solids, liquids and gases

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solids, liquids and gases

  1. 1. KS3 Chemistry 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases
  2. 2. Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Properties of solids, liquids and gases Summary activities Diffusion Introducing states of matter The particle model
  3. 3. Different substances What different types of materials are there? M ercury A luminium T in E thanol R adium I ron A rgon L ead Aluminium Lead Argon Iron Radium Ethanol Tin Mercury What are the names of the substances described in this table? (The first letters spell out another word for ‘substance’.) Solid used by Roman plumbers Unreactive gas Solid that rusts Radioactive solid Intoxicating liquid Solid used to coat steel cans Solid used in aircraft Liquid metal
  4. 4. Three states of matter solid liquid gas At room temperature most substances exist in one of three physical states.
  5. 5. Solid, liquid or gas?
  6. 6. Solid, liquid or gas?
  7. 7. Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Properties of solids, liquids and gases Summary activities Diffusion Introducing states of matter The particle model
  8. 8. The particle model The difference between solids, liquids and gases can be explained by the… particle model <ul><li>All substances are made up of particles . </li></ul><ul><li>The particles are attracted to each other . Some particles are attracted strongly to each other and others weakly. </li></ul><ul><li>The particles move around . They are described as having kinetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The kinetic energy of the particles increases with temperature. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Particles in a solid – animation
  10. 10. Particles in a liquid – animation
  11. 11. Particles in a gas – animation
  12. 12. Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Properties of solids, liquids and gases Summary activities Diffusion Introducing states of matter The particle model
  13. 13. Properties of solids, liquids and gases
  14. 14. Which state of matter am I?
  15. 15. Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Properties of solids, liquids and gases Summary activities Diffusion Introducing states of matter The particle model
  16. 16. How do smells spread out? Where is the smell coming from and how does it spread out?
  17. 17. What is diffusion? <ul><li>Diffusion occurs in liquids and gases but hardly at all in solids. </li></ul>Diffusion is the movement of particles that allows them to spread out and mix with other particles. For example, the smell of aftershave or perfume diffuses and is detected by people on the other side of the room. Use the particle model to explain these facts about diffusion: <ul><li>Diffusion happens more quickly for gases than for liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion happens more quickly at warm temperatures than at cooler temperatures. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Diffusion animation 1
  19. 19. Diffusion animation 2
  20. 20. <ul><li>When the gases meet, they react to form a ring of ammonium chloride which is closer to one end of the tube than the other. </li></ul>Diffusion experiment cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution cotton wool soaked in concentrated hydrochloric acid Which gas particles diffuse faster, ammonia or acid, and why? By the time the gases meet, the ammonia particles have travelled further down the tube so they must have diffused at a faster speed. In this experiment, two gases diffuse towards each other in a sealed glass tube. gases meet here
  21. 21. Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Properties of solids, liquids and gases Summary activities Diffusion Introducing states of matter The particle model
  22. 22. Glossary  diffusion – Particles spreading out and mixing in the gas or liquid state.  gas – The state of matter in which particles move quickly in all directions and rarely touch each other.  liquid – The state of matter in which particles are randomly arranged and touch each other.  matter – The stuff that everything is made of.  particle – The smallest unit of matter.  pressure – The f orce produced when particles move against a surface.  solid – The state of matter in which particles are in a fixed arrangement and touch each other.
  23. 23. Anagrams
  24. 24. <ul><li>Across: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Change from liquid to solid </li></ul><ul><li>5. Force caused by collisions of particles </li></ul><ul><li>6. Arranged in a 3-dimensional pattern </li></ul><ul><li>9. Spacing of particles in solids and liquids </li></ul><ul><li>10. All substances are this state at very low temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>11. Only liquids and gases do this </li></ul>Crossword Down: 1. Closely packed particles 6. Particles are close but disorganised 3. Change from gas to liquid 7. Particles widely spread out 4. Change from solid to liquid 8. Change from liquid to gas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  25. 25. Multiple-choice quiz

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