12/12/2012Kenya Amilcar | AP Environmental Science | Period 1
Amilcar1 APES Research Paper Ethiopia Located on the horn of Africa is one of the most populous landlocked countries in theworld, Ethiopia.Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somalia to the east,Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. It is the second-most populousnation (after Nigeria) on the African continent, with about 84,734,262 inhabitants, and the tenthlargest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2. The agricultural sector plays a major role in theeconomic and social life of Ethiopia and is a cornerstone of their economy.About 85 percent ofEthiopia’s population is employed in agriculture, especially farming.Within the rich fertile land ofEthiopia dwell rich reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, oil and natural gas. This sectorcontributes about 40 percent of total gross domestic product (GDP); among which livestock andtheir products account for about 20 percent. Within agriculture, some 60 percent of the output isfrom crops, with livestock and forestry producing 30 percent and 7 percent, respectively.Of thetotal land area, about 20 percent is under cultivation while the rest of the land is too rugged, dry,or infertile for agriculture or any use other than pasturage. As a result, Ethiopia’s land is overexploited and faces the effects of overgrazing, deforestation, erosion, and most importantly,habitat destruction. Ethiopias commercial energy resource is oil. Despite reports of natural gasreserves and traces of petroleum, Ethiopia still depends on imported crude oil, which accountedfor an average of about l2 percent of the value of imports between l982- l987. Overgrazing and deforestation will have a major effect on the amount of naturalresources present in Ethiopia.The causes of degradation are primarily the demand for more landfor agriculture, fuel and construction as well as for grazing grounds. An increase in overgrazingand deforestation devalued Ethiopia’s land, and, as a result, Ethiopia is one of the leastdeveloped countries in the world. In attempt to resolve this dilemma the Conservation Strategyof Ethiopia (CSE) was launched in 1989. The Conservation Strategy of Ethiopia’s aim wastostudy the natural resources, environmental imperatives and development demands in the countryand to harmonize them. The harmonization process was to be activated through the formulationof an appropriate environmental policy, which was to be translated into actions through thedevelopment of laws and the setting of standards. As a result of Ethiopia’s conservation strategythe Ethiopian Environmental Protection Authority (EPA)established the proclamation No.
Amilcar29/1995 which aims is to “… improve and enhance the health and quality of life of all Ethiopiansand to promote sustainable social and economic development through the sound managementand use of natural, human-made and cultural resources and the environment as a whole so as tomeet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generationsto meet their own needs”. Ethiopia is known for a wide variety of animal species, but many have been threatenedwith extinction due to large-scale poaching and loss of their natural habitat through agriculturalproduction. There are a number of national and international non-governmental organizationsinvolved in the conservation, management and development of protected areas. Of thediminutive amount of animal preservation efforts active in Ethiopia is the Natural ResourcesConservation and Development Main Department (NRCDMD). The NRCDMD is the EthiopianWildlife Conservation Organization (EWCO), which is directly responsible for theestablishment, administration and management of national parks, sanctuaries, wildlife reservesand controlled hunting areas. As a result, rare animal species particular to Ethiopia and onceconsidered at risk of extinction have been successfully protected by the Ethiopian WildlifeConservation Organization and have increased in numbers. Rather than over exploiting the beautiful land of Ethiopia let us work towards restoringthe land. Ethiopia is one of the few African countries with the potential to produce hydroelectricand geothermal power.The main sources of this potential were thought to be the Abay (BlueNile; 79.9 billion kilowatts), the Shebele (2l.6 billion kilowatts), and the Omo (l6.l billionkilowatts). The remaining 25.9 billion kilowatts would come from rivers such as the Tekezé,Awash, Baro, Genale, and Mereb. Through using alternative resources and preserving the land,we will be able to bring back the attributes that we lack today.
Amilcar3 Work Cited "Ethiopia - Water Pollution."Ethiopia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2012. <http://www.indexmundi.com/facts/ethiopia/water-pollution>. "Ethiopia-Energy Resources."Ethiopia-Energy Resources.N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2012. <http://www.mongabay.com/history/ethiopia/ethiopia-energy_resources.html>."Parks.it - Parks, Reserves, and Other Protected Areas in Ethiopia."Parks.it - Parks, Reserves, and Other Protected Areas in Ethiopia.N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2012. <http://www.parks.it/world/ET/Eindex.html>. "Ethiopia Plants."Africa Overland Tours.N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2012. <http://www.overlandingafrica.com/ethiopia/plants/>.