Ict4d crossmedia iweeks_wissenbach


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introductory session on ICT4D during iweeks Wageningen June 2012

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Ict4d crossmedia iweeks_wissenbach

  1. 1. ICT4Dan introduction to ICT4D from a broader perspective ©Kersti R. Wissenbach
  2. 2. more than Ts are not seen as T end in themselves but tools to connect, share, voice out, map, visualize, receive, … information by people
  3. 3. …ICTs as enabler to empower reveal injustice facilitate education tackle crises fight for rights …change
  4. 4. ICTs? electronic means of capturing, processing, storing, and communicating information  radio, television, cellular phones, computer  network hardware and software, satellite systems etc.  associated services and applications associated, e.g. videoconferencing and distance learning
  5. 5. cross-disciplinary retrospective
  6. 6. history ICT4D 0.0 - 1950s to 1990s initially within governments, focus administration public sector ICT4D 1.0- 1990s MDGs, emergence of internet > large investments in infrastructure (telecentre ‘fail decade’) ICT4D 2.0- Mid/late 2000s mobiles and web 2.0 communication, recognition of need for integrative approaches
  7. 7. cross-cuttings Since 50th parallel shifts in development and communication sciences 50s, 60s – Modernization paradigm Recognition of role of communication for development, behavior change, one-way, top-down focus 60s, 70s – uprise of Dependencia Recognition of need for own information channels > relevant, demand-driven, cultural sensitive
  8. 8. cross-cuttings 80s – 90s MacBride Report inevitable need for development strategies to incorporate communication policies ‘many voices one world’ 90s Development Communication priority on dev agendas awareness on need for inclusion, giving voice to voiceless…
  9. 9. cross-cuttings Participatory Development Communication changes in way media ´is used´ in development  demand-driven, inclusion in production, ownership  community media >> community radio Re-orientation of development sector → towards impact-oriented strategies → from result focus to process focus → communication as dialogue
  10. 10. ICT4D From e-whatever to m-whatever?!  strong tech-centrism  excitement about every new ICT rather than carefully evaluating what role which ICT could play in tackling specific problems  pilot-centric, lack of strategic developments enabling upscaling increasing debate on people-centrism and recognition of need for participatory approaches
  11. 11. state of the art ‘intersection between social scientists & tech people too thinly populated’ (@techsoc)
  12. 12. consider > start with/enable TG to start with communication strategy and see which ICT can facilitate best > stats such as number of mobile registrations not enough > mix ICTs & online/offline to enable every segment of TG to have equal access and chance to participate
  13. 13. ICTs & shiftingcommunication spheres
  14. 14. media shifts
  15. 15. chances  from top-down to participatory approach of (online) communication  User-build online public spheres, user generated content  rise of network technology > change of human interaction  disperse networked collaboration Talking about a revolution?
  16. 16. …reality different political Infrastructural cultural environments …
  17. 17. access & freedom  30% of countries rated as not free, 36.5% only partly free (media freedom)  developing countries 70% of people younger than 25 (1.9 billion people) not online yet …
  18. 18. inequalitiesCOUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF PUBLIC SITES PERCENTAGE OF INTERNET USERS BY LANGUAGECountry Percentage of Language Percentage of all public sites Internet usersUnited States 55% English 29.4%Germany 6% Chinese 18.9%Japan 5% Spanish 8.5%United Kingdom 3% Japanese 6.4%Canada 3% French 4.7%Italy 2% German 4.2%France 2% Arabic 4.1%Netherlands 2% Portuguese 4.0%Others 18% Korean 2.4%Unknown 4% Italian 2.4% Other 15.0%Source: OCLC (2008) … Source: Miniwatts Marketing Group (2008)
  19. 19. repression
  20. 20. connectivity broadband mobile access …
  21. 21. connectivity …
  22. 22. connectivity
  23. 23. connectivity
  24. 24. shiny globe? 2009 number of people without access to electricity 1.3 billion > 20% of the world’s population http://www.iea.org/weo/electricity.asp
  25. 25. global friends?
  26. 26. mobile solution? Mobile revolution?
  27. 27. connectivity …
  28. 28. who is talking?
  29. 29. mobile phone Mobile Phones can play role in  elections monitoring  enabling emergency communication  creating a voice > grassroots campaigning  providing economic access (e.g. job alerts)  enabling to run small businesses  access to up-to-date market prices  enabling m-banking  connecting with disperse family members and communities  enabling emergency communication  creating a voice > grassroots campaigning
  30. 30. further gaps  remaining exclusion in regards to education & capacity related access  cultural communication patterns (oral histories, strong position of traditional media usage)  cultural structures, e.g. collective mobile usage  still excluding e.g. women from individual use of new technologies
  31. 31. remember move into the communication sphere of all your target group/S one communication channel rarely stands alone online does not come without offline (catalyst)
  32. 32. ´alternative tools´
  33. 33. Niche for ICT4D ICT4D community developed some useful ‘alternative tools’ responding to prevailing inequalities in access and participation from the technological perspective
  34. 34. Freedom Fone Zimbabwean Innovation Voice-based dial up services  voice reporting  voice recognition  voice menus  SMS polls  no online access needed  open source  bridging literature and language barriers
  35. 35. Ushahidi Kenyan Innovation multiple-channel crowdsourcing information to map (visualize) information > emergency response, election monitoring, peace building… open source
  36. 36. Frontline SMS Bulk messaging tool send, receive, and organize text messages through a mobile device and a laptop offline support open source
  37. 37. Frontline family
  38. 38. Speak2TweetGoogle & Twitter launchin reaction to Egyptiangovernment internetshut-downCreating tweet bycalling a phoneAutomatic countryhashtag
  39. 39. GeoChat enabling self-organizing group communication based on SMS, email, and Twitter Simplifying team communications, logistics and data reporting open source
  40. 40. out-of-the-box Khmer alphabet and mobile phones in election campaigning InStedd case
  41. 41. out-of-the-box …
  42. 42. context© panoseastafrica © Swiatoslaw Wojtkowiak
  43. 43. ICT4Din practice
  44. 44. health  facilitation of health communication  medical supply coordination  distance diagnosis  pre and post natal health  public health education  awareness creation / social change  advocacy
  45. 45. My Questionallows young people to send in questions about sexualreproductive health and/or HIV/AIDS anonymously totrained counselors via SMS, voice, or through email.Within 24 hours,an answer is sentdirectly to thephone from whichthe question wassent.
  46. 46. Stock-out campaignPill check weekrevealing shortages ofessential medicines in Kenya,Malawi, Uganda, and Zambia SMS text messages were sent when data collectors discovered stock-outs of essential medicines Computers running FrontlineSMS processed and validated data before sending to Ushahidi interface to be visualized on the web
  47. 47. pilots
  48. 48. agriculture  market price information  market supply and demand information  information on production techniques
  49. 49. Mfarm KenyaTransparency toolfor farmers local farmers receive crop prices and market information by sending SMS shortcode digital marketplace in which subscribing farmers can sell their crops & by farm inputs Online platform to connect and sell collectively
  50. 50. agriculture
  51. 51. agriculture Icow success due to  extensive collaboration on ground  training farmers on how system works etc.  being there to respond to queries and questions 6,000+ small-scale dairy farmers
  52. 52. education  Mobile learning  Distance learning  Literacy teaching  formal / informal education  life skills etc.
  53. 53. GraphoGAME Grapho Learning Initiative digital-based learning game to teach basic literacy and supply further access to reading materials in local languages via mobile
  54. 54. LAL Nigeria based on the Nigerian Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education (FLHE) curriculum  online, CD & print version  local partner, TOT
  55. 55. rights & democracy access to information and free (UDHR Art. 19)  call for action, mobilization  coordination of action  visualizing injustice  voter education & voter registration  election monitoring  violation reporting  e-governance / e-government
  56. 56. witness.org using power of video and storytelling to open the eyes of the world to human rights abuses Training human rights defenders to use video to fight injustice, and to transform personal stories of abuse into powerful tools that can pressure those in power or with power to act
  57. 57. alavateli Freedom of information request platform  supporting citizens requesting government information  all replies made public  platform  Transparency / accountability  open source
  58. 58. new chances With new ICTs mobiles (mobile cameras) and social media platforms people can more than read, listen and watch NOW people can make other people read, listen and watch what concerns them, what happens to them, what moves them, what threatens them, …
  59. 59. revolution? relevance to clarify role of new ICTs in socio-political movements online- offline spin, not online vs. offline public sphere or counter-hegemonic dynamics relevance of societal histories (ex. Egypt vs. Cambodia)
  60. 60. control Hegemonies and control vs. counter-hegemonic movements Growing triangulation Autocratic regimes don’t stay in power through strategic censorship, isolation and repression of dissent > control over information flows and public sphere as key element 3 days into protest Libya went offline… one day prior to elections, mobile networks turn off…
  61. 61. avoiding failureDemand-driven listen and co-create, local realitiesRelevant & Accessible customize > know infrastructure, freedom, capacity, local languages, respond to illiteracy…Maintainable / scalable support do-it-yourself, build capacitiesProjects and technological developments have to bepeople focused, needs based and structurally integratedin order to be sustainable.
  62. 62. demand-assessment 1st step > route should derive from there!  less emphasis on what might be used (Internet, PCs); more emphasis on what is actually used (mobiles, radio, television)  less emphasis on fundamental technical innovation; more emphasis on application and business model innovation  less emphasis on piloting and sustaining new applications; more emphasis on assessing and scaling existing applications
  63. 63. remembermove into the communication sphere of your TG get to know TG well (number of mobile subscriptions is not enough)recognize diversity need for combination of ICTs (communication channels) to enable everyone to receive information and to actively participateonline & offline public spheres are connected change is to happen offline motivations are rooted offline
  64. 64. Info-activism
  65. 65. questions? @kerstiru krwissenbach@gmail.com strategy advice, development & implementation, M&E; trainings & workshops, lectures ICT4C, C4SC, citizen advocacy, human rights campaigning, information & society