.) in head reach 7.60 Design Discharge Capacity (1) In head reach 1133 cumecs (40,000 cusecs) (2) At Gujarat – Rajasthan Border 95.7 cumecs (3,379 cusecs)SOCET CIVIL 37
  • 0 to 144.5 to 263.265 to 356.422 to 388.164 to Grand Reach in Km. 144.5 263.265 356.422 388.164 485.318 Total Total Number of 193 154 134 37 80 598 Structure Aqueducts 5 - - - - 5 Canal Syphon 1 7 5 1 1 15 Drainage Syphon 66 34 46 11 25 182 Canal Crossing + 18 8+1 5 - 1 33 Super Passage Head Regulator 16 12 10 2 5 45 Cross Regulator 13 10 8 2 4 32 Escape 3 6 2 1 - 12 Bridge 71 76 63 20 44 274 • Narmada Main Canal is a contour canal. • It is the biggest lined irrigation canal in the world. It is about 458 km. long up to Gujarat -Rajasthan border. • The canal extends further in the state of Rajasthan to irrigate areas in Barmer and Jhalore districts of Rajasthan. • The Main Canal is lined with plain cement concrete to minimize sippage losses to attain higher velocity and to control the water logging in future. • The lining work is carried out with the mechanized pavers. Such a large scale paving of concrete lining is done for the first time in India. • The Main Canal in its journey has to negotiate several water streams, rivers, roads, railways etc. • This is possible by constructing appropriate structure on the canal. • In all, there are 598 structures on the Narmada Main Canal. Narmada Main Canal as on today is completed up to 458 Km. and water has flown through it and has reached the state of Rajasthan.SOCET CIVIL 38
  • Gates of Narmada Main CanalSOCET CIVIL 39
  • 9. Canal Distribution Systems and their Operations Numbers of Branches 38 Length of Distributuin System 74168.00 km Culturable Command Area 18.45 lakh Hec. Map of Branch Canals NetworkSOCET CIVIL 40
  • Branch Canal Chainage Sr. No. Name of Canal Chainage (Off take) in m 1 Wadia Branch 9931 2 Tilakwada Branch 17871 3 Mandwa Branch 25263 4 Bhilodia Branch 32674 5 Timbi Branch 38523 6 Sankheda Branch 45109 7 Miyagam Branch 62916 8 Gojali Branch 70098 9 Vadodra Branch 81834 10 Dena Branch 88755 11 Dumad Branch 100026 12 Sakard Branch 102953 13 Zumkha Branch 106905 14 Nahra Branch 111676 15 Desar Branch 126300 16 Sanali Branch 171961 17 Mahemdabad Branch 187074 18 Ghodasar Branch 202368 19 Vahelal Branch 212546 20 Daskroi Branch 223667 21 Dholka Branch 246447 22 Sanand Branch 258849 23 Saurashtra Branch 263309 24 Viramgam-I Branch 267417 25 Viramgam-II Branch 277559 26 Goraiya Branch 290884 27 Kharaghoda Branch 292434 28 Zinzuwadia Branch 301764 29 Bolera Branch 327245 30 Rajpara Branch 345575 31 Amrapura Branch 354803 32 Radhanpur Branch 374820 33 Katchch Branch 386158 34 Vejpur Branch 405698 35 Madka Branch 418101 36 Malsan Branch 424194 37 Dhima Branch 440799 38 Gadasisar Branch 454146SOCET CIVIL 41
  • • Water for irrigation will be conveyed to 8 ha. Blocks through a 74668 km. network of conveyance and distribution system consisting of branch canals, distributaries, minors and sub-minors. • There will be 38 branch canals off-taking from main canal, out of which Miyagam, Vadodara, Saurashtra and Kachchh branch canals will be the major branches having a capacity of more than 75 cumecs (2650 cusecs). • The distribution system would cover culturable command area of 18.45 lakhs ha. (45.57 lakhs acres) spread over in 3112 villages in 73 talukas of 15 districts of Gujarat. • The branch canals and the distribution system network up to 8 ha. Block will be lined. • The Canal Systems up to the village levels (called village Service Area) will be operated by the Central Authority i.e. Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Ltd. Below the village levels, the systems will be fully operated by the organizations of farmers to be explicitly formed for the purpose. • With the system affixed annual water allowance pre-decided and pre declared for various parts of the command area, is easy to convert this water allowance into numbers of actual watering that the farmers would get from the system at the village levels. • For example, on an average about 6 to 7 annual watering can is made available to the farmer’s Associations at village levels. • It is the need-based privilege of the farmers associations to plan what number of watering that they would like to avail in the Kharif (monsoon) season and what number of watering they would like to use in the non-monsoon (winter) season. • They would take decisions on the basis of rainfall and its distribution. Once the farmers make their schedules, it would be easy to aggregate these at the level of distributaries and branches of the systems.SOCET CIVIL 42
  • 10. Command Area Development • Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) Project (SSP covers Cultural Command Area (CCA) of 18.45 lac ha within Gujarat. With extensive studies on the subject, detailed elaborate and micro level plan has been evolved to deal with the development of SSP command. • Entire command area is divided into 13 agro climatic zones and each zone is further subdivided in to irrigation and drainage blocks ranging from 4000 to 10,000 ha. Involvement of farmers in the construction activities and thereafter for irrigation management is aimed at to ensure efficient user friendly uses. • The system below the VSA outlets will be managed by the Water Users Associations (WUAs) based on Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). • One of the unique feature is that the Irrigation Water in the command area of SSP would be delivered to farmers groups (Water Users Association (WUA) and not to individual farmers. • It would be for the farmers groups to manage distribution within their block called village service Area (VSA). The corollary to this management is that the minors, sub minors and field channels will be owned and looked after by these WUAs. • Involvement of farmers/NGOs in the construction of micro level canal network system would ensure owners amongst the beneficiary farmers. • A suitable system called Rotational Water Supply (RWS) - Varabandhi would be implemented to ensure timely, and assured and equitable supplies. • Another important feature is the volumetric supply of water instead of conventional area approach. The micro level canal systems with appropriate structures are being designed and constructed to ensure timely and equitable distribution of water. • This would guard against the most commonly observed problem of overuse of water by initial command blocks, leaving less supply to the tail Enders. • To ensure efficient water uses, the evaluation would be based on delta basis. Water intense crops would be discouraged. • Micro irrigation system like drip and sprinkler would be encouraged for efficient water uses. • An interesting as well as innovative feature of the SSPs irrigation plan is to supplement canal water supply by conjunctive use of ground water. • This would augment total water availability and stretch the irrigation benefit to more area. It will also prevent water logging by regarding excess ground water and thereby protecting command against water logging and soil salinity.SOCET CIVIL 43
  • 11. Quality Control of WaterQuality control of Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) Canal Works • Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) is a multipurpose River velly Project, currently under, construction across the river Narmada to Irrigate 17.92 lakhs hectares annually in the state of Gujarat. • The main dam has reached up to spillway crest level i.e. 121.92 meter. Rising of piers, construction of bridge and installation of spillway gates remain to be taken up after obtaining clearance from the Narmada Control Authority. • Both the hydropower stations are fully operational with installed capacity of 1450 MW. The Narmada Main Canal, the largest lined Irrigation Canal in the world has been completed in 458 Km length with 634 structures and water has been flowing right up to Gujarat-Rajasthan border since March, 2008. • Out of 38 branch canals, works of 30 branch canals are completed and works of remaining branch canals are under progress. • Works of distributaries and minors in North Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kachchh are under progress. • In all, works of Rs.6300 Crores are under progress through 154 contracts and these works are presently going on at about 600 different locations.11.1. Quality Control OrganizationThe entire work of SSP can be broadly divided into three main works: (a) Dam works (b) Hydro Power (River Bed & Canal Head) (c) Canal Systems. • Quality Control Organization for the Canal Works has been recently restructured and a decentralized approach has been adopted where in a Quality Control Division Office is made functional under each field Chief Engineer and one or more Quality Control Sub Division Offices are made functional under field Superintending Engineer depending on their workload thus 7 field Chief Engineers and 16 Superintending Engineers are fully responsible for construction as well as Quality of works under their jurisdiction. • Day to day quality control supervision, sampling, testing etc. will be the responsibility of 23 Nos. of Quality Control Sub Divisions. • Moreover the field Chief Engineer will be directing the Q.C. Divisions working under them for effective Quality Control.SOCET CIVIL 44
  • • In addition to the above stated decentralized arrangement, a centralized system for Quality Control and Vigilance is also functional under the Chief Engineer. (Quality Control) For this purpose, two Quality Control Circles headed by Superintending Engineers have been sanctioned and working. • One such Quality Control Circle is working at Gandhinagar looking after the Canal Works of Phase I, Phase II, and Saurashtra Region and another at Ahmedabad to look after the canal works of NMC beyond Ch. 263 Km, North Gujarat and Kutch region. • Under each of these two Quality Control Circles, two nos. of flying squad headed by Executive Engineers have been sanctioned to carry out Quality auditing of ongoing works on a random basis. • For Vigilance cases and Inquiry matters, an Inquiry Cell is operational in Nigam Head Office, which is headed by one Executive Engineer. • This inquiry Unit is also carrying out preliminary inquiry for the various cases referred by Nigam Vigilance Branch or by Government as a special case and submit preliminary inquiry reports.11.2. Field Quality Control • The entire construction works of canal system are being executed by various Chief Engineers (Construction) with the help of construction Division and Quality / Laboratory Division and Sub Divisions working under Superintending Engineers. • The Quality / Laboratory Sub division has to assure that the entire work is of required quality by testing all construction materials / product and they help construction divisions in solving quality problems which arises during the execution of works. • For carrying out day to day testing works of construction material / product, the field laboratories have been established at suitable location in the vicinity of works under progress. • These field laboratories are carrying out routine field test and transmit the test results to the construction sub divisions / divisions for taking further action. • Out of these field laboratories, certain laboratories are also established at suitable headquarter for special tests with all required testing equipments. • Further more in tenders of SSP canals, we have introduced a "Quality Assurance" Clause (Annexure -3) also in which Contractor has to assure about the quality of construction material / final product. • The contractors have to develop their own testing laboratories also under this clause and they also submit to Nigam the test results of the construction material / final product. The suitable actions as per tender specifications are being taken on the receipt of test results, from contractors.SOCET CIVIL 45
  • 11.3. Publications • For carrying out quality control works and testing works smoothly, the Chief Engineer (Quality Control), has issued following manuals which elaborately describe the procedure for carrying out quality control works (Checklist / O.K. Cards etc.) as well as details of tests to be carried out for construction material and final product. • Guidelines for Quality Assurance & Quality Control for the various canal works. • Guidelines for Quality Assurance & Quality Control for Road works. • Guidelines for Quality Assurance & Quality Control for gate works. • Compendium of various tests for construction material. • Formats for forms and registers to be maintained for Quality Control Work.11.4. Expert committee on cement and concrete (ECCC) • The Government of Gujarat, Narmada Development Department, and Gandhinagar vide its resolution no. NMD/1887/4056/47/H dated 19.10.1987 constituted an "Expert Committee on Cement and Concrete (ECCC)" for Sardar Sarovar Project to review and evaluate the factors regarding cement and its usage. • In consultation with ECCC, Nigam has identified 17 cement plants from which cement is being used in SSP works.11.5. Committee for identification of reinforcement steel • As a result of discussion with the ECCC & Board of Consultant, it was decided to use CRS bars in the construction of canals / structures where saline area (sub soil / Sub Soil water) is encountered. • Accordingly SSNNL has constituted a committee vide its circular No. SBC/1198/1/N dated 30.05.1998 for the identification of manufacturer of CRS bars. • This committee at present is engaged in ensuring that production by manufacturers is as per required Quality Standards and within permissible variability in respect of mechanical, chemical and corrosion properties as prescribed in relevant codes. • The Committee recognizes the steel plants for pre qualification / selection of vendors which can produce the reinforced bars to satisfy technical requirements.SOCET CIVIL 46
  • 12. Quality Assurance12.1. Assurance ProgrammedContractor’s organizational structure for the management and implementation of the qualityassurance programmed. • Source of various materials • Inspection and test procedure both for material and their product and field activities. • System of handling storage and delivery of materials. • System of preparation and maintenance of test records. • The Quality Assurance Programmed shall also include the programmed proposed to be followed by his sub contractors in case the contract agreement allows him to engage sub contractor.12.2. Testing of Material • All materials, before brining to the site of work shall be inspected and tested by the contractor. • For testing, the contractor may set up his own laboratory at his own cost. For Place (laboratory) of testing should be got approved from Engineer-in-Charge. • Test results shall be furnished by the contractor to the Engineer-in-Charge. The cost of all such testing shall be borne by contractor. • After materials are brought to site if necessary, Engineer-in-Charge or his subordinate shall test in accordance with relevant clauses of the contract, if necessary. • In case of discrepancy in the SSNNL’s and contractors result the SSNNL’s result shall be final and binding to the contractor. • Materials whose test result does not conform to the standard and is not acceptable to the Engineer- in-Charge shall be rejected and removed from the site.12.3. Testing Procedure • The contractor shall carry out all sampling and testing in accordance with the relevant Indian Standard and / or International Standard or as stipulated in the contract, where no specific testing procedure is mentioned the test shall be carried out as per the prevalent accepted engineering practice and direction of Engineer-in-Charge.SOCET CIVIL 47
  • • The frequency of sampling and testing of all materials and products of construction shall be as mentioned in the technical specifications, or as per SSNNL “Manual for Quality Assurance and Quality Control” and relevant and recent BIS/ASTM/ASME/BS practice. • In case of discrepancy in the standards, the decisions of the Engineer-in-Charge will be final. In case due to changes in the codal provisions during course of execution if the acceptance criteria of the test get changed, the contractor shall have to follow the revised criteria of acceptance. • The contractor shall not claim for any compensation as a result of rejection of his material or product of construction due to inferior quality on account of such changes. • The testing frequencies set forth in different technical specification are the desirable minimum, and the Engineer-in-Charge shall have a full authority to revise it as he finds necessary to satisfy himself that the quality of materials and works together comply with appropriate specifications requirements.13. Domestic Water SupplyDrinking water supply project based on Sardar Sarovar Canal • Gujarat being a drought prone State, providing safe and assured drinking water supply to a large population in Kutch, Saurashtra and North Gujarat has been a great challenge for the State Government. • Narmada Canal based drinking water supply project was taken up in the State to cover about 75 percent population of the State through a State Wide Drinking Water Grid. • Narmada Master Plan is aimed at covering 9633 villages and 131 towns in Gujarat, which is being executed by Gujarat Water Supply and Sewage Board (GWSSB) (www.gwssb.org) and Gujarat Water Infrastructure Ltd. (GWIL) (www.wasmo.org). • The achievements under Narmada Canal based drinking water supply project are highlighted hereafter in tabular format/maps. Overall Status Achievements of the Project Drinking Water Supply Network Village Level Committees-Pani SamitiSOCET CIVIL 48
  • 14. Current Status of Sardar Sarovar14.1. Main Dam • The work of rising of dam spillway to the Crest level i.e. EL 121.92 mt. is completed. • 65.766 LCM [96.43%] concrete, against total estimated quantity of 68.20 LCM to be placed is completed. • Construction of Irrigation Bye Pass Tunnel is completed.14.2. Hydro power HouseCanal Head power House • Canal Head Power House was commissioned between August 2004 to December 2004.River Bed Hydro power House • All the 6 units of TG sets have been commissioned between February 2005 to June -06. • Energy is being shared among the beneficiary States of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat in the ratio of 57:27:16, respectively.14.3. Canal SystemNarmada main Canal • Work of Narmada Main Canal in the entire length i.e. ch. 0 to 458.327 km is completed.Branch Canals • Out of total 38 Branch Canals off taking from NMC, the works of 30 Branch canals are competed; works of 8 branch canals are under progress. Detailed status of Branch Canals is shown as below; • Branch canals off taking from NMC Ch. 0 to 263 km • Work of all the 22 Branch Canals in this reach is completed.Saurashtra Branch Canal (104 km) and its seven Sub Branches • The works of Saurashtra Branch Canal are completed in all respect with lining and gate works up to 70 km. • For SBC reach Ch. 70 to 104.46 km, the works are completed except lining and gate works. The Gate and Lining works in this reach are in progress. The works are planned to be completed in 2012-13.SOCET CIVIL 49
  • • Work of five Pumping stations on the Saurashtra Branch Canal is almost completed and commissioned. • The status of six sub branches on S.B.C. is as under: • Maliya sub branch canal having length 137 km is completed, water is being flown for drinking purpose since-2002. Works of distributaries and minors have been awarded • Vallabhipur sub branch canal having length 119 km is completed. Works for constructing distributaries and minors in the command area of VBC have been awarded. Water is being flown for drinking purpose since-2005. • Limbdi sub branch canal earthwork is nearly completed in full length (118.76 km). Remaining EW, Structures of Limbdi sub branch canal 0.0 to 118.76 km is in progress. Work of constructing distributaries and minors for the command area of LBC is awarded. • Dhrangadhra sub branch canal earthwork & structures is nearly completed in 0.0 to 50 km. The earthwork, lining & structures are under progress between ch. 51 km to 91 km. The works has been awarded for construction of EW, structures CC lining and Service Road between ch. 91km to 114 km. Works of constructing distributaries and minors for the whole command area of DBC has been awarded. • Botad sub branch canal earth work is completed in full reach 109 km. The works has been awarded for constructing EW, structure, CC lining and Service Road between Ch. 0 to 109km. Works of distributaries & minors for the command area of BBC has been awarded. • Morbi sub branch canal, the work of earthwork, structures & lining for reach 0 to 107.52 km is in progress. Works of distributaries & minors has been awarded.Branch Canals off taking from NMC Ch. 263 to 368 km • Works of Viramgam-I, Viramgam-II, Kharaghoda and Jinjuwada branch canals are completed. • The civil work of Goraiya branch is completed. The works of lining are in progress. • The remaining works of Bolera Branch Canal between Ch.0 to 25.34 km are in progress. The remaining works of Bolera Branch Canal between ch. 19.79 to 25.39 km is completed. • The remaining works of Rajpura Branch Canal Ch. 0 to 42.21 km are in progress. • The remaining work of Amarapura Branch Canal Ch. 0 to 55 km is under progress.Branch Canal off-taking from NMC Ch. 368 to 458 km • The works of Vejpur, Malsan Branch Canals along with distributaries are under progress. These works are planned to be completed by 2012-13.SOCET CIVIL 50
  • • Earth Work of Madaka branch is almost completed. Lining of Madka branch canal is under progress. Tenders for Distribution system of Madaka Branch Canal have been invited... • For the works of Dhima & Gadsisar Branch Canals is under progress. • Works of Radhanpur branch canal are almost completed and water has been released in RBC for testing. The work of distribution system of RBC has been awarded on EPC basis.Kachchh Branch Canal (360 km) • Ch 0 to 32.97 km (Package I, II, and III): Works are almost completed and water is released in KBC in this reach for testing. • Ch. 32.97 to 190 km- The works are under progress. • Ch. 190 to 273 km: The works are under tendering process. • Ch. 273 to 360km: Pre-constructional activities are under progress. • Above all works of KBC are likely to be completed by 2014-15.14.4. Distribution System • Out of 204 distributaries, 195 are completed in the reach 0 to 144.500 km of NMC. Works of remaining distributaries are in progress. • Out of 74 distributaries, 51 are completed in reach 144.500 to 263.265 km. The works of remaining distributaries are in progress. • In Chainage 263.265 to 368.431 Km. out of total 98 distributaries and 2 sub-branch canals, the works of 25 distributaries are completed and 72 are in progress. The works of distributaries is planned to be completed by 2013-14. • Works of 10 distributaries are awarded and works are in progress in the reach 0 to 30 km of KBC. The works of remaining distributaries will be taken up in phased manner and planned to complete by 2013-14.14.5. Command Area Development • The total Cultural Command Area of the project is 1845655 ha. Out of which 548770 ha has been developed up to Minor Level and 368894 ha has been developed up to Sub minor level up to current month. Work of Command Area development in additional 893813 ha is under progress.Water Users Associations registered are as under:Phase-I : 1191Phase-II : 407SOCET CIVIL 51
  • 15. Place to Visit Map of Visited Place at Sardar Sarovar DamSOCET CIVIL 52
  • 1 Swagat Sthal (Reception) - Entry passes, media centre with dam model and restaurant. 2 Aditeshwar Mahadev Temple - and ancient temple of Lord Shiva. 3 River view point - Nehru Foundation Stone Sthal - The original foundation stone laid by Pandit Nehru offers a beautiful view of river Narmada. 4 Shoolpaneshwar Mahadev Temple - ancient temple originally located at village Shoolpaneshwar, now under submergence, has been rebuilt here. 5 Model Room & Interpretation Centre 6 Switch Yard - 1200 MW power house accessible by a 0.83 km tunnel. Visitors are not allowed. Information on the power house available near entry point. 7,8 & 9 Dam-site View Points - offers a commanding frontal view of the Sardar Sarovar Dam. - Offers a close view but entry of vehicles restricted for want of parking space. - The original view point with basic information charts and statue of Sardar Patel. 10 Canal Head Power House - the CHPH has started generating power. Visitors not allowed. 11,12,13 & Lakes 14 - Vadgam Lake (rock filled pond 1) - Baharphaliya Lake (rock filled pond II) - Panchmuli Lake (rock filled pond III) - Khalvani Lake (rock filled pond IV) 15 Godbole Gates - while operational, it offers a beautiful view of water released back to the river Narmada for downstream ecology. 16 Tent-City Sites 17 Main Canal Head Regulator - the starting point of a 532 Km. long main canal which will flow through Gujarat to Rajasthan. 18 Trekking site, Jungle WalkingSOCET CIVIL 53
  • 16. Tourism AttractionKevadia – The Tourist Destination • Downstream Side of the dam of light deciduous forest interspersed with lakes, grass, land, stream, hillocks and rivulets. • The topography is undulation, with a fairly amazing vanity of plant species and wild life, making it an excellent location for recreation and leisure activities. • SSNNL recognized the immense potential of the dam site and its environs in terms of tourist potential and has development primary tourist facilities such as road, drinking water, toilet, street light, new view points, lakes, vishram kutirs, Reception centre, huge parking facilities, gardens, restaurants and snacks parlor. • SSNNL is also interested in Development of eco friendly tourist facilities with private sector participation, with a view to create an attractive tourist destination and to create awareness about the project. • Some of the land has been identified in first stage. • To facilities the tourist activities proposed in first stage are Restaurant and Food-Court, low cost Accommodation, Rose Garden, Land scarping souvenir and Vendor Stalls Hotels with 50 Rooms, Camping, Island Restaurant, Adventure Sports etc. Concern Officer Contact Address Public Relation Officer Reception Centre, SSNNL Ltd., Kevadia Colony, Dist Narmada, Gujarat – 393 151 Phone (O) 02640-232533, 232098 Asst. General Manager (AGM) Block No. 12, 2nd Floor, New Sachivalaya Complex, Gandhinagar, Gujarat – 382 010 Phone (O) 079-23252390/23252385 Fax : 079-23223056SOCET CIVIL 54
  • 17. Factor Governing selection of type of DamFactor affecting selection of type of Dam is below. Topography Geology and construction Spillway size and location Roadway Length and Height of Dam Life of Dam Topography:- • Dam site Topography is the most important part of the type of dam. • Arch dam construct when the valley is very wide and in actual plane. • Arch Dam suitable for the V-shape narrow valley. • Gravity Dam is suitable for u-shape and high rocks valley. Geology and construction :- • If the fault in base, without fissures rocks is available, any types of Dam are suitable for the site. • If the poor rock or gravel is available, earthen dam and rock fill dam is very suitable for the site. Low height concrete dam is also constructed on it. • If the fine grade sand and silt is available, so the settlement of the base, seepage, toe erosion problems create. Material of construction :- • Gravity dam is suitable when the sand, gravel, Rubbles easily available at around the site. • Earthen dam is suitable when the stable and extremely clay nearly available at site. Spillway size and location :- • Flood water disposal is important into the dam. • Concrete dam is construct middle of spillway and Both side earth dam construct , when the river valley is wideSOCET CIVIL 55
  • Roadway :- • Earth dam or gravity dam is constructed, when proposed road top level of the dam. Length and Height of Dam :- • Earth dam is construct, when the dam length is more and height less. Life of Dam :- • Concrete and plaster dam longevity is more. • Clay and rock fill dam longevity is medium • Wood dam is use only for temporary storage.18. Factor Affecting Selection of site for DamFactor affecting selection of site for Dam is below. Suitable foundation Topography Site of spillway Construction materials Reservoir and catchments area Communication Locality Suitable foundation :- • Fault and fissures in not available at site. • Any base is suitable for earth dam with some treatment. • Hard and strong rock fill base is suitable for Gravity dam. • There is no dam is constructed on active fault in present time.SOCET CIVIL 56
  • Topography :- • Valley area should be narrow at site place, for decrease the length of dam. • But valley should be wide at top of sate place. • Dam largest part should be over high ground level, for decrease the cost of construction and proper drainage. Site and spillway :- • Other site is available for the Earth dam and Rock fill dam. • Spillway can be put in middle of gravity dam. Construction material :- • Material should be available at site of dam for low transportation and cost of Dam. Reservoir and catchments area :- • Minimum drawn area, villages, and property should be near the site of dam. • Minimum leakage should be at bottom and side of the reservoir. • Percolation wastage and maximum runoff available at reservoir. Communication :- • Railway and highway should connect with dam site, because of transportation of labors, machinery, food etc. Locality :- • Healthy area should available near the dam site. Because residency of labors and staff members is construct.SOCET CIVIL 57
  • 19. Causes of Dam failure • International special sign for works and installations containing dangerous forces • Dam failures are generally catastrophic if the structure is breached or significantly damaged. • Routine deformation monitoring and monitoring of seepage from drains in and around larger dams is useful to anticipate any problems and permit remedial action to be taken before structural failure occurs. • Most dams incorporate mechanisms to permit the reservoir to be lowered or even drained in the event of such problems. Another solution can be rock grouting - pressure pumping Portland cement slurry into weak fractured rock. • During an armed conflict, a dam is to be considered as an "installation containing dangerous forces" due to the massive impact of a possible destruction on the civilian population and the environment. • To facilitate the identification, a protective sign consisting of three bright orange circles placed on the same axis is defined by the rules of IHL. • The main causes of dam failure include inadequate spillway capacity, piping through the embankment, foundation or abutments, spillway design error, geological instability caused by changes to water levels during filling or poor surveying, poor maintenance, especially of outlet pipes, extreme rainfall, and human, computer or design error.SOCET CIVIL 58