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  • 1. Knowledge Management aka Knowledge Sharing – A Project Management Tool for Project Teams? Kerrie Anne Christian Materials & Quality Systems Manager Engineering Technology & Environment - BlueScope Steel Ltd
  • 2. So many story tellers & bodies who inspired me in PM / KS / KM / Web 2.0 .. Have a look ! • Barbara Nedderfield (Busch) ex Janus • Mike Dwyer – ex northerns suburbs resident • Les Robinson (Enabling Change) • Bruce Reyburn – northern suburbs resident • Bob Innes (ex ANSTO – Standards Australia) • Sandra Rowe • Laurie Lock Lee (Optimice ex CSC) • Nasim Taleb • Arthur Shelley (The Organizational Zoo) • Jim Bright • Michelle Lambert (KMRT Vic) • Nicole Engard • Peter Todd (NSW IMRT) • Terry Hagan –northerns suburbs resident • David Snowden (Cynefin) • David Jeffrey – ex northern suburbs resident • Steve Denning • David Christian (ANSTO) • David Gurteen ) • Kate Andrews • Project Management Institute • Mark Rogers • Kepner Tregoe • Matt Moore • Russell Lloyd • Ron Johnston • Luke Naismith • & Many, many colleagues from BlueScope Steel And my first steps in PM /KM/KS were In UOW 1st Year Engineering Creative Design Project Team – run by Bob Wheway Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 2
  • 3. Project Management & Knowledge Management “Leadership is the art of accomplishing more than the science of management says is possible.” - General Colin Powell … Managing the people in your project requires specific knowledge, skills, practice Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 3
  • 4. Engineering: ”Hard” Technical Skills & / or Touchy/Feely ??? Engineering Solutions …. “Design/Construct Things” … or much more ….. – getting all the information on the problem - communication, skills, experience – define / design / develop the “fix” - creativity, logic, skills, experience, finance, safety – selling the “fix” to client & community / regulatory stakeholders – communication, negotiation – implementing the “fix” - tenacity, logic, skills, experience, finance, safety, leadership, management, teamwork, conflict resolution, industrial relations – tweaking the “fix” - communication, creativity, logic, skills, experience – maintaining the asset - communication, skills, experience, finance, negotiation – problem solving – technical, equipment, organisational & people issues – recording the learnings - communication - to avoid repeating the problem – sharing the learnings - communication - to avoid similar problems “Engineering needs all personality types … good communicators, outgoing, creative & naturally attuned to the human aspects of any situation” Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 4
  • 5. Absolutely breathtaking – amazing engineering project management Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 5
  • 6. Absolutely breathtaking – amazing engineering project management Translated from Portuguese by Mark Harrison, Adelaide Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 6
  • 7. Project Management : Rebuilding the Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens how do you capture knowledge from its original project construction team? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 7
  • 8. Explaining the Rebuilding of the Parthenon - Project Management - Knowledge Sharing with Key Stakeholders aka “Tourists” Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 8
  • 9. Risk is a fact of life – it’s how we manage it that matters - KM / KS is aimed at reducing Project Risk Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 9
  • 10. PM & KM : Gaudi’s La Sagrada Familia, Barcelona : Imagine a Project Unfinished ? Stopped due to lack of funds, Gaudi run over by a tram & later the blueprints destroyed … http://www.sagradafamilia.cat/docs_instit/images.htm# Erin Lock Lee : Flickr.com Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 10
  • 11. How we deal with risk …….. “Our take on reality is constrained by 4 things” Prof Jim Bright, ACU : • What we know that we know – based on experience, training & education – manage risk • What we know that we don’t know – enables us to identify gaps & close them – reduce risk • What we don’t know that we actually know – may stop us taking calculated risks & rejecting opportunities • What we don’t know that we don’t know – “The Black Swan Effect”….Nasim Taleb – ignorant of risk • http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/nicholas-taleb-innovation-tech-cz_07rev_nt_0524taleb.html • “Before the discovery of Australia, Europeans thought all swans were white, • It would have been unreasonable to imagine swans of any other color. • The first sighting of a black swan in Australia, where black swans are, in fact, rather common, shattered that notion. • Black swan - exceptional unpredictable event that, unlike the bird, carries a huge impact.” Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 11
  • 12. Sense making of Complexity & Chaos : David Snowden : Cynefin : Manga / Anime / Otaku http://www.cognitive-edge.com 漫画 まんが マンガ アニメ Today’s manga descend from Hokusai manga containing assorted drawings from the sketchbook of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai • For David Snowden - this is “sensemaking” – to create understanding of a complex world • “Sensemaking in our turbulent world today”, for many teenage girls all around the world, is being derived through Otaku via manga & Anime genre comic book stories, as they even create their own stories. These stories vary with some reflecting the classical Japanese Noh tradition, with some also similar to Puccini’s Opera “Madam Butterfly” Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 12
  • 13. So What is Project Management & Why do Knowledge Management ? • PM is about knowledge, tools, techniques, and skills, • PM is about identifying our goals and objectives, • PM is about a focused and disciplined approach that would help us achieve our objectives • Good resources: – PMBOK – Project Management Body of Knowledge from PMI – Project Management Institute – Kepner Tregoe – Project Management • KM is managing what we know • KM is creating a knowledge-sharing environment • KM is developing a standard knowledge-base for consistent decision-making • KM is about organisational learning • KM is managing shared contexts Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 13
  • 14. Making Steel at BlueScope Steel’s PKSW plant – 6mtpa Hot Strip Sintering Mill Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Pickle BOS Off Gas Line Cokemaking Coke Ovens Gas Plate Mill TRT Energy Liquid Cold Services Steel Reheat Reduction Turbines Furnace Ironmaking Cold Blast Furnace Rolled BF Gas Slabcasting Strip Liquid Iron Slag Plant Finished Coils Blast Furnace & Coke Ovens Waste Gases used as Heating & Process Fuel – BOS Off Gas to be used in the future Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 14
  • 15. 1SAP Project PKSW – Execution Phase Timeline Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 28 5 12 19 26 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 21 28 6 13 20 Build Activities Xmas Critical Path New Configure & Unit Test SAP Software Year Develop RICEF Technical Specifications Break Build & Unit Test RIEF Components Intf Testing Activities SolMng and Plan & Execute Product Test eCATT Plan Execute operational Execut Plan & Execute Integration Test Plan Execute e Execut Plan & Execute User Acceptance Test GSAP ready Plan e Plan & Execute Regression Test Execut Execut Plan e Plan e Business Readiness Conduct Legacy System Data Cleansing Data Conversion Build & Unit Test Conversion Final Components Plan TC1 TC2 extract TC3 TC4 Live Plan & Exec Trial Conv (TC) & LIVE Data Test Data Test Data Test Data Test Conduct Conversion Data Testing GO LIVE Deployment Budget Trainin Cutover Planning DR1 DR2 Live Cutover g Cutovers - Dress Rehearsals (DR) & Deliver Material y LIVE / Data Develop Material / Data Build Build Busi Leave / Shut Down Transition Team Training Room Fit PKSW Training Delivery Out new Develop Training Deliver Training Transport Process PROD Frz Performance Testing Tool operational PROD Freeze 2 operational 1 Conduct Change Mgmt & Comnct Support Activities Plan Execut Dev TST/PPS TC2 TRN e Technical Team DR1 DR2 Non-project Activities Setup/Support Tech Env (SAP & Develop Build Test Train Budget Preparation Budget Load by Business Legacy) Training Plan & Execute Stress & Performance Test E S E S E S E S Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 15 Budgeting Fast-Track
  • 16. BlueScope Steel - Requisite Behaviours – Managers as Leaders & Coaches Positive Feedback Coaching Making & Support Assignmen Follow Up t Problem Reporting Giving Solving Direction Negative Feedback Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 16
  • 17. BSL SAP Project Communications Kit Fortnightly Newsletter – “This Week, Next Week” Posters Key Messages Requisite Model Regular Meetings Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 17
  • 18. Inventory of Knowledge Sharing Practices at BlueScope Steel • Informal conversations • COPs • Telephone conversation • Networks • Teleconferences • Tech Talks • Video-conferences • Seminars • Team meetings • Internal company conferences • Group meetings • External conferences • All-staff meetings • Technology Exchanges • Technology Encyclopedia 1. How often are these practices employed? 2. What is staff perception of their value for knowledge sharing? 3. How can they be improved? 4. What other Knowledge Sharing practices should we adopt? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 18
  • 19. PM / KM / KS : Beating the 20 Year Effect : Web 2.0 : COP’s, Networks, SNA & KS aka “Yokoten” (Toyota’s sharing Knowledge around) • What is Web 2.0? Should we use it? Does it work with ECM applications ? • Are COP’s operating only as Information Storage repositories vs a truly effective Knowledge Sharing tool ? Documentum? • What do our networks look like? • Can we do it better ? • Engineering, Tech & Environment Online Help line • Barriers Buster – Young Guns • Would Wiki’s work? Sharepoint ? Blogs? • How do we manage our knowledge & information for the future – creation, capture, structure, share, apply ? BSL’s SNA – Social Network Analysis – B Nedderfield, L Lock Lee, C Kjaer Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 19
  • 20. Knowledge Sharing Matrix – BlueScope Steel Engineering, Technology Environment Dept LEVE UNDERSTAN INVOLVEM MEASUREM PROCESS PROJECT COMMUNICATI RECOGNITI VALUE L DING ENT ENT INTEGRATI S ON ON ADDITION ON 5 KS principles KS is a The KS occurs KS KS outcomes are Deptment Plans are made understood by natural way department between all activities regularly and recognised to leverage the all staff of working has reviewed relevant routinely routinely shared by Site benefits of KS both formally its measures players to deliver to relevant management and to maximise maximise the improved players outside -excellence Time spent on informally value learning from project the department in knowledge KS is not seen the process outcomes sharing as “wasted” 4 KS Principles KS occurs The Processes/ KS KS outcomes are Those who Department understood by regularly in department is projects are activities regularly/ share knows the cost 70% staff team responding to not deemed occur in an routinely shared information - benefit of KS meetings the measures complete effective across the valued more ” as right people it generates until KS has manner department highly than involved occurred hoarders 3 KS Principles KS in Job The KS activities KS KS outcomes are Individuals Some concrete Coached by Goals department is occur but activities routinely shared get positive evidence of leaders actively only those occur since in formal feedback for cost benefit of participating formally they are in sessions sharing and KS – but in measuring required by documentat recognition in KS often just KS the process ion salary review waste time 2 KS Principles KS in PDs Department KS included KS KS outcomes are Individuals Anecdotal Deployed has some KS in our formal included in formally shared recognised evidence of measures process project when requested for good costs benefit is developed documentati documentat by management adhoc KS obtained on ion 1 Minimal KS is the The use of KS is not a KS- not KS successes Little or no Cost/ benefit of awareness and domain of KS is not part of our formal part and opportunities formal KS is unknown deployment of others known in the formal Project are rarely recognition KS principles department processes manageme communicated for KS nt process activity Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 20
  • 21. 2002 : Steel Industry Survival : FOG Teams Markets / Plant Equipment Technologies / Finance / Processes THE DEMISTERS Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 21
  • 22. Demisters’ Inspiration : Shackleton : with the Endurance crushed by Pack Ice in Antarctica – his project mission changed from heroic exploration to SURVIVAL Source : Frank Hurley Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 22
  • 23. Oct 23 2008 – Rescue of an Seriously Injured Man from Davis Base, Antarctica – Aurora Australis – Australia’s Antarctic Flag Ship Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 23
  • 24. Ideas are not enough - Project Leaders must be Coaches - Qualities of a Great Coach • Great Communicator – verbal &written • Committed to Others • Confident • High Self Awareness • High Integrity • Insightful • Able to Set Goals and Articulate a Vision • Can motivate and Influence • Coachable Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 24
  • 25. LESSON 2 General Colin Powell on Leadership : quot;The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership.quot; If this were a litmus test, the majority of CEOs would fail. One, they build so many barriers to upward communication that the very idea of someone lower in the hierarchy looking up to the leader for help is ludicrous. Two, the corporate culture they foster often defines asking for help as weakness or failure, so people cover up their gaps, and the organization suffers accordingly. Real leaders make themselves accessible and available. They show concern for the efforts and challenges faced by underlings, even as they demand high standards. Accordingly, they are more likely to create an environment where problem analysis replaces blame. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 25
  • 26. LESSON 5 quot;Never neglect details. When everyone's mind is dulled or distracted the leader must be doubly vigilant.quot; Strategy equals execution. All the great ideas and visions in the world are worthless if they can't be implemented rapidly and efficiently. Good leaders delegate and empower others liberally, but they pay attention to details, every day. (Think about supreme athletic coaches like Jimmy Johnson, Pat Riley and Tony La Russa). Bad ones, even those who fancy themselves as progressive quot;visionaries,quot; think they're somehow quot;abovequot; operational details. Paradoxically, good leaders understand something else: an obsessive routine in carrying out the details begets conformity and complacency, which in turn dulls everyone's mind. That is why even as they pay attention to details, they continually encourage people to challenge the process. They implicitly understand the sentiment of CEO leaders like Quad Graphic's Harry Quadracchi, Oticon's Lars Kolind and the late Bill McGowan of MCI, who all independently asserted that the Job of a leader is not to be the chief organizer, but the chief dis-organizer. Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering 26
  • 27. LESSON 13 quot;Powell's Rules for Picking People:” Look for intelligence and judgment, and most critically, a capacity to anticipate, to see around corners. Also look for loyalty, integrity, a high energy drive, a balanced ego, and the drive to get things done. How often do our recruitment and hiring processes tap into these attributes? More often than not, we ignore them in favor of length of resume, degrees and prior titles. A string of job descriptions a recruit held yesterday seem to be more important than who one is today, what they can contribute tomorrow, or how well their values mesh with those of the organization. You can train a bright, willing novice in the fundamentals of your business fairly readily, but it's a lot harder to train someone to have integrity, judgment, energy, balance, and the drive to get things done. Good leaders stack the deck in their favor right in the recruitment phase. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 27
  • 28. LESSON 18 quot;Command is lonely.quot; Harry Truman was right. Whether you're a CEO or the temporary head of a project team, the buck stops here. You can encourage participative management and bottom-up employee involvement, but ultimately the essence of leadership is the willingness to make the tough, unambiguous choices that will have an impact on the fate of the organization. I've seen too many non-leaders flinch from this responsibility. Even as you create an informal, open, collaborative corporate culture, prepare to be lonely. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 28
  • 29. Notes from Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Project Success or Failure – One Company’s Lessons ?? • Project Headaches – Promised outcomes not delivered, overdue & over budget • Nominate One Project Manager – responsible & accountable – Not a committee • Project Communications are vital throughout the project – Project Objectives & Project Plan – form basis for all project meetings – Project Meetings • Resolve predefined project concerns • Make modifications to project plan • List next steps for project • Don’t ignore social context of your organisation Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 29
  • 30. Notes from Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Why are we doing this project ??? • PROJECT DEFINITION – Why we are doing it – Situation appraisal - Threats, opportunities, needs – driving the project – STATE THE PROJECT - purpose – result, target date, cost • What Is The Overall Project Statement – DEVELOP THE OBJECTIVES – specific results & project value + constraints • What are the Project Objectives – musts & wants • What are the Project Boundaries – DEVELOP PROJECT SCOPE – WBS – WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES • What needs to be accomplished to complete the project & deliverables – sequencing / resource levelling ? • Deliverables/Subdeliverables, Components, Achievements • Product/Process/Phase/Resource based? • How to group work that should be logically managed together – Work Packages – IDENTIFY RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS • What resources are needed to complete the project – responsibility for Work Packages? • Type, Amount, Cost • Human, Facilities, Equipment, Materials/Supplies, Special (uncommon in org.) – PRELIMINARY COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS • Achieve objectives, value delivered > costs, fit for purpose not overkill, another way of accomplishing – PROBLEMS & OPPORTUNITIES • Important to capture these as part of project management knowledgement management processes Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 30
  • 31. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Managing People In Projects – communication matters !!! • INFLUENCING – Understand, create & modify conditions in project environment for successful human performance – Starting point – believe that people on your team want to perform to the best of their abilities – that they do not intend to fail – How clear are the performance expectations & are they agreed to ? – How well does work environment support performance – How well do the consequences encourage desired outcomes? – Are the consequences +/- immediate ? – Performance feedback – frequent, timely, relevant, specific & accurate • INVOLVING & COMMITMENT OF TEAM MEMBERS – Determining the level of involvement of others in your project decisions • COMMUNICATING & LISTENING Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 31
  • 32. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Project Stages • Start to implement • Monitor the project – what will be monitored & when, how communicated & reported – to whom • Modify the project – issues & concerns will surface – must be addressed • Closeout & evaluate - compare objectives with actual completed deliverables – part of project management knowledgement management Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 32
  • 33. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION • How will the project start? • How will project team & contributers communicate – what documentation? • How will project be monitored & how will progress be reported? • How will concerns, emerging during implementation, impact the plan? • What activities will be completed to evaluate & finalize the plan? – Project Management Knowledge Management Processes Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 33
  • 34. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION – GROUND RULES • Decision making authority of each member • Who will be responsible for making changes • How conflicts should be resolved? • How feedback on individual performance will be communicated? • How new ideas or suggestions will be handled? • How team members will communicate amongst themselves? • How project status & customer feedback will be reported to the team? • How problems & potential problems will be reported? • How changes to the project plan will be documented & reported? • Who possesses the authority to approve changes? • What information should be reported back to the project manager, how often & in what format? • How team will record their time & expenses? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 34
  • 35. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Starting the Project : It’s all communication • Set ground rules • Join together • Kick off meeting for team • Socialize your project plan, • • Review commitments, • Team members ask questions • Clarify potential misunderstandings Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 35
  • 36. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Monitor the Project – Critical path focus, plus work packs not on critical path - delays, lag time – What will tell us if we are meeting the project objectives How well is our performance meeting the objectives – Formal reporting & informal reporting to avoid stakeholder alienation • Spend plan vs actual • Work plan vs actual • Planned commitments vs actual • Cost, schedule, or performance by account, work order or performer • Costs by cost centre • Potential problems & opportunities • How to return actual to plan • Executive summary • Involve team members – consider sharing milestones with team members Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 36
  • 37. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Modify the Project – Communication - issues & concerns will surface • Situation Appraisal – What is the data telling you about this concern? • How was this concern surfaced? • When is the earliest point in the project that it will become a concern? • What is meant by …. (name this concern)? • What exactly is it? • What evidence do we have about it? • What different problems, decisions, or actions are part of it? • What else concerns you about …. (name this concern)? – What should you do about this concern? • Identify the work packs affected & if they are on the critical path • Determine if other work packs or objectives may be affected • Situation appraisal to separate & clarify the issues – How will this affect the project plan – Will you change • Project objectives, • Project schedule, • Launch a new project, • Change entire scope of project, • Request additional resources Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 37
  • 38. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Project Closeout Checklist – absolutely crucial ! • Deliverables all completed • Owners, sponsors, vendors notified of close • Team members recognised • Project accounts closed • Contingent actions disabled • Results documented Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 38
  • 39. KT Project Management – Knowledge Management – Knowledge Capture : Project Closeout & Evaluate • Compare objectives with actual completed deliverables • Did actual deliverables satisfy the project objectives – how well • If yes – customers & sponsors satisfied – report & congratulate the team • If not – record why & what needs to be done – Too often forgotten or deliberately buried – eg USA’s World War II Submarine Programme & later USS Thresher “lost” Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 39
  • 40. KT Project Management – Knowledge Management – Knowledge Capture : How well did you, project team & contributors work together to manage the project – Project schedule - on time or delayed – if delayed – why? Impact of changes on team ? – Accuracy of resource estimates – Impact of resource availability or shortages on project – Timeliness & accuracy of reporting by team – maintaining performance expectations – Timeliness & accuracy of feedback provided to team – satisfying expectations during project – Individual performance of team members & contributors – Internal obstacles that impeded work – Resolution of conflicts – including changes to project – Acquisition of new capabilities or skills – What went particularly well & should be repeated – each person provides 1 or 2 – What went particularly badly & shouldn’t be repeated – each person provides 1 or 2 – Do the above individually & also join together – make sure no issues overlooked – How will you improve the next project you do Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 40
  • 41. KT Project Management Managing Project Team Involvement – Leader Behaviour – utilising past project experience knowledge helps • Leader decisionmaking approaches – which is best when ? – Resolves it alone – Questions individuals – Consults individuals – Consults group – Allows it to be resolved by the group • Consider • Superior solution – does it matter which approach is taken • Information – does leader have adequate information to analyse situation • Structure – does leader know which info is missing, how to get it & analyse it • Commitment – is commitment of team members crucial to implementation • Commitment without participation – will others commit to leader’s conclusion without their active participation • Goal Agreement – is there general agreement about goals in the group • Conflict about alternatives – is there likely to be conflict about alternatives within the group Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 41
  • 42. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : People & Projects : Knowledge & Communications– utilising past project experience knowledge helps • Managing the people in your project requires specific knowledge, skills, practice • You need to understand your people – What motivates them & how they will react • You need to understand & build, within the context of your project, a performance system that will help people succeed • You need to determine when you will involve others, in what situations, & when you will go solo • Questioning & Listening are key, no matter whether – Gathering information, gaining consensus, or making further progress on your project Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 42
  • 43. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Communicating with people in Projects - Questioning – Knowledge Capture • Open vs Closed Questions – avoiding yes / no answers – what where why when who how • Fact finding questions when emotions are running high – What specific evidence do you have that marketing is responsible for the late product launch • Questioning to the void – Turn around questions – re ask the question based on the answer – What else …. ??? – Why ….??? • Listening • Hearing the message • Interpreting the message – verbal/non verbal cues • Evaluating the message • Respond to the message – Acknowledging & confirming & feedback Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 43
  • 44. A Note from KT Project Management … Project Meetings – questions to ask yourself • Is a meeting the best way of achieving the primary meeting objective • What is the value of accomplishing the primary meeting objective • How else could the meeting objective be achieved • Is the meeting worth the cost • What could people be doing instead of the meeting • What concerns do you have about conducting this meeting • What concerns need to be addressed during this meeting • Given your concerns what do you hope to accomplish in the meeting • Given what you hope to accomplish, who should be in the meeting • Afterwards – Have agreed upon actions been added to project plan – Are actions being accomplished by their target date – Are the results on target – Has the primary meeting objective been met? If not, what can we do? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 44
  • 45. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Communicating – Project Meetings – common complaints • No clearly stated purpose for the meeting • Participants are ill prepared • Right people are not present, or people present have no real involvement • Meeting does not focus on one issue at a time • Results could have been achieved as well or better without a meeting • The meeting runs too long • The meeting dissolves rather than ends • Participants are unclear on the next steps following the meeting • People unable to communicate openly – bias, hidden agenda, competing commitments • People unable to work around emotions that might influence their ability to get along with others • People jump to conclusions about other people, cause of problem, best alternative • People may want to assume responsibility for issues beyond their skills/training • People describe in broad language rather than precise, specific language • Rumour & opinion are presented as face • People are unfamiliar or uncomfortable with content or process being used Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 45
  • 46. Kepner Tregoe Project Management : Project Meetings – Dealing with Emotions – utilising past project experience knowledge helps • If emotions are present but not brought to the surface, people can become resentful & good working relationships can be destroyed • So let people vent their emotions – Something seems to be bothering you – Reflect other people’s feelings … “You feel that……. ?” – Not interrupting pauses, which can allow for expression of emotions – Identifying the source of emotions – If problem is outside the discussion’s scope then resolve it outside – If problem relates directly to the immediate discussion then the feelings must be resolved Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 46
  • 47. Lessons Learned – KM For Project Management A review of Sandra Rowe’s : Lessons learned – taking it to the next level” – PMI Global Congress 2007 – Budapest Hungary - Source “PM Network Magazine” Feb 2008 Vol 22 No.2 • Leadership has to be involved • Knowledge gained should be engrained into everyday procedures • Certain things will ultimately become second nature & become best practices Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 47
  • 48. Lesson Learned – KM For Projects Management Recognise & document for the future – Identify recommendations – Document & share findings with stakeholders – Analyse & organise lessons – Establish training & set up metrics – Store findings in a repository – software – Use • Consistent procedures & forms • Searchable repository using set keywords – Retrieve lessons on current projects – Repository must be maintained /updated Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 48
  • 49. Lesson Learned – KM For Project Management Project Criteria – Rate Performance • Clarity of project vision, objectives, requirements, assumptions, constraints ? • Schedule duration & client expectations realistic ? • Project sponsors & clients communicated with regularly & able to understand project status ? • An independent facilitator may help • First focus on “What went right ?” • Gently move onto “What went wrong?” • Then “What needs to be improved?” • Participants may criticise process not other project team members • Not a finger pointing exercise !! • Develop metrics to track – do same old issues arise in projects that succeed or flop ? • Otherwise may miss opportunity to implement good practices & weed out bad ones Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 49
  • 50. Who says Engineers can’t be Creative ? But were the project criteria met ? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 50
  • 51. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 51
  • 52. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 52
  • 53. The 7 Phases of a Project from Hell 1. Wild enthusiasm 2. Disillusionment 3. Confusion 4. Panic 5. Search for the guilty 6. Punishment of the innocent 7. Promotion of non-participants Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 53
  • 54. Acominas – South America – Blast Furnace Stove Catastrophic Failure 2002– first for 15 - 20 years Proje ção de refrat ários Regenera Regenera dor 1 dor 2 Corre ia Rege S1BC nerad ores quot;The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we had when we created them.” ….. Albert Einstein Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 54
  • 55. What does Failure Look Like - Human Factors in Engineering 1980’s – Financial Drivers & Engineering Decisionmaking …. Counting the Cost Terry Hagan had repeatedly complained about geotechnical risks to his Coledale property in the 1980’s during project activities …. but his concerns went unheeded…. “In the fierce storms of that month (April 1988) a young mother, Jenny Hagan, and her infant son, James, died in a mudslide at Coledale a mudslide caused by the collapse of an embankment along the Illawarra rail line in a heavy rain storm. - The Coledale-Wombarra area has high rainfall, steep slopes and unstable ground, and experiences severe drainage problems during intense storms.” ….. Brian Langton (MP Kogarah - Minister for Transport, and Minister for Tourism) Terry Hagan http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LA19951206031 Following the Coronial Inquiry ….. a Geotechnical Engineer was prosecuted even though he was not a manager for the area … IE Aust & APESMA gave him legal support. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 55
  • 56. Analysis of a Tragedy : Why? How ? Could it have been prevented or lives saved? Sinkings – West Gate Titanic Cyclone Hurricane Santorini & Tracy Katrina Bridge Antarctica Longford King St Challenger & Boxing Day Tsunami Bridge Columbia Space Shuttles Three Mile Arthur’s Seat Thredbo Island Chairlift WTC Sept Landslide 11 Chernobyl “The China Syndrome” What can we learn? Bali Bombings Can we prevent these? “Seconds from Can we lessen the impacts? President JF Disaster” Series Kennedy How do we save lives? Ghandi Benazir Scenario Bhutto Development Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 56
  • 57. Lessons from Challenger Colonel Mike Mullane Denver, CO 1999 We had been blinded and deafened to these warnings by a phenomena that can be at work on any team anywhere - yours included. It’s very difficult to detect. It operates over a long period of time. It’s very insidious. It’s like a slow growing cancer just slowly eating away at the team but if left undetected ultimately it will prove fatal to the team. What is that phenomena? It is known in the literature as the normalisation of deviance. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 57
  • 58. High Performance Organisations – Prof James Reason Research has shown that a high performing safety culture has the following characteristics (applicable to equipment reliability) : • Informed • Reporting • Learning • Mindful • Flexible • Integrated Swiss Cheese Model - how defences, barriers, and • Just and fair safeguards may be penetrated by an accident trajectory Mindful - One in which the concept of always thinking about what can go wrong is embedded across all levels of the organisation. NB. Toyota “PokeYoke” Concept – idiot or foolproof BlueScope Steel is working to embed the Mindful approach Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 58
  • 59. And PKSW’s Blast Furnaces Repair Project ? – lots of testing & a new skin for the stoves in 2006 Stoves No 5 Blast Furnace Stoves Stress Corrosion Cracking Repair Project View of No.6 BF 21st June 2006 51 Stove Double Shell System Commissioned! Safety Performance: Welding Performance: 1 LTI & 4 MTI’s for >290,000 Manhours 13.5t or 205,000 electrode MTIFR = 3.5 & AIFR = 31 30 km of welding 22 months & 175,000 manhours LTI Free ~435 t of plate used 7 months & 45,000 manhours MTI Free 0.0001% Rework (30m SCC confirmed Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 59
  • 60. Project Management & Knowledge Management : “The Telling of War Stories” • The use of a writing implement did not make Shakespeare a great writer • It is not just a matter of providing wikis, repositories, e-Tools so people will embrace them • People don’t learn just by reading rules and project history reports • Stories from past projects have a more compelling impact and embed in people’s consciousness – although they need the data to provide the objective backup • Barbara Nedderfield, Laurie Lock Lee, David Gurteen, David Snowden, Steve Denning, Arthur Shelley& Les Robinson all focus on the vital role of organisation cultural change to embrace a more knowledge sharing basis – with the telling of organisational stories crucial • Knowledge Sharing & Story Telling, supported by e-accessible repositories, intranet/internet, have the greatest potential impact to pass on the lessons of the past • Les Carlyon’s The Great War recounts the history of the numerous WWI battles. He overlays these with stories of individual Australian soldiers & others with seemingly minor or junior roles in the war, eg Adolf Hitler, Ho Chi Minh, Lenin, Mustafa Kemal • Personal stories of mudcaked injured soldiers arriving at London railway stations, transported from the trenches of the Western Front, began to count more than censored media stories in WW1, & so recruitment figures plummeted as the War continued far longer than predicted • The story may vary in the telling …. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 60
  • 61. A Digression – Knowledge Management & Sacred Stories : Creation of Nationhood – Australia & Turkey 1915 For both Turkey and Australia, 1915 represents a defining year in the 20th Century : For Australia it was a crucial early step in loosening its ties with England & creating its own independent identity with NZ, through heroic sacrifice & enduring mateship – creating the enduring ANZAC legend at Gallipoli (actually Gelibolu) in the Dardanelles For Turkey it is remembered as the Canakkale war, an early step in passing from the centuries old Ottoman Empire, and on to the creation of the modern Turkish state – its 57th Regiment heroically defending its sovereign territory from invading UK & ANZAC forces, with Turkey’s defence at Canakkale, led by its future leader Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) Both nations would forever honour & mourn their fallen Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 61
  • 62. Back to Project Management & Knowledge Management : NSW KMRT 2007: A Modern Turkish Story - by Arthur Shelley, an Australian The 5 day Cadbury Schweppes Turkish project : • Production line problems at Istanbul factory needed fixing • Key executive at Istanbul had past positive experience with KM • Team members came from Cadbury Schweppes sites around the globe • They worked together during the day & socialised at night • Their project outcome ->20% increase in productivity • Afterwards, Team members continued to work on other projects • Eg alternative sweeteners – found out that previously all working on it individually • So after Istanbul they pooled their ideas by e-technology eg email • Together they came up with a new alternative sweetener • There were no real costs to doing this extra bit of work !! • This creation of a virtual environment enabled them to share what they know – with people they knew & trusted Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 62
  • 63. Have you ever been to a chocolate factory ? What would be their Project KPI’s ? Happy stories ? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 63
  • 64. NSW KMRT - Key Speaker - Arthur Shelley – Cadbury Schweppes KM in Cadbury Schweppes – Why Do It? • Increase productivity – increase quality • Increase innovation – reduced errors – solve issues • Increase creativity – increase adaptability • Motivate the workforce – attract & retain talent • Build relationships, trust & positive attitudes – – (KAC footnote – like the Hong Kong DBA Knowledge Yum Cha) • Set up a Candy Network – a monthly international phone conference • Started with 5 people – well connected, well respected, right balance of behaviours & disciplines • Grew to 50 people in a year & so had to cap participants – people busting to get in – insisting that they needed to participate • Secure the Support of all Stakeholders – manage up, manage down, manage sideways – align with business goals & generate regular results Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 64
  • 65. NSW KMRT - Key Speaker - Arthur Shelley – Cadbury Schweppes – “The Organisational Zoo – A Survival Guide to Workplace Behaviour” • Cadbury Schweppes - collaboration of 800 scientists across 36 sites globally • Started KM 3 years ago – “tossing over bits & pieces” of past failed initiatives • Realised the need to focus on cultural attitudinal change • Developed Organizational “Zoo” Charts with different types of animals • Strategy – need to know the type of animal • Then you can understand how they operate & how to influence them • Lions, eagles, hyenas, mice – eg lions are good for competing with other organizations but may create too much fear in their own team) • Logo : 3C’s Triangle : Connect ->Collaborate-> Capitalise – Connect groups & people with each other to Share – Get them Socialising so that they are more likely to Share – Then work out what they need to actively Collaborate – identify a mutual ly important project area & get a small group together – When project outcomes achieved - Capitalise - 30 second “elevator pitch” to sell business benefits of KM to management & beyond Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 65
  • 66. NSW KMRT - Key Speaker - Arthur Shelley – Cadbury Schweppes The 30 second elevator conversation : to continue to add value you need to close the loop – ie Capitalise on project success – communicate the business benefits of the projects widely in different ways to different stakeholders • Kudos for team members • Make their boss look good & you’ll get all the project funding that you will need • Get your “elevator conversation” right • Eg Financial benefits for accountants • Eg Storytelling for scientists & technology • And do not tallk on about tacit, explicit & taxonomies • Pull approach not push - ask the manager in the elevator - “Would you be interested in how the organization could be far more productive?” Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 66
  • 67. NSW KMRT - Key Speaker - Arthur Shelley – Cadbury Schweppes Basics of Collaboration in Cadbury Schweppes • Create the right Environment • Focus on specific measurable outcomes – S.M.A.R.T. objectives • Understand Team Motives & Team Dynamics • Need the right behaviours to deliver skills needed for optimal collaboration - not just best technical experts – persistent, praise, participation, support interactions & encourage fun!! – Stimulate & encourage socialising & encourage fun – ferment the zoo to mature interactions & participation Remember • Sometimes you need face to face contacts • Use right Delivery Platforms to embed KM into projects & processes – Discover, Leverage, Learning, Knowledge • Innovation – making the most of what you’ve got to help others • Stealing ideas with pride from sites from other countries in the organization – sometimes best to make a product at one site – sometimes it is best to take a basic product & modify it slightly to suit different markets – flexible approach not rigid one size fits all Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 67
  • 68. NSW KMRT - Key Speaker - Arthur Shelley – Cadbury Schweppes Answers to KA Christian’s Measuring Business Benefits of KM Question – Metrics • No. of unique visitors to portal • No. of items uploaded • No. of items downloaded • What do they do onsite • Who do they talk to • How many COP’s • How active are these COP’s • How many people turn up to a monthly international phone conference meeting • Measures of people interactions • Turkish project measures – $’s benefit • New alternative sweeteners project – $’s benefit Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 68
  • 69. Project Management & Knowledge Management Lessons Managing Projects in your Zoo Arthur Shelley February 2006 Illustrations John Szabo Source : Arthur Shelley : The Organizational Zoo Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 69
  • 70. Source : Arthur Shelley : The Organizational Zoo Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 70
  • 71. The Barriers for Project Engagement • Independent business units or silos • Limited incentive for interaction • “Many hats”, too busy, need to deliver for my boss • Too hard … Nice Idea, but idealistic! • Too much resistance to change • “Tried that before, failed last time” no benefits • Risk to career path • One page flyer mentality (forget detailed plans!) • Don’t know (trust) how I can benefit • MS ERP! Fact: People make decisions on emotions! Source : Arthur Shelley : The Organizational Zoo Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 71
  • 72. Relationships in Projects How do How do we the roles Perspectives and Needs make this change? process Communications & Influence work for us? 2 way dialog Level 0 Level 1 Level 1 Level 1 Process Alignment Business Units Key Stakeholders How do I influence Alignment Corporate Functions the business Source : Arthur Shelley : The Organizational Zoo of behaviour Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 72
  • 73. Project Success is understanding the beast Source : Arthur Shelley : The Organizational Zoo Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 73
  • 74. Zoo Metaphor for Project team building Team dynamics assessment What does your team look like? Do you have the right balance of behaviours to deliver? Source : Arthur Shelley : The Organizational Zoo Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 74
  • 75. Knowledge Transfer in Projects Application Consultancy Services Systems Knowledge Project Teams Process Champions Experts Helpdesk “Users” Operators Process Knowledge Source : Arthur Shelley : The Organizational Zoo Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 75
  • 76. Be the best PM you can be! Dare to be different. Lead more than do. Engage and build relationships. Have fun.. …Enjoy! Source : Arthur Shelley : The Organizational Zoo Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 76
  • 77. Knowledge Management Arrives Not only of how to develop new knowledge, BUT how to locate and acquire others’ knowledge how to diffuse knowledge in your organisation how to recognise knowledge interconnections how to embody knowledge in products how to get access to the learning experiences of customers ‘Silly me. I thought knowledge management meant it’s not what you know but who you know.’ Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 77
  • 78. Innovation, Knowledge Management and Organisational Capability Entrepreneurial Knowledge • Know-what • Know-why ACT KM Forum • Know-how Canberra 27 October 2003 • Know-who • Know-when Professor Ron Johnston Australian Centre for Innovation • Know-where University of Sydney Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 78
  • 79. Knowledge Ecosystem From Knowledge Management Standard, AS 5037-2005, p 22 Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 79
  • 80. KM / KS at TATA Steel India Relation with Formal Organization Formal organizational structure Informal networks + It is the addition to the formal structure that makes a Communities such a powerful way of sharing and creating knowledge! Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 80
  • 81. FROM TO Narrower and shallower Silos Deeper, wider and permeable Knowledge sharing Pools Making too many mistakes. Learning from few mistakes. Depth of functional knowledge Communities Departments Breadth of Organisational Knowledge Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 81
  • 82. Project Communication : Clarity, Simplicity, Concise … what about Factual? Question : Do we all see the world the same way : or do we filter facts based on our personal experience, bias & priorities ? Knowledge in the Message containing Knowledge in the mind of person A information mind of person B Seek feedback to Seek feedback to check ififyour check your message has message has gotten through gotten through Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 82
  • 83. Navigating the BSL Information Maze PC’s, Event SAP Emails Event Mills Steel Direct Primary BSL Networks BSL First Communities Documentum Intranet Priority of Practice TSS Harminie Servers Sharepoint Engineering Records Books, articles, manuals, Hatch Network procedures, trade Wiki’s Dept Hard info, newsletters Dept copy records Reports files Divisional Library Procedures Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 83
  • 84. ELECTRONIC RECORDKEEPING SYSTEMS & THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO KM - Where did KM Come From Information People Quality Management Management Management •Economics Knowledge •Sociology •Psychology Management Mark Rogers, Director Information Policy and IT Security, IP Australia From: L.Prusak, IBM Systems Journal Vol. 40, No4, 2001 Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 84
  • 85. Beating the 20 Year Effect : From Project Archives to Knowledge Sharing • Hard Copy Files • PC / Mainframe Databases • Main Frame Document Management Systems – aka Enterprise Content Management Systems -> • Knowledge Management & Sharing Systems • Web 2.0 eg Sharepoint, Confluence – Wiki’s, Blogs Knowledge Management A hierarchy of knowledge Information + individual context = Knowledge Each individual interprets a particular piece of information based on their own unique collection of skills and experiences. It is this interpretation that allows Knowledge information to become knowledge. Information Knowledge resides within the individual. Useability Attempting to make knowledge explicit Data turns it back into information. Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 85
  • 86. Integrate Knowledge Management with our other systems • Project authorisation (TPA) • Project management (efficiency) (PMS) • Project reporting (accountability), including MIS Project Outcome • Outcome handover Delivery System • Value assessment Human Knowledge Resources Management Financial System System System • Departmental matrix structure: • Establishment (and closure) of work orders Project Leader Project Team Leader • Purchasing, etc Project Cluster Leader Safety System • Simple capture of costs (labour and DPC) to Program Leader projects • Performance management IP, Technical Services, • Simple reporting for R&D tax requirements • Career development • Reporting on financial management (accountability) Product Stewardship etc • Remuneration Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 86
  • 87. It's time to start a new project. What do you do: Office Communication the 2.0 Way? • Set up a meeting with everyone involved? • Start a list of tasks on your personal calendar? • Create and email a document assigning specific people to tasks? Nicole C. Engard - September 20, 2007 Metadata Librarian Princeton Theological Seminary Library Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 87
  • 88. Communication During a Project And now,everyone Where do you store it all? knows little bits and pieces Store them on a shared drive? and no one knows Add links to them on your intranet? everything. Store them in your email? Print them out? 88 Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian
  • 89. How many of you can say that one year down the line you’ll be able to find that email regarding policy changes? Then there’s the issue of finding  information years down the road Blogs as an office communication tool Web- based & full-text searchable Archived & backed up Visible to all staff (depending on permissions) – no one is left out Fewer emails to store/search through Conversational (email-like) format Date and time stamps Ability to link to relevant pages & comments Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 89
  • 90. Why not try a Project Wiki : an office collaboration tool • Web-based & full-text searchable • Archived & backed up • Visible to and editable by all staff (if permissions allow) – no one is left out • History of edits with date and time stamps • Ability to link to relevant pages & comments • Content management systems (CMS) usually include blogs, wikis and other office communication and collaboration tools – Microsoft Sharepoint – Joomla www.joomla.org – Drupal www.drupal.org – Demo freely available CMSs: www.opensourcecms.com Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 90
  • 91. Crucial Concepts for Knowledge Management Information = Knowledge • Information is digitisable • Knowledge exists in intelligent systems Web 2.0 Ideas for KM / KS applicable to PM are emerging from : •David Gurteen •Matt Hodgson •Serena Joyner Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 91
  • 92. Project Management Achievements : Beijing & Xian : how did they do that ? What about risk of knowledge loss ? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 92
  • 93. Knowledge Risk- under-utilisation or loss of knowledge critical to organisational performance – especially in Project Managment Contributors to Knowledge Risk – Downsizing – Outsourcing – Restructuring – Reduced corporate budgets – Generation X preferences And then we put the age demographics over the top – 30% of APS employees 45 – 54 years old (compared with 19% a decade ago) – 45 – 54 year olds are clustered at the higher classification levels • 69% of SES • 46% of Executive Level – Likely departure of a significant proportion of the workforce (~23%) by 2008 Key Questions – Where does critical expertise lie? – Organisational structure chart – Who do others (in the organisation or outside of it) go to for help? – Who contributes what to your core processes? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 93
  • 94. Blast Furnace – 20 year reline - rebuild cost nearly $400 million Staves are VIP !!: Steel cooling pipes with a block of cast iron cast around them & attached to the inside of the blast furnace shell for cooling. Poached ! : 30 year veteran stave guru & his Gen Y successor ! - What do you do ??? Capture reports in DMS, do Techtalks, Storytelling & Knowledge Café -> Wiki Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 94
  • 95. Knowledge Yum Cha : The Knowledge Café – Asian Style • Venue : MOON GARDEN TEAHOUSE – Causeway Bay Hong Kong • The Participants – The Hong Kong Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) Knowledge Management Class of 2005 from the University of Newcastle, NSW Australia. • Lecturer : Laurence Lock Lee • The Context – Some 40 Hong Kong students undertook a KM course leading up to their DBA research dissertation. The KM course provided them with a broad ranging suite of KM practices and techniques, helping them to prepare for the business issue research that they are about to embark on. The knowledge Yum Cha was organized as the final event for the course, providing the students with the opportunity to discuss, debate and synthesise their own and their group learning in support of their research journey ahead. Sources : Dr Laurence Lock Lee & Erin Lock Lee Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 95
  • 96. Knowledge Yum Cha : Knowledge Focus Question Question: How can you use what you have learned on KM to accelerate your DBA research? • Consider issues of knowledge acquisition • Consider issues around sharing vs individual performance • Consider issues around reciprocation – balancing your own contribution vs that of advisors • Individual vs group work…what is the right balance? • Innovation…how will KM help you make a unique contribution The Hong Kong Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) Knowledge Management Class of 2005 from the University of Newcastle, NSW Australia. Lecturer: Laurence Lock Lee Source : Dr Laurence Lock Lee Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 96
  • 97. Knowledge Yum Cha : The Knowledge Café – Asian Style • What was achieved … the DBA students said …. • Perhaps the Chinese tea house is the equivalent of a western style café, though when a DBA class gets to book out the whole restaurant, the ambiance is somewhat closer to Yum Cha than “a quiet cupper”. • Starched tablecloths were overlayed with butchers paper, marker pens and post it notes distributed along with some 10 courses of delightful Chinese food and off course a plentiful supply of a variety of Chinese tea: • The discussion was animated, with tea and food sharing the scarce table real estate with schematics and dot points. Source : Dr Laurence Lock Lee Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 97
  • 98. Knowledge Yum Cha : The Knowledge Café – Asian Style The Synthesis The resulting synthesis surfaced many east verses west distinctions. The need to balance extreme positions in KM like the tacit verses explicit; the codification verses personalisation; the process verses practice; knowledge stock verses flow; KM as a discipline verses KM as a general competence were discussed and debated in class. The balance was insightfully captured by the Chinese Yin and Yang Symbol: Source : Dr Laurence Lock Lee Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 98
  • 99. Knowledge Yum Cha : The Knowledge Café – Asian Style From the eastern perspective, the road to wisdom is through discipline, bravery, kindness and trust (contrasted to a western perspective of the data, information, knowledge and wisdom hierarchy). Source : Dr Laurence Lock Lee Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 99
  • 100. Knowledge Yum Cha : The Knowledge Café – Asian Style Western concepts of communities of practice as vehicles for sharing knowledge informally were balanced by the need for structure, taxonomies and categorisation of information and the literature supporting their research. The issue of the Chinese family clans was highlighted. Clans can be both a source of trusted sharing, but on the other hand, a restriction in developing trustful knowledge sharing relationships on a broader, global scale. Loyalty to the clan is seen as a growth limiter for Asian enterprises. The Knowledge Yum Cha was a great opportunity to explore the opportunities for KM in an eastern culture. The discussion was active and insightful. All in all the balance of east and west can only be good for KM. Source : Dr Laurence Lock Lee Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 100
  • 101. Technical Report Writing (for projects etc) – they said … • The University Science Professor said …. – be concise, precise & clear (writing is hard work) • The Engineering Manager said …. – remember the KISS Principle – Keep It Simple Stupid ( & keep paragraphs short) • Noel Cornish, ANZIM PKSW President, Metallurgist, said …. – is valuable – I learnt to do it when I was in the Technology area – be factual (my wife’s postcards are probably more interesting – but mine do get the facts down) Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 101
  • 102. In Summary : Technical Report Writing (for projects etc– key aspects? • Communicate • Style - Concise & Clear • Simple & Effective • Investigation • Subject Matter - Factual ( rather than having to be interesting ) • Logical & Creative • Complex ideas • May have variety of Audiences • Skill - requires Practice • Tool Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 102
  • 103. Clarity Measures – Gunning Fog Index aka Years of Education needed for an adult reader to understand a written article Item GFI Item GFI Item GFI Goosebumps 7 IM Soccer 15 PKSW Cadets 11 Blinky Bill 8 Medium Tech Article 16 PKSW Cadets 12 The Hobbit 9 SMH Editorial 17 PKSW Cadets 13 Harry Potter 10 Lord of the Rings 17 PKSW Cadets 13 Girlfriend Mag 11 The Bulletin Mag 18 PKSW Cadets 13 SMH Political Article 11 IM Soccer 18 PKSW Cadets 15 Light Tech Article 12 IM Rugby League 18 PKSW Cadets 15 Lonely Planet Guidebook 13 New Scientist 21 PKSW Cadets 15 Australian Geographic 14 Heavy Tech Article 25 PKSW Cadets 18 SMH Political Article 14 Clavell's Whirlwind 25 PKSW Cadets 19 NB. Media articles sometimes have one-sentence paragraphs & surround with lots of white space Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 103
  • 104. Clearer Writing : A Few General Comments • Use clear, familiar words • Keep most sentences short & simple : 1 basic idea & 15-25 words • Use active verbs not passive : I wrote the report • Personalise your writing where possible – but generally avoid in technical reports • Use a conversational style (not slang) where possible – but not in technical reports • The harder the ideas – the greater the need for clarity - so as to be understood • One main idea or theme per paragraph – use connecting words between sentences • Gather all the information you need before you start writing – like the chocolate cake Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 104
  • 105. What if you have to deliver bad news on the Project ? Management is under pressure to deliver on performance, time, budget & safety Your report may tell them that they are not going to achieve their kpi’s • equipment won’t last until the next annual (scheduled) shutdown • can’t achieve the required mechanical properties of product from the mill • can’t achieve the budgeted tonnages through the mill • can’t achieve hot metal chemistry from the furnace in its current state • budget is blown by maintenance spares costs blowing out (Chinese) What do you do? Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 105
  • 106. Failed Coke Loader : budgets delayed recommended repairs a few times Failed a week before repairs finally scheduled – operator broke leg & company prosecuted – engineer cleared Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 106
  • 107. The Art of Persuasive Writing – with apologies to Machiavelli’s “The Prince” • Be accurate & clarify that they have received & understand the bad news • Be respectful of others – be aware of strong views / bias of your readers • If your findings are controversial – identify potential supporters & detractors • Try to avoid a clash with your supervisor or customer & don’t back people into corners • Diplomatically state the past bad practice as a result of constraints, then move on to to the need for future improvement & acknowledge improvements in that direction • Make the story fit the facts & not the facts suit the story - avoid selective use of facts • Be ethical – don’t alter to suit someone’s agenda if inappropriate • If your recommendation means a change that affects performance negatively – be diplomatic • Don’t hide bad news for fear of retribution – identify risks & be diplomatic – Careful Connectors eg unfortunately.., fortunately…, it would appear that…, on weighing up the situation …, consideration should be given to …., a review of all factors has shown… • Consider confidentiality & legal /privilege issues – there is a Discovery process • Technical reports should not be emotive nor an ego exercise Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 107
  • 108. More Practical Hints – Also Helpful in Project Bad News Situations • Gather & keep resource material on hand relevant to your technical area – don’t overdo it • Resource material may be hard copy articles, handbooks, electronic, web sites • Avoid re-inventing the wheel – it’s okay to get help from others • Develop a network to bounce around ideas & problems • Remember your network may have other information which will help you • Writing is a communication process – remember people may think differently • Don’t ignore past data because you didn’t generate it, or it’s not electronic • Make sure you have weighed up all the evidence, not just what suits your view • Would KT, RCA, FMEA or Five Why’s approaches help, to make sure everything’s covered ? • If results look wrong – check them out – just in case • Be prepared to ask dumb questions to clarify your understanding if necessary • Remember you are part of a team – get help if you need it – you are not flying totally solo ! Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 108
  • 109. Beating the 20 Year Effect - PM / KM / KS • Young Graduates – Learning from current Gurus • Beyond Google - Teaching & Learning: – Consider best use of all data / information / knowledge resources are available – “older resources” books, journals, people • Challenge - translating “old” knowledge to “E-format” In order for the lessons of the past to avoid becoming unlearnt …. It is imperative that succeeding generations of engineers access these past lessons. “The future competitiveness of global companies will depend on their ability to master two things : logistics and knowledge management.” …..Bill Gates 1997 Oct 23 2008 – UOW - Master of Engineering Practice or Management – Knowoledge Management in Project Management – KerrieAnne Christian 109