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Human Factors In Engineering

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  • 1. Beyond Engineering BEYOND ENGINEERING … “all I ever wanted to be was a Techo” Kerrie Christian – B Met UOW Materials Investigation Manager Technology & Environment - BlueScope Steel Ltd Wollongong University Council Member (Former Wollongong City Councillor /Director Illawarra Electricity) (Former NSW Scientists President – APESMA) Photos – courtesy of D Ruffels
  • 2. “ Beyond Engineering ….” • Risk – Trust Me… I’m an Engineer • What is Engineering - Design & Construct or More? • Engineering & Reliability – Why Do Engineers Get Bad Press • Engineering : Silo’s vs Teams – Forensic Engineering Case Studies • Knowledge Management – including Networks & Communities of Practice • Financial Drivers : Human Impacts – 1988 Coledale Disaster • Assumptions in Design : Human Impacts - August 1998 Storm Event • Skills Mix, Gender Issues • Summary
  • 3. RISK : “Trust Me … I’m an Engineer” “I like the ancient Roman tradition that made it clear to engineers they must accept responsibility for their work. When the scaffolding was removed from a completed Roman arch, the law read that the engineer who built the arch had to stand beneath it. If the arch came crashing down, he’d be the first to know. As a result, the Roman engineer knew that the quality of his work would have a direct, personal impact on his life. That’s why it’s not surprising to find so many Roman arches have survived through the ages.” John W. Estey, President & CEO, S&C Electric Company, http://www.sandc.com/webzine/081103_1.asp
  • 4. Risk : Twenty First Century Bridge Building - Seacliff Bridge Coalcliff
  • 5. Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost • Connell Wagner looks for the right personalities at an early stage. • “Graduates who have an interest, such as music, art, language or history – we see that as a very strong positive because it makes them a more rounded person. • The old nerd engineer would sit before a computer screen – with the attitude of “Leave me alone while I get on with my calculations”…….. This is not a role model we encourage …. BRW 3/03/05
  • 6. Diversity in Engineering: ”Hard” Technical Skills …Touchy/Feely ??? Engineering Solutions …. “Design/Construct Things” … or much more ….. – getting all the information on the problem - communication, skills, experience – define / design / develop the “fix” - creativity, logic, skills, experience, finance, safety – selling the “fix” to client & community / regulatory stakeholders – communication, negotiation – implementing the “fix” - tenacity, logic, skills, experience, finance, safety, leadership, management, teamwork, conflict resolution, industrial relations – tweaking the “fix” - communication, creativity, logic, skills, experience – maintaining the asset - communication, skills, experience, finance, negotiation – problem solving – technical, equipment, organisational & people issues – recording the learnings - communication - to avoid repeating the problem – sharing the learnings - communication - to avoid similar problems “Engineering needs all personality types … good communicators, outgoing, creative & naturally attuned to the human aspects of any situation”
  • 7. Reliability : Navigating the “Why’s” : Investigation Tools & Techniques Cold RCA Troubleshooting Case Apollo MORT Reliability Centred 5 Maintenance Why’s CSI ICAM KT Seconds from Disaster
  • 8. A Cynic’s View of Reliability …. Especially in IT !
  • 9. Reliability : “How did those plant operators actually manage to run this turbo rotor so fast?” …. Bob the Engineer
  • 10. Breaking Down Silos : Gaining & Sharing Knowledge There are considerable gains in operating as multidisciplinary – cross functional TEAMS …… rather than operating in Silos, whether as independent operators, engineers and scientists, or departments, reluctant to utilise the resources of another department, division or discipline.
  • 11. Suspect fatigue cracking - Blast Furnace Top Recovery Turbine alternator rotor Eddy Current Non Destructive Testing Visual & Magnetic Particle – reveal Scratching - not Cracking
  • 12. HSM COG MAIN CRACKING – was it due to fatigue, ie long spans under high wind loadings ?
  • 13. HSM COG MAIN CRACKING – Circumferential cracking at weld toe – presumed to initiate externally due to high winds Hot Tap Crack Mag Visual Sample prepared for Particle - note weld repair internal deposits
  • 14. Hot Tap Cracked HSM COG Main - crack faces – showing corrosion/cracking had initiated internally Internal surface – blue corrosion product Weld side - cleaned External surface - ductile Internal surface Parent Metal side External -deposits Surface remaining
  • 15. HSM COG MAIN CRACKING 2002 – macro / micros through cracked area of weld Internal Surface Fracture Face External Surface External weld pitting
  • 16. Whyalla Pellet Plant Fatality 7 Tonnes of Refractory buried 2 workers …. The danger of “not knowing what we don’t know …”
  • 17. Retaining Engineering Design Knowledge Matters …. Whyalla Pellet Plant Fatality 7 Tonnes of Refractory buried 2 workers …. L45 VW Anchor 150 Clip Anc hor Shell Plate Basic Demolition Error or Multiple Causes ? The danger of “not knowing what we don’t know …”
  • 18. Whyalla Pellet Plant : MORT / KT / Why’s • The movement of the bricking ring (1990’s?) from 600 mm to 1200 mm from the discharge end of the kiln, and in line with the sealing flange plate, substantially increased stresses within the bricking ring, shell, nose casting, cooling plenum and sealing flange plate to in excess of the material yield strength. • As stresses were in excess of material yield strength the cooling plenum, flange plate and bricking ring cracked through fatigue. • The resulting structural discontinuity created a kiln cross section that flexed from cylindrical to lemon shaped on each kiln half revolution causing a substantial increase in localised kiln deflection. • Refractory panels and bricks were forced against each other causing brick spalling and lifting and excessive cyclical clip loading in the vicinity of the structural discontinuity. • Brick failure led to the formation of a hot spot in the kiln shell. This hot spot deformed the steel shell outwards imposing higher loads on the adjacent clips and exposing them to furnace temperature as the kiln shell bulged outwards. • The increased cyclical anchor clip loading local to the hot spot and crack location caused the anchor clips to fail by bending fatigue. This process was accelerated by the presence of tight edged out of specification anchor clips. The resulting area of unsupported lining increased the load on adjacent lining segment clips during kiln rotation. These overloaded clips also then failed increasing the load on their neighbours and so on around the circumference of the kiln discharge lip. Modifications to design made without understanding the full ramifications
  • 19. Breaking Down the Silos : Knowledge Sharing BHP Engineering Information Management Workshop 1997 : future competitiveness of global companies “The will depend on their ability to master two things : logistics and knowledge management.” …..Bill Gates 1997
  • 20. Beating the 20 Year Effect : From Archives to Sharing Materials Investigation Archives • Hard Copy Files - 100’s failure reports p.a. since 1960’s • PC / Mainframe Databases • Main Frame Document Management Systems • Knowledge Management & Sharing Systems Knowledge Management A hierarchy of knowledge Information + individual context = Knowledge Each individual interprets a particular piece of information based on their own unique collection of skills and experiences. It is this interpretation that allows Knowledge information to become knowledge. Knowledge resides within the individual. Information Useability Attempting to make knowledge explicit Data turns it back into information.
  • 21. Breaking Down the Silos : EIM Workshops 1990’s Engineering Information Management Workshops – Cross Divisional BHP participants : Australia-wide/Ok Tedi • Engineers • Supply officers • Maintenance planners • IT knowledge management specialists • Corporate librarians
  • 22. Beating the Twenty Year Effect : EIM Workshops 1990’s 1990’S BHP EIM Strategies : • Intranet - Engineers@BHP • Email / GAL (Global Address List) • Engineering Contacts Yellow Pages • Intranet /Email based Specialist Maintenance Networks • GLOBAL MAINTENANCE NETWORK • DOCUMENTUM Document Management System • EVENT Database System
  • 23. Beating the 20 Year Effect : Knowledge Sharing - COP’s COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE 2001 + • COP – A group of people who share information, ideas & insights about a common topic of interest • Intranet based – evolved in BHP – 80 in BlueScope Steel - Corporate, HR, Safety, Technical, Ops • Established with moderate level of PC skills • Can achieve a wider target audience than emails • Link geographically close & globally dispersed sites • Bridging traditional “Silos” • Active COP’s - Crane Safety & Process Engineers • Failure Analysis practitioners participate in these & Failure Analysis COP
  • 24. Beating the 20 Year Effect : Knowledge Sharing - COP’s
  • 25. Beating the 20 Year Effect : COP’s & Networks However - Are COP’s operating only as Information Storage repositories vs a truly effective Knowledge Sharing tool ? • What do our networks look like? • Can we do it better ? • Tech & Environment Online Help line commenced • Would Wiki’s work? No info Chemical Electrical Environment Mechanical Metallurgist Processing Systems SNA – Social Network Analysis
  • 26. Beating the 20 Year Effect : Knowledge Sharing Beyond COP’s • The Good Old Boys – Knowledge Networks • Knowledge Sharing Barrier Busting Teams • Young Guns - Accelerated Learning Failures Sessions
  • 27. Knowledge Yum Cha The KM Focus Question
  • 28. Knowledge Yum Cha : Knowledge Focus Question Question: How can you use what you have learned on KM to accelerate your DBA research? • Consider issues of knowledge acquisition • Consider issues around sharing vs individual performance • Consider issues around reciprocation – balancing your own contribution vs that of advisors • Individual vs group work…what is the right balance? • Innovation…how will KM help you make a unique contribution The Hong Kong Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) Knowledge Management Class of 2005 from the University of Newcastle, NSW Australia. Lecturer: Laurence Lock Lee
  • 29. Beating the 20 Year Effect : Knowledge Sharing / Succession Planning Developing the Organisation’s Future : • Opportunities for Young Graduates – Programs / Learning from current Gurus • Beyond Google - Teaching & Learning: – what data / information / knowledge resources are available – “older resources” books, journals, people • Translating “old” knowledge to “E-format” • Attracting sufficient students
  • 30. Beating the 20 Year Effect : Knowledge Sharing / Succession Planning In order for the lessons of the past to avoid “becoming unlearnt “…. It is imperative that succeeding generations of plant engineers & failure analysis practitioners can, & do continue, to access these past failure analysis lessons.
  • 31. Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost • As a young engineer, do you have a broad vision of where you would like your career to head? • If so, is it worth planning now for the future by actively attaining the skills you will require? • Opinions in the profession differ widely on how concerned we should be with our futures. • Some suggest taking a wider view of our work than just technical streams. • Perhaps we should consider the socioeconomic impacts of what we are doing more …. Cohan Drew, GradIEAust Chair YEAT
  • 32. CHALLENGES FOR ENGINEERING … “It’s the Economy, Stupid” ….. Bill Clinton 1992
  • 33. Human Factors in Engineering 1980’s – Financial Drivers & Engineering Decisionmaking …. Counting the Cost Terry Hagan had repeatedly complained about geotechnical risks to his Coledale property in the 1980’s …. but his concerns went unheeded…. “In the fierce storms of that month (April 1988) a young mother, Jenny Hagan, and her infant son, James, died in a mudslide at Coledale a mudslide caused by the collapse of an embankment along the Illawarra rail line in a heavy rain storm. - The Coledale-Wombarra area has high rainfall, steep slopes and unstable ground, and experiences severe drainage problems during intense storms.” ….. Brian Langton (MP Kogarah - Minister for Transport, and Minister for Tourism) Terry Hagan http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LA19951206031 Following the Coronial Inquiry ….. a Geotechnical Engineer was prosecuted even though he was not a manager for the area … IE Aust & APESMA gave him legal support.
  • 34. Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost The I_TJ’s Prayer “Lord, grant me the wisdom to listen to others even though I know I am right.”
  • 35. 1990’s : Engineering Drainage Design Flood Blockage Assumptions … ie do culverts experience 50% or full blockage in flooding .. & does it matter anyway? Post 1998 : 1% flood event boundary Pre 1998 : 1% flood event boundary 1992 : 1% flood event boundary
  • 36. Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost “If you put fences around people you get sheep.” William McKnight, Former 3M CEO
  • 37. Engineering – A Mono Culture ? • “Trust me, I’m an Engineer” … why do Engineers get bad press out in the community ? • Are all successful engineering students necessarily ISTJ/ INTJ Myers Briggs Personality Types? …USA study showed that less successful students were ENFP/ESFP PersonalityTypes • Research indicates low participation of women due to an engineering culture … that does not fully recognise and value the differences that women can bring to engineering and that predominantly reflects and rewards the educational and career interests,aspirations and needs of men (IE Aust)
  • 38. CHALLENGES FOR ENGINEERING … • John Vines, chief executive of APESMA, says there is widespread feeling among engineers that their work is not as highly valued as it should be. He says the consequences are not just at the personal remuneration level. 'Our research shows that 10 years after completing their university degree, fewer than 50% of graduates are employed as engineers. We would argue this is a real issue for the profession, that the level of disillusionment among engineers is something the profession has to address.‘ • Attracting students to Engineering is a challenge around the world - why only recruit from only half the population? • Cost of losing staff – Departure of any experienced staff, male or female, leaves a “hole” • 5-10 years to grow a seasoned engineering professional – $ costs of hiring new staff • One question we need to consider is whether we “live to work or work to live”.
  • 39. Challenges for Engineering : A Perceived Mono Culture • Engineers are not alone …. quot;The continuing insularity and conformity of Australian business must also be considered a competitive issue for this countryquot;. • quot;There is a growing body of case study evidence here and elsewhere that diversity fosters more openness and accountability, and a greater willingness to innovatequot;, Ms Krautil, Director EOWA, said. • They could see the economic benefits to be wrought from the implementation of policies that retained the quot;best and brightestquot; at work. • Companies that help employees ease the pressures of balancing work and family responsibilities are clear leaders in the third annual Corporate Reputation Index, published in the Sydney Morning Herald and The Age newspapers.
  • 40. Lack of Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost More from John Vines APESMA…. What a time for Australia to have a skills crisis! • The Australian engineering workforce is ageing, with up to a third of the existing work force reaching retirement age in the next 10 years. As well as that we have huge skills and experience gaps in large engineering organisations due to reduced graduate employment intakes in the 1980's and 1990's. • If Australia does not take this challenge seriously, the enormous opportunities for Australian-based companies to be involved in the infrastructure boom will be seriously diminished. • The industry also needs to do its bit to turn around the looming crisis. – Firms should be offering cadetships and opportunities to retrain or to take time out for overseas placements. – Employers need to provide more flexibility and family-friendly environments to retain skilled employees, in particular women engineers. – And most of all, we need to look at wages and remuneration for engineers.
  • 41. Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost • One question we need to consider is whether we “live to work or work to live”. • Companies that help employees ease the pressures of balancing work and family responsibilities are clear leaders in the third annual Corporate Reputation Index, published in the Sydney Morning Herald and The Age newspapers. Who has childcare responsibilities here?
  • 42. Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost Top six issues for professional women • Flexible working arrangements - 60% • Career development, training - 57.6% • Equal Pay - 36.8% • Quality child care - 32.3% • Excessive hours of work - 26.5% • Job security - 23.7%
  • 43. Lack of Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost • John Vines, chief executive of APESMA, says there is widespread feeling among engineers that their work is not as highly valued as it should be. He says the consequences are not just at the personal remuneration level. 'Our research shows that 10 years after completing their university degree, fewer than 50% of graduates are employed as engineers. We would argue this is a real issue for the profession, that the level of disillusionment among engineers is something the profession has to address.‘ • “Skills crisis sends recruiters abroad” …. • “Engineering jobs are at risk of going offshore ..” Sarah Duke GM WA TAD • The severe shortage of engineers in Australia has prompted Connell Wagner , one of Australia’s largest consulting engineering companies, to undertake an overseas recruiting drive.
  • 44. BlueScope Steel – Work, Family & Parental Leave - Australia • BlueScope Steel is committed to supporting employees who are new parents balance career opportunities with the challenges of early parenting. • The parental leave initiatives for Australian-based employees are designed . to deliver on the commitment in Our Bond to quot;maintain a healthy balance between work and family lifequot;. They will help BlueScope Steel attract and retain high quality men and women as employees, and help them to enjoy exciting and challenging careers, while also achieving their aspirations as parents and as active members of their local communities • The BlueScope Steel corporate intranet provides information about parental leave the initiatives, application processes, the support provided to parents, an on-line childcare booking and information site Care For Kids, as well as answers to some questions you may have about taking parental leave and its effect on your benefits.
  • 45. Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost • “The manufacturing industry in general, certainly heavy industry, has an aura of being a very blokey, dirty, dusty, physical-type environment,” says Daryl Kilby, of BlueScope’s corporate human resources department. • “What we try to show is that in our company the reality is they’re fairly high-tech jobs – research driven, solutions-driven.” • In recent years, the number of women employees at BlueScope has risen significantly to about 10 per cent of the workforce. • With evidence that a more equal gender balance positively affects the way work teams operate and boosts productivity, the company is trying to do much better, Kilby says.
  • 46. Lack of Diversity in Engineering – Counting the Cost Attracting students to Engineering is a challenge around the world - why recruit from only half the population?
  • 47. Diversity in Engineering: ”Hard” Technical Skills …Touchy/Feely ??? Engineering Solutions …. “Design/Construct Things” … or much more ….. – getting all the information on the problem - communication, skills, experience – define / design / develop the “fix” - creativity, logic, skills, experience, finance, safety – selling the “fix” to client & community / regulatory stakeholders – communication, negotiation – implementing the “fix” - tenacity, logic, skills, experience, finance, safety, leadership, management, teamwork, conflict resolution, industrial relations – tweaking the “fix” - communication, creativity, logic, skills, experience – maintaining the asset - communication, skills, experience, finance, negotiation – problem solving – technical, equipment, organisational & people issues – recording the learnings - communication - to avoid repeating the problem – sharing the learnings - communication - to avoid similar problems “Engineering needs all personality types … good communicators, outgoing, creative & naturally attuned to the human aspects of any situation”
  • 48. “ Beyond Engineering ….” • Risk – Trust Me… I’m an Engineer • What is Engineering - Design & Construct or More? • Engineering & Reliability – Why Do Engineers Get Bad Press • Engineering : Silo’s vs Teams – Forensic Engineering Case Studies • Knowledge Management – including Networks & Communities of Practice • Financial Drivers : Human Impacts – 1988 Coledale Disaster • Assumptions in Design : Human Impacts - August 1998 Storm Event • Skills Mix, Gender Issues • Summary
  • 49. CHALLENGES FOR ENGINEERING … quot;The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we had when we created them.” ………. Albert Einstein
  • 50. Who says Engineers can’t be Creative ?