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Website update 2012 6-15 Website update 2012 6-15 Document Transcript

  • Fisheries Independent/SCUBA Assessment Project -- Website UpdateFebruary, 2012From the “What we do” link: Fisheries Independent/Scuba Assessment Project Project staff uses scuba-based and other fishery-independent methods including SCUBA to gather fish and invertebratefishery-releveant data from nearshore environments. The project goal is to provide information to improve management of nearshore resources. Staff activities include data collection for stock assessments, evaluation of marine protected areas, monitoring of important fished species and their habitats, and determination of life-history parameters for various species. Scuba AssessmentFisheries Independent Assessment Project staff often work collaboratively with other agencies, academic institutions, and the fishing community on large-scale monitoring and research efforts. Enter the Fisheries Independent/Scuba Assessment Project websiteText from the above page:Both fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are used to make informed management decisionsregarding marine resources. Fishery-dependent data rely on direct observations of the fishery through market Page 1 of 14
  • sampling, on-board observer programs, landing receipts, and logbooks. Fishery-independent data, on the otherhand, rely on direct observations of species, populations, and ecosystems.Fishery-independent data are collected using a variety of methods and equipment. Fishing surveys (trawls orother nets), underwater surveys (scuba), and mark-recapture efforts (tags) are often used to collect information.Fishery-independent methods collect standardized information from all life stages of a species, not justinformation that is marketable or utilized by a fishery.Fishery-independent research and monitoring often collects essential fishery information (or "EFI"). EFI isinformation about the biology, ecology and harvest of a fish species, and is important for sustainable fisheriesmanagement. Some examples of EFI include indices of abundance, total mortality, movement patterns,spawning behavior, fecundity, reproductive potential, age, and growth.Fishery-independent data are collected using a variety of methods and equipment. Fishing surveys (trawls orother nets), underwater surveys (SCUBA), and mark-recapture efforts (tags) are often used to collectinformation. Fishery-independent methods collect standardized information onfrom all life stages of a species,not just information that ison species that are marketable or utilized by a fishery.The Fisheries Independent/Scuba Assessment pProject staff work in southern California (Los Alamitos), andcentral California (Monterey). The southern California staff is currently studying abundance and movementpatterns of surf fishes in the Southern California Bight, and habitat characteristics and movement patterns ofbarred sand bass. In addition, they are also characterizing hormonal changes in barred sand bass related togonad development and to exogenous environmental cues and they are developing an estimate of spawningfrequency. The central California staff is currently studying abundance, mortality and movements of nearshorefishes within Carmel Bay, including the Carmel Pinnacles State Marine Reserve; kelp greenling age, growth,and maturity; and age validation for cabezon and kelp greenling. The central California staff also providesoversight for, coordinates, and administers the DFG Diving Safety Program. Go to “barred sand bass” in “Current Studies” tab Page 2 of 14
  • Barred sand bass text from the above page:Barred Sand Bass Spawning Movements andHabitat CharacterizationBackgroundBarred sand bass, Paralabrax nebulifer, continues to be one of the most sought-after sport fish in southernCalifornia. Since the 1960s, this species has ranked among the top ten sport fish caught by commercialpassenger fishing vessels (CPFVs), or "party boats," in southern California, with annual catches averagingnearly one million fish over the last 20 years. For decades, CPFVs and private recreational boaters havetargeted well-known spawning aggregation sites throughout southern California, including the Ventura Flats,Santa Monica Bay, Huntington Beach Flats, San Onofre, and San Diego. Approximately 71 percent of theannual barred sand bass catch is harvested by the CPFV fleet from June through August, during peakspawning season.From 1961 to 2008, barred sand bass catches increased to a high in 2000 and have dramatically declinedsince. These dramatic catch declines in recent years have caused concern among fisheries biologists andfishermen alike. A recent fishery analysis on the basses (including barred sand bass) was conducted in2010-11 and it appears that bass populations in the last decade have been negatively affected by cooloceanographic conditions and fishing. Answering questions regarding barred sand bass spawning behavior,movements and spawning habitat requirements will be important for the management of this resource. Fishery analysis on the basses in southern California (LINK here to MRC basses pdf)"Hotspot" AnalysisBarred sand bass catch location data was compiled by California Recreational Fisheries Survey (CRFS)samplers for private/rental boats from 2004-2008 in the southern California region. CRFS samplers interviewanglers at public launch facilities, asking questions about their fishing activities, examining their catch todetermine the number and species of fish kept or discarded, weighing and measuring the catch, and collectingfishing location and depth information. The catch location data were mapped and analyzed using a Geographic Page 3 of 14
  • Information System (GIS) and major "hotspot" catch locations (potential spawning grounds) were identified.This analysis provides valuable information about where and when barred sand bass spawning aggregationsmay occur in southern California. In addition, areas fished around Huntington Beach were examined on a finerscale to examine any seasonal patterns of catch.Spawning MovementsIn the 1960s and 1990s, biologists with the DFG tagged a total of 9,000 barred sand bass in southernCalifornia. The recapture information from these two time periods enabled us to document large-scalespawning-related movements of barred sand bass for the first time. Using this dataset we have attempted todiscover 1) how long individual barred sand bass remain at spawning grounds during spawning season, 2) howfar fish migrate to spawn, and 3) whether fish show fidelity to certain spawning locations.In addition to large-scale spawning movements, we were also interested in the short-term, fine-scale spawningmovements of barred sand bass. To address this, project staff worked with California State University, LongBeach professor Dr. Chris Lowe and his master’s student, Megan McKinzie. Project staff assisted with fieldresearch that uses state-of-the-art technology to actively track adult barred sand bass at Huntington Flatsduring the spawning season. Fish were surgically fitted with acoustic transmitters and then followed by boatusing an underwater hydrophone. Several transmitters contained a depth sensor which emitted a signal thatallowed the researcher to determine both the horizontal and vertical movements of the fish every two seconds.The results from this research allowed us to characterize fine-scale horizontal and vertical movement patternsof tagged barred sand bass during the spawning and non-spawning seasons and to quantify activity space size(area and volume), habitat use and preference, and diel patterns of activity. Movement patterns believed to beindicative of spawning and/or courtship were determined through the comparison of spawning and non-spawning season individuals.(1) With the fish immersed in a saltwater anesthetic bath, the transmitter is inserted through a small incision inthe lower abdominal cavity.(2) Two to three sutures are used to close the incision.(3) Prior to release, the fish is measured and fitted with an external dart tag for easy identification uponrecapture.DFG photos by E. JarvisSpawning HabitatFor some other aggregate spawners, the timing and location of spawning aggregations are related to watertemperature, lunar activity, and currents. However, depth and bottom habitat type are the only characteristicsdocumented in historical descriptions of barred sand bass spawning aggregation sites. To understand whetherbarred sand bass spawning aggregation sites were unique, Fisheries Independent Assessment Project staffconducted field surveys in 2008 to describe the typical oceanographic (e.g., water temperature), seafloor Page 4 of 14
  • habitat (e.g., type of substrate), and biological features (e.g., invertebrates living on and in the substrate) ofareas where spawning aggregations occur and areas where spawning aggregations are absent. Barred sand bass “resting” at spawning grounds. DFG 1961.Reproductive parametersSpawning frequencyUnderstanding the reproductive potential of barred sand bass depends not only on how long fish stay at aspawning aggregation but how frequently they spawn. We can tell if a female has recently spawned if there arepostovulatory follicles present in the ovaries, and if we know what proportion of females have postovulatoryfollicles, we can estimate spawning frequency. In a previous study, female barred sand bass were shown tospawn about every day and a half, but most samples were collected toward the tail end of peak spawningseason and so frequency intervals may have been underestimated. To re-examine spawning frequency, 248barred sand bass were collected from the Huntington Flats spawning grounds over the course of the spawningseason (June-August 2011), gonads were removed and histologically sectioned and stained to visualize theinternal gonadal structures and to identify postovulatory follicles. Histological section from ovary of a barred sand bass collected at the Huntington Flats spawning aggregation. Several stages of oocyte development are present. Postovulatory follicle is labelled. POFSpawning periodicitySpawning is triggered in many species by environmental cues. In marine environments, common proximatecues include lunar and/or tidal flux. These cues are important for species to achieve synchrony in mating and Page 5 of 14
  • may act as environmental indicators of optimal conditions for the survivorship of fertilized eggs or larvae.Barred sand bass may experience secondary environmental cues such as increased daylength or increasedtemperature that drive them to form spawning aggregations, but there may be proximate environmental cuesthroughout the spawning season that trigger spawning pulses. Understanding which cues trigger spawning inbarred sand bass is important for understanding variability in annual reproductive potential. Reproductivehormones fluctuate with respect to environmental cues and may peak during spawning pulses. By analyzinghormone concentrations in barred sand bass over the course of the breeding season, we may determine ifthere is a relationship with lunar cycles and/or tidal flux. To determine the relationship between environmentalcues and spawning, blood plasma was collected from 264 barred sand bass over the course of the 2011spawning season at the Huntington Flats spawning grounds to test for concentrations of estradiol,progesterone and 11-ketotestosteron. In addition we will also describe how hormone concentrations relate tofish size, gonad size and the presence/absence of post-ovulatory follicles produced by females followingspawning events.Batch fecundityBarred sand bass are serial spawners, meaning they may spawn many times over the course of a spawningseason. As in other serial spawners, barred sand bass ovaries contain eggs at several different stages ofdevelopment; however, only the hydrated eggs will be spawned. Batch fecundity refers to the number of eggsreleased in one spawning event. By determining the batch fecundity for several individuals over a wide sizerange, we can develop a batch fecundity-size relationship which will allow us to estimate the batch fecundity offemales measured in the field. Batch fecundity will be an important parameter for estimating reproductivepotential of barred sand bass. We collected gonads from 248 barred sand bass at the Huntington Flatsspawning grounds over the course of the 2011 spawning season. To determine batch fecundity for anindividual, we will count the number of hydrated eggs in the ovaries.Age Structure and ValidationThe age of most finfish can be determined by analysis of their otoliths. Otoliths are hard structures located inthe inner ear that grow as the fish grows by accreting calcium carbonate. The rate of accretion is affected byseasonal changes in growth rate such that calcium carbonate rings may form annually and can be countedsimilar to tree rings. We collected otoliths from 352 barred sand bass at Huntington Flats in 2011. By countingthe rings on the otoliths we can estimate the age structure of barred sand bass at the Huntington Flatsspawning aggregation in 2011. While this is a common ageing technique in fish, no one has ever validated thatthe ring pattern is annual across size classes in barred sand bass. To examine this, we will keep barred sandbass of several size classes in captivity for at least one year. Shortly upon capture we will inject a chemicalmarker called oxytetracyline (OTC) into the musculature that is naturally incorporated into the otoliths. After ayear, we will remove the otoliths and confirm the periodicity of the ring pattern.Findings to Date"Hotspot" AnalysisFive "hotspots" for barred sand bass catch were identified during the summer months, which are likely majorspawning grounds for this species. The proportion of catch varied among these "hotspots" from 2004 to 2008with Huntington Flats off Orange County and Imperial Beach ("I.B." Flats) on the U.S./Mexico border in SanDiego County being the top catch locations. On a finer scale, natural reefs (Horseshoe Kelp and Palos VerdesPeninsula) and artificial structures (reefs, oil rigs, and breakwaters) were more important catch locations in theHuntington Beach Flats area outside of peak spawning season. This suggests that areas with higher relief orstructure may serve as important habitat for barred sand bass before and after spawning activities. Page 6 of 14
  • Map of the Southern California Bight showing the number of barred sand bass kept and released by private/rental boats from 2004-2008 by 1x1 mile fishing block from June - August. The percentages represent the proportion of barred sand bass caught by county and standardized by area (1x1 mile fishing block).Spawning movementsTag and recapture dataThe DFG received 972 barred sand bass tag returns from tagging efforts conducted in the1960s and 1990s (an 11 percent recapture rate). Based on recapture frequencies, itappears that barred sand bass individuals remain on spawning grounds (e.g., HuntingtonBeach Flats) for at least one month during peak spawning season. Spawning residency atHuntington Flats was estimated by the frequency of returns over time; most same-yearreturns (82%, n = 141) were recaptured within a 35-d period, with secondary peaks inreturns at 28 and 56 days at liberty. Page 7 of 14
  • Frequency of tag returns over time for fish tagged during peak spawning season (Jun-Aug) at Huntington Flats and recaptured there within the same year.Following spawning season, some fish remain, while others move away. The average migration distance fromspawning locations was about 15 miles, although it appears that not all individuals at spawning groundsmigrate to the same locations after spawning season. Overall, the farthest recapture distance wasapproximately 57 miles. Annual patterns in the timing and occurrence of recaptures strongly suggest barredsand bass visit the same spawning grounds year after year.Recapture matrix of barred sand bass tagged duringpeak spawning season (Jun-Aug) and recaptured insubsequent peak spawning seasons. Page 8 of 14
  • Fine-scale movementsThree distinct patterns of behavior were identified and believed to be representative of non-spawning seasonbehavior, spawning season resting behavior, and spawning/courtship related behavior. Non-spawning seasonfish remained more closely associated with reef habitats than sand habitat, used smaller activity spaces, andremained more closely associated with the substratum than fish tracked during the spawning season.Fish tracked during the spawning season used significantly more area and volume, and preferred sand overavailable reef habitats than fish tracked during non-spawning season. Spawning season fish typically utilizedmore of the available water column; individuals made dives toward the seafloor throughout the day andremained close to the seafloor at night. During the day, they remained primarily within or just below thethermocline (~ 16 °C), but continually made directed dives towards the seafloor lasting 15-30 sec; a behaviorbelieved to be analogous to vertical spawning rushes demonstrated by other serranids. Fish tracked duringspawning season also demonstrated movement patterns similar to non-spawning season fish and was believedto be resting behavior. Box and whisker plots of day verses night activity space area during spawning and non- spawning seasons. Box and whisker plots showing distance from bottom during day and night periods for both spawning and non-spawning fish. Page 9 of 14
  • 3-D graphical representation of barred sand bass activity space usage during: (a) the non-spawning season, (b) presumed spawning/ courting behavior and (c) resting periods.Spawning HabitatSeafloor habitat and invertebrate densitiesNot surprising, our results indicated the Huntington Flats largely consists of a uniform, sandy substrate;however, our analysis of existing substrate maps also identified several previously unknown areas of hardsubstrate sparsely scattered in the study area. Exploratory SCUBA dives conducted by Department staffidentified barred sand bass on these reefs (some natural, some artificial) during peak spawning season, but wenever observed courtship or spawning behavior even though dives occurred during daylight hours when barredsand bass are reported to spawn. Although there is potential barred sand bass spawn over reefs, the reefs mayactually serve as areas for reproductive staging, resting, refuge, and foraging during spawning season.The distribution of observed CPFV activity on barred sand bass spawning aggregations did not appear relatedto the distribution and (or) relative abundances of megabenthic invertebrates and benthic infauna. Fishermenhave long associated barred sand bass spawning aggregations with “clam beds”; however video sea floorfootage taken during opportunistic events on the Flats did not reveal evidence of large clam beds in the area.Although we did not collect sand bass stomachs for stomach content analysis, barred sand have been shownto shift their diet to predominantly epibenthic fishes and crabs as they become adults. Therfore, although clamsoccurred frequently in our benthic survey of the Flats, barred sand bass probably form aggregations over sandflats for reasons other than the presence of clams or other soft bottom prey items. Page 10 of 14
  • Hard and soft substrate mapped within the Huntington Flats study area in southern California in 2008. Datasource: California Seafloor Mapping Project. Some areas beyond state waters (3 nm) were not available.Circled numbers reference small patches of hard substrate within the study area. AR=artificial reef.Oceanographic conditions at Huntington FlatsThe development of a strong thermocline occurred during late July and early August and coincided with thehighest, sustained catch of barred sand bass during peak spawning season. Thermocline temperaturesmeasured within areas of presumed aggregation activity were significantly warmer than the averagethermocline temperatures measured throughout the area during June, July, and August. In subsequent years,barred sand bass tracked during spawning season were associated with the thermocline during the daytime(see Fine-scale Movements above). Previous research on the optimal thermal habitat for barred sand bass eggand larval development suggests warmer thermocline temperatures may increase larval fitness. Comparison of average thermocline temperatures on the Huntington Flats in June, July, and August, and during sampling events located within barred sand bass aggregation fishing activity, 2008. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals, the asterisk denotes a statistical difference among means.Daily catches of barred sand bass by the commercial passenger fishing vessel (CPFV) fleet were positivelyassociated with fishing effort and tidal flux, and negatively associated with chlorophyll-a concentrations. Thesefactors explained 72% of the variability in barred sand bass catch over the peak spawning season. Periods ofhigh tidal flux occurred during both new and full moon phases; thus, the observed peaks in barred sand basscatch may represent a reproductive behavioral response to tidal amplitudes more so than moon phase. Seasurface currents were generally low during peak barred sand bass catches; however, Huntington Flatsexperienced large tidal fluxes of several feet.The negative relationship between barred sand bass CPFV catches and chlorophyll-a concentrations is lessclear. Chlorophyll-a concentrations are typically used as a proxy for phytoplankton abundance and tend to beinversely related to light transmissitivity in this area. A negative relationship with chlorophyll-a may reflect apreference of barred sand bass aggregations for increased water clarity, or it may reflect avoidance ofplanktivous forage fishes and zooplankton egg predators. Page 11 of 14
  • Barred sand bass CPFV CPUE in the greater Huntington Flats area (CDFG fishing blocks 738 and 739), Balboa Pier oceanographic measurements (sea surface temperature, tidal flux, chlorophyll a concentration), and new and full moon periods during peak spawning season, 2008.Reproductive ParametersSpawning frequencyWe are currently analyzing histology slides. Stay tuned!Spawning periodicityWe are currently analyzing hormone data. Stay tuned!Batch FecundityWe are currently analyzing fecundity data. Stay tuned!Age Structure and ValidationWe are currently processing otoliths. Stay tuned!Scientific Presentations and PublicationsUpdated June 7, 2012PresentationsPostersGliniak, H.L., C.F. Valle, E.T. Jarvis, O. Horning, C. Linardich. (October 2010). Temporal trends in southernCalifornia surf fish populations 2007 to 2009. Mtg. American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists meeting,SCRIPPS Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA. Page 12 of 14
  • Jarvis, E.T., C. Linardich, C.F. Valle. (October 2010). Spawning-related movements of barred sand bass,Paralabrax nebulifer, in southern California: interpretations from two decades of historical tag and recapturedata. Mtg. American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists, La Jolla, CA.Gliniak, H.L., C. Valle, E.T. Jarvis, O. Horning, C. Linardich. (May 2009). Temporal trends in southern Californiasurf fish populations. Ann. Mtg. Southern California Academy of Sciences, Palos Verdes, CA.Horning, O., E.T. Jarvis, C.F. Valle. (May 2009). Spatial and temporal analysis of barred sand bass catch in thesouthern California private/rental boat fishery (2004-2008). Ann. Mtg. Southern California Academy ofSciences, Palos Verdes, CA.Haas, D.L., S.M. Hoobler. (April 2009). Trapping and mark-recapture of nearshore fishes in Carmel Bay. Ann.Mtg. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Currents Symposium, Monterey, CA.Lucas, S., C.F. Valle (April 2009). Mark and recapture studies of nearshore groundfishes at Carmel PinnaclesState Marine Reserve. Ann. Mtg. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Currents Symposium, Monterey,CA.Linardich, C., E.T. Jarvis, C.F. Valle, P. Young. (May 2008). Using historical tagging data (1962-1971) toanalyze the spawning related movements of barred sand bass, Paralabrax nebulifer (Serranidae) in southernCalifornia. Ann. Mtg. Southern California Academy of Sciences, Carson, CA.Osorio, D.A., M. Bergen. (2006). Informing nearshore fishery management and monitoring CaliforniasMPAs. American Academy of Underwater Sciences Diving for Science Symposium, Friday Harbor, WA.Oral PresentationsJarvis E.T., H.L. Gliniak, C.F.Valle. (2012). Fishery analysis on the basses in southern California. MarineResources Committee Meeting, Santa Barbara, CA.Haas, D.L. (2009). Status of the fisheries: Skates and rays. Ann. Conf. California Cooperative OceanicFisheries Investigations, Pacific Grove, CA.Jarvis, E.T., C. Linardich, C.F. Valle. (2009). Spawning-related movements of barred sand bass, Paralabraxnebulifer, in southern California: interpretations from two decades of historical tag and recapture data. Ann.Mtg. Southern California Academy of Sciences, Palos Verdes, CA.Jarvis, E.T., C.G. Lowe. (2008). Angling-induced barotrauma and two-day post-recompression survival insouthern California rockfishes. 15th Western Groundfish Conference, Santa Cruz, CA.Jarvis, E.T., C.G. Lowe. (2008). Bloating and floating don’t have to spell death: studying barotrauma inrockfishes. Sitka Conservation Society Backwoods and Waters Seminar Series, Sitka, AK. Co-sponsored bythe Alaska Conservation Foundation, the Sitka Conservation Society, and the Sitka Marine StewardshipRoundtable.Taniguchi, I., D.A. Osorio, D. Stein. (2007). Cooperative dive assessment of the red abalone resource at SanMiguel Island, CA. American Academy of Underwater Sciences Diving for Science Symposium, Miami, FL.PublicationsLowe, C.G., M.E. Blasius, E.T. Jarvis, T.J. Mason, G.D. Goodmanlowe, J.B. O’Sullivan. (2012). Historic fisheryinteractions with white sharks in the Southern California Bight. In: Domeier, M.L. (ed.) Global perspectives onthe biology and life history of the white shark (pp. 169-198). Florida: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.Williams, J. P., J. T. Claisse, D. J. Pondella II, L. Medeiros, C. F. Valle and M. A. Shane. 2012. Patternsof Life History and Habitat Use of an Important Recreational Fishery Species, Spotfin Croaker, and TheirPotential Fishery Implications, Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and EcosystemScience, 4:1, 71-84. Page 13 of 14
  • Haas, D.L. (2010). Skates and rays. In: Larinto, T. (ed.). Status of the Fisheries Report – An Update Through2008. CA Dept. of Fish and Game [portable document file] p. 1-17.Jarvis, E.T., C. Linardich, C.F. Valle. (2010). Spawning-related movements of barred sand bass, Paralabraxnebulifer, in southern California: Interpretations from two decades of historical tag and recapture data. SouthernCalifornia Academy of Sciences Bulletin, 109:123-143.Karpov, K.K., M. Bergen, J.J. Geibel, P.M. Law, C.F. Valle, D. Fox. (2010). Prospective (a priori) poweranalysis for detecting changes in density when sampling with strip transects. California Fish and Game 96:Haas, D.L. (2009). Skates and rays. In: Sweetnam, D. (ed.). Review of selected California fisheries for 2008:Coastal Pelagic Finfish, Market Squid, Ocean Salmon, Groundfish, California Spiny Lobster, Spot Prawn, WhiteSeabass, Kelp Bass, Thresher Shark, Skates and Rays, Kellet’s Whelk, and Sea Cucumber. CalCOFI Reports50, p. 36-39.Jarvis, E.T., H.L. Gliniak, O. Horning, C. Linardich. (2009). The occurrence of juvenile Mexican lookdown,Selene brevoortii (Gill 1863), in Seal Beach, California. California Fish and Game, 95:188-192.Lowe, C.G., K.M. Anthony, E.T. Jarvis, L.F. Bellquist, M.S. Love. (2009). Site fidelity of characteristic fishspecies at offshore petroleum platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 1:71-89.Jarvis, E.T., C.G. Lowe. 2008. The effects of barotrauma on the catch-and-release survival of southernCalifornia nearshore and shelf rockfishes (Scorpaenidae, Sebastes spp.). Canadian Journal of Fisheries andAquatic Sciences, 65:1286–1296.Pondella II, D.J., J.T. Froeschke, L.S. Wetmore, E. Miller, C.F. Valle, L. Medeiros. (2008). DemographicParameters of Yellowfin Croaker, Umbrina Roncador (Perciformes: Sciaenidae), From the Southern CaliforniaBight. Pacific Science 62:555-568.Jarvis, E., K. Schiff, L. Sabin, M.J. Allen. 2007. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in pelagic forage fishes and squid ofthe southern California Bight. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 26:2290-2298.Ugoretz, J., D.A. Osorio. (2006). "California Marine Life Protection Act and Marine Protected Areas." The Slate,Issue 3, American Academy of Underwater Sciences. Page 14 of 14