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The
Scientific
Method
The Steps to Success
The Scientific Method
∗What is the scientific
method?
∗It is a process that
is used to find
answers to
questions about
the...
∗ Is there only one “scientific method”?
∗ No, there are several versions of the
scientific method.
∗ Some versions have m...
∗They provide an
organized
method for
conducting and
analyzing an
experiment.
∗ What is a hypothesis?
∗ It is an educated
guess based on
observations and
your knowledge of
the topic.
∗ You state it as...
∗ Stated in the “If…..,
then….” format
∗ Example: IF I water
three plants with
different sodas,
THEN the plant that
receiv...
∗What is data?
∗It is information
gathered during
an experiment.
∗It is organized
into a data table
and displayed
visually...
Graphs
∗ BAR GRAPHS: can be used to show
how something changes over time
or to compare items.
∗ have an x-axis (horizontal...
∗ LINE GRAPHS: can be used to
show how something changes
over time
∗ x-axis has numbers for the
time period
∗ y-axis has n...
∗ 1. Choose a problem: State the
problem as a question.
∗ 2. Research your problem: Read, get
advice, and make observation...
∗ 5. Test your hypothesis: Conduct the
experiment and record the data.
∗ 6. Organize your data: Create a chart or
graph of...
Identifying
Variables
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
Controlled Variables (Constants)
∗Independent
Variable – something
that is changed by
the scientist
∗What is tested
∗What is
manipulated
(changed)
3 Kinds ...
∗Dependent Variable – something that
might be affected by the change in the
independent variable
∗ What is observed
∗ What...
Example:
∗Controlled Variable – a variable that is
not changed
∗Also called CONSTANTS
∗Allow for a “fair test”
∗Everything in the e...
∗ Give a detailed explanation of how you will
conduct the experiment to test your hypothesis
∗ Be clear about the variable...
∗ Be very specific about how you
will measure results to prove or
disprove your hypothesis. You
should include a regular t...
∗ Conclusion: your results or findings based on
data collected during the experiment
∗ Answer your problem/purpose stateme...
For Example:
Students of different ages were
given a jigsaw puzzle to put
together. The scientist wanted to
see if the stu...
∗Independent Variable (IV):
∗Ages of the students
∗Different ages were tested by the scientist
∗Dependent Variable (DV):
∗...
∗ (1) Same puzzle
∗ All of the participants were tested with the
same puzzle.
∗ It would not have been a fair test if some...
∗ An investigation was done with an
electromagnetic system made from a battery
and wire wrapped around a nail. Different s...
∗IV: Sizes of nails
∗These were changed by the scientist
∗DV: Number of paper clips picked up
∗The number of paper clips o...
Let’s Practice!
∗If I use a heavier bowling
ball, then the ball will
travel faster down the
lane.
∗IV: weight of bowling b...
∗ 2) If I use different brands of
paper towels, then Bounty
will absorb more water per
minute than Sparkle or
Quilted.
∗ I...
∗3) If I put 3 spider plants in
different locations, then the
plant in the sunlight will grow
taller in a one-week period
...
Scientific method & variables
Scientific method & variables
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Scientific method & variables

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Transcript of "Scientific method & variables"

  1. 1. The Scientific Method The Steps to Success
  2. 2. The Scientific Method ∗What is the scientific method? ∗It is a process that is used to find answers to questions about the world around us.
  3. 3. ∗ Is there only one “scientific method”? ∗ No, there are several versions of the scientific method. ∗ Some versions have more steps, while others may have only a few. ∗ However, they all begin with the identification of a problem or a question to be answered based on observations of the world around us.
  4. 4. ∗They provide an organized method for conducting and analyzing an experiment.
  5. 5. ∗ What is a hypothesis? ∗ It is an educated guess based on observations and your knowledge of the topic. ∗ You state it as a possible answer to a question.
  6. 6. ∗ Stated in the “If….., then….” format ∗ Example: IF I water three plants with different sodas, THEN the plant that receives Sprite will grow the tallest.
  7. 7. ∗What is data? ∗It is information gathered during an experiment. ∗It is organized into a data table and displayed visually as a graph.
  8. 8. Graphs ∗ BAR GRAPHS: can be used to show how something changes over time or to compare items. ∗ have an x-axis (horizontal) and a y-axis (vertical) ∗ the x-axis has time period or what is being measured ∗ the y-axis has numbers for the amount of stuff being measured. ∗ good when you're plotting data that spans many years (or days, weeks...), has really big changes from year to year (or day to day...), or when you are comparing things.
  9. 9. ∗ LINE GRAPHS: can be used to show how something changes over time ∗ x-axis has numbers for the time period ∗ y-axis has numbers for what is being measured. ∗ can be used when you're plotting data that has peaks (ups) and valleys (downs), or that was collected in a short time period. ∗ Used for two sets of numerical data (ex: time and temp)
  10. 10. ∗ 1. Choose a problem: State the problem as a question. ∗ 2. Research your problem: Read, get advice, and make observations. ∗ 3. Develop a hypothesis: Make a prediction about what will happen. ∗ 4. Design an experiment: Plan how you will test your hypothesis. Steps of the Scientific Method
  11. 11. ∗ 5. Test your hypothesis: Conduct the experiment and record the data. ∗ 6. Organize your data: Create a chart or graph of your data. ∗ 7. Draw conclusions: Analyze your data and summarize your findings.
  12. 12. Identifying Variables Independent Variables Dependent Variables Controlled Variables (Constants)
  13. 13. ∗Independent Variable – something that is changed by the scientist ∗What is tested ∗What is manipulated (changed) 3 Kinds of Variables
  14. 14. ∗Dependent Variable – something that might be affected by the change in the independent variable ∗ What is observed ∗ What is measured ∗ The data collected during the investigation ∗ “the numbers” ∗ Example: how tall the plant grew, how far the paper airplane flew
  15. 15. Example:
  16. 16. ∗Controlled Variable – a variable that is not changed ∗Also called CONSTANTS ∗Allow for a “fair test” ∗Everything in the experiment except for the IV should be kept constant
  17. 17. ∗ Give a detailed explanation of how you will conduct the experiment to test your hypothesis ∗ Be clear about the variables (elements you change) versus your constants (elements that do not change) ∗ A control is the group that you use as a comparison to see if change has occurred. ∗ Example: In a medicine study, the group of people who don’t get the medicine are the control group Procedure
  18. 18. ∗ Be very specific about how you will measure results to prove or disprove your hypothesis. You should include a regular timetable for measuring results or observing the projects (such as every hour, every day, every week)
  19. 19. ∗ Conclusion: your results or findings based on data collected during the experiment ∗ Answer your problem/purpose statement ∗ What does it all add up to? What is the value of your project? ∗ What further study do you recommend given the results of your experiment? What would be the next question to ask? ∗ If you repeat this project, what would you change? Conclusion
  20. 20. For Example: Students of different ages were given a jigsaw puzzle to put together. The scientist wanted to see if the students’ ages affected how long it took to put the puzzle together.
  21. 21. ∗Independent Variable (IV): ∗Ages of the students ∗Different ages were tested by the scientist ∗Dependent Variable (DV): ∗The time it took to put the puzzle together ∗The time was observed and measured by the scientist Identify the Variables in this Experiment:
  22. 22. ∗ (1) Same puzzle ∗ All of the participants were tested with the same puzzle. ∗ It would not have been a fair test if some had an easy 30 piece puzzle and some had a harder 500 piece puzzle. ∗ Other constants: (2) same location, (3) same stopwatch, (4) same person timing the experiment What were the constants?
  23. 23. ∗ An investigation was done with an electromagnetic system made from a battery and wire wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails were used. The number of paper clips the electromagnet could pick up was measured. Another Example:
  24. 24. ∗IV: Sizes of nails ∗These were changed by the scientist ∗DV: Number of paper clips picked up ∗The number of paper clips observed and counted (measured) ∗Constants: Battery, wire, type of nail ∗None of these items were changed What are the Variables?
  25. 25. Let’s Practice! ∗If I use a heavier bowling ball, then the ball will travel faster down the lane. ∗IV: weight of bowling ball ∗DV: speed it traveled down lane
  26. 26. ∗ 2) If I use different brands of paper towels, then Bounty will absorb more water per minute than Sparkle or Quilted. ∗ IV: brand of paper towel ∗ DV: amount of water absorbed per minute
  27. 27. ∗3) If I put 3 spider plants in different locations, then the plant in the sunlight will grow taller in a one-week period than the plants in the closet and basement. ∗IV: location of the plants ∗DV: height of plants
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