Paper 4: Ethical Environment of Nano-Science (Chunliang)

1,821 views
1,680 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,821
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Paper 4: Ethical Environment of Nano-Science (Chunliang)

  1. 1. The 3 rd International Workshop on Innovation and Performance Management, 1-4 July,2010, University of Kent A study on the Evaluation of Ethical Environment of Science and technology Fan Chunliang Institute of Policy and Management, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>I. The ethical and social issues of Science and technology </li></ul><ul><li>II. The ethical environment of science and technology </li></ul><ul><li>III. Main indexes in evaluation of ethical environment of science and technology </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Case Study: the evaluation on Ethical Environment of Nanotechnology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ⅰ . The ethical and social issues of Science and technology <ul><li>1. The ethical issues related to science and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, the ethical issues related to science and technology can be classfied into three categories: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Scientists’ ethical behaviors, referring to integrity and moral norms in scientific research. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Ethical issues caused by scientific research and technology development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. human embryonic stem cell experiment and GM corps planting may not only cause risks of human health and the environment, but also challenge the social moral ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(3) Ethical conflicts between scientific field and other fields. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. The conflict between the openness of scientific research and the confidentiality in commercial field. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. (1) Ethical issues related to science and technology <ul><li>Ⅲ Ethical conflicts between scientific field and other fields. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. The conflict between the openness of scientific research and the confidentiality in commercial field. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this study, we mainly discuss the issues of Ⅱ, what is ethical issues caused by scientific research and technology development. And the issues of Ⅲ would also be involved. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Ethical Issues of Science and Technology <ul><li>Ethical issues caused by scientific research and technology development includes two aspects : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) What should be done? Should it be done? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. should the human embryonic stem cell experiment be conducted? Should nanotechnology be developed? And why ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2)How should it be done? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. what procedure and rules should be obey to conduct human embryonic stem cell experiment? How to develop nanotechnology safely? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first one is substantive ethical issue, and the second one is procedure ethical issue. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. The ethical and social issues of science and technology <ul><li>In reality, ethical issue of S&T do not exist alone, and it always connect with other issues such as law, social, and political issues, etc . All of these issues may be called as ethical and social issues of science and technology. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example: the ethical and other related issues of GMO <ul><ul><ul><li>GMOs are natural or unnatural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GMOs’ safety problems (human safety and environmental safety) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patent of genes & GMOs ( private interest VS public interest) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human experiment of GMOs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right to know and select for the ordinary people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercialization of GMOs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal issues of GMOs ( who can make decision for the production of GMOs) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The ethical and social issues of science and technology could includes many issues as following: <ul><li>Risks and safety issues caused by the development of S&T, including health and life, environment and workplace, etc. Such risks are global, long-term, and unknown. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues about violating human’s dignity , e.g., the ethical status of human clone , chimaera, and human embryonic stem cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues about violating human’s rights , e.g., privacy and confidentiality of genetic information, informed consent related to human experiment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences on normal ethical relationship between people, e.g., family ethical problems caused by Assisted Reproductive Technology, and individual consent and family consent in clinical experiment of human genetics. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Fairness issues : the fairness of the usage of information technology, the fairness of the allocation of global resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social issues caused by genetic discrimination, trade whistleblowing, interest conflict, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences on environment and ecological system . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious issues about “acting as the God”, and other themes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophical issues relevant to genetic determinism, medical purposes, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy management issues relevant to the distribution of R&D resources and ethic review system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal issues relevant to legislation and law enforcement of new emerging technologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition and Cooperation for resources between nations. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Because the science and technology bring about many ethical and social issues, which influence the every aspect of social and culture environment greatly, the related factors of idea, institution ,organization and culture with these issues constitute a ethical environment of science and technology which affected and regulated the S&T development. </li></ul>
  11. 11. II The ethical environment for S&T <ul><li>1. Definition of ethical environment for S&T </li></ul><ul><li>Definition :Generic term of various factors associated with cognizing and solving ethical and social issues of S&T, including cognitive (social ideology, mainstream values, etc.), institutional (ethics rules, review mechanism, laws and regulations), organizational (rules and cultures of shareholders), social factors (knowledge and interest of different actors). </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2 Composition of scientific ethical environment
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ethical environment for science and technolgy comprises the whole chain from science policy decision to scientific research, technological development, even to application and communication. It mainly consists of 11 factors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International science ethic norms; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mainstream values associated with scientific development; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National policies; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice mechanisms in policy making; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related laws and regulations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethic guidance rules and review mechanism; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists’ ethical sense and social responsibility; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The public’s ethical sense about science and technology; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research on ELSI of science and technology; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media report about scientific ethics; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science ethics education. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 3. Function of scientific ethical environment <ul><li>Ethical environment of scientific development has four functions as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding of ethical issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication of ethical issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solution of ethical issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education of ethical issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, ethical environment plays a regulation role (inhibition, limitation, encouragement) in the development of science and technology. </li></ul>
  15. 15. III. Main indexes in evaluation of ethical environment of science and technology <ul><li>Based on the study of compositions of ethical environment of S&T, we may use those principal factors as major indexes in evaluation of ethical environment and propose measurement indicators . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>international science ethical norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- whether or not participate in contracting and negotiation concerning about important conventions? </li></ul><ul><li>--- whether or not participate in important science statements and conversations? </li></ul><ul><li>--- whether or not accept opinions of crucial science statements? Or similar opinions of domestic documents? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.mainstream values associated with scientific development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- what’s the relation between values of belief (traditional culture) and scientific ethical issues? Is it conductive to understanding, exploration, and solution of these issues? </li></ul><ul><li>--- what’s the relation between social ideology and scientific ethical issues? Is it conductive to understanding, exploration, and solution of these issues? </li></ul><ul><li>--- what’s the relation between business value and scientific ethical issues? Is it conductive to understanding, exploration, and solution of these issues? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>3. National policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- Is there any specific statement about scientific ethical issues in authorized national (technology) policies? </li></ul><ul><li>--- Does the central government publish authorized policies and reports in scientific ethical issues? </li></ul><ul><li>--- Do the central government or technology department leaders make statements about scientific ethical issues in some high-level speech? </li></ul><ul><li>4 Advice mechanisms in policy making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- Are there Advice mechanisms in policies conductive to the discussion about scientific ethical issues? </li></ul><ul><li>--- Whether or not does the government set up any specific consultative committee to deal with ethical issues? Do they carry out effective consultation? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Related laws and regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- Referring to developed countries, are there related laws and regulations in principal fields of science and technology? How effective is the implementation of them? </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>6.Ethical guidance rules and ethical mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- Referring to developed countries, are there ethic guidance rules in principal fields of science and technology? How effective is the implementation of them? </li></ul><ul><li>--- Does the central government establish ethic review mechanisms? How effective is the implementation of them? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Scientists’ ethical sense and social responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- How are the scientists’ ethical senses in those ethical sensitive fields? </li></ul><ul><li>--- Are there any guidelines or statements about scientists’ social responsibilities within scientific community? </li></ul><ul><li>8. the public’s scientific ethical sense and participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- How are the public’s ethical senses? </li></ul><ul><li>--- Are there any contents about science ethics in those scientific popularization activities? </li></ul><ul><li>--- Are there any institutions encouraging the participation of public in science and technology decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>--- Which types of activities encouraging the participation of public in science and technology decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>--- How effective is the participation of public in science and technology decisions? </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>9. Research on ELSI of S&T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- Are there researches about ELSI? </li></ul><ul><li>--- What’s the relation between ELSI research and related science and technology decision? </li></ul><ul><li>10.The media report about scientific ethical issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- Generally, how is the coverage of the media on scientific ethical issues? </li></ul><ul><li>11. Science ethics education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement indicators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>--- Are there science ethics education programs in some technological fields closely related to ethics of science? </li></ul><ul><li>Note: These indexes play various roles and importance in different areas, for example, ethical review mechanisms are crucial in life science, while there is no need to set up this mechanism in nanotechnology. </li></ul>
  20. 20. IV. Case Study: the evaluation on Ethical Environment of Nanotechnology
  21. 21. <ul><li>Nanotechnology and its ethical and social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology has been the most rapidly growing S&T area since beginning of the new century. It has been widely regarded as the promising technology which would lead to the next industrial revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology is research and technology development conducted at the nanoscale (10 -9 metres, or one billionth of a metre.) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Nanotechnology has many potential applications,but it also bring about some ethical and social issues: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Environment ,health and safety issues </li></ul><ul><li>2) ethical ,law and other social issues </li></ul><ul><li>3) education </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The evaluation on Ethical Environment of Nanotechnology of China Based on the finding of studies on the ethical and social issues of nanotechnology in U.S and European countries (Jennifer Pelley and Marc Saner 2009) and our investigation on the same issues in China, we have results as following. Jennifer Pelley and Marc Saner Jennifer Pelley and Marc Saner. International Approaches to the Regulatory Governance of Nanotechnology [R] Regulatory Governance Initiative, Carleton University. April 2009, 49 </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2. Comparison of ethical environments of nanotechnology between China and other countries(con.) NO. Yes. USA: Act for Nanotenology Research and Development in 21th Century 3.Is there any special law or regulation? No. National Development Outline on Nanotechnology (2001-2010) Yes. Most countries among 24 OECD countries, have policy statements about planning nanotechnology. Yes. NNI of USA; Nanotechnology Strategy of EU. 2. Is there any specific statement about nano ethical issues in authorized national (technology) policies? Is there any part about nano ethical issues in development strategies and plans? No. S&T constitutes the primary productive force. Frontier technologies are always good. “ Nano” is advanced, so it’s good. Yes. S&T is a double-edged sword. Should develop nanotechnolgy responsibly. 1.Are mainstream values related to S&T conductive to understanding and solving these issues ? China International ( European and American Developed countries ) Factor of Ethical Environment ( Index )
  25. 25. Comparison of ethical environments of nanotechnology between China and other countries(con,) Yes (team, labs, and programs). It’s better in safety, but common in ethics research.   No integral strategy. Yes. Including sociality (ethical, legal and social impacts) and safety (public health, environmental and workplace safety and risks) Yes. 7. Are there any researches about nano ethics, social themes or safety? Are there strategies about nano developing safe? Yes. Yes. 6. Is there academic seminar about nano ethics, social themes or safety? Yes. CAS and CAE Never carried out consultation research about nano ethics? Yes. UK Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering; USA PCAST. 5. Is there consultation mechanisms? Is there consultation about nano ethics carried out? No. Yes. EU: Behavior Standards for Conducting Nano S&T Research Responsibly (2008) 4. Are there guidance rules for nano research ethics?
  26. 26. (2) Comparison of ethical environments of nanotechnology between China and other nations Weak. Strong. 10. How about the media reporting nanotechnology? No. Good. Especially, UK. 9. How about the public participating in nano activities? Better. Famous scientists give speeches. Better. Scientific community publish reports/ reports of persons in scientific community 8. How about nano scientists’ ethical sense and social responsibility?
  27. 27. <ul><li>It can be concluded that the ethical awareness of China’ science community has been raised , from experts’ concerns about the nano safety, open discussion and communication of these issues in variety of relevant meetings, to the publication of specific executable measures of nano standards and safety evaluation. </li></ul>
  28. 28. But there are still some problems to be solved: <ul><li>1.Strategic Policy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research need to be made. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Compared with safety issues , the r esearches on ethical, law and social issues should be strengthend </li></ul><ul><li>3. Dialogues between science society and the public/ public participation should improved. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Thanks for your attention! </li></ul>

×