Presented by<br />Bren Codie Belen<br />GabryellRicafrente<br />Anthony Tran<br />James Vuong<br />Jay Xiong<br />Art Reso...
ASIAN ART<br />
Chinese Art<br />Some findings date back to fourth millennium B.C.E<br />Great Wall of China <br />Originally had a utilit...
Terracotta Army<br />
Chinese Art<br />Tang Dynasty<br />618 – 907 C.E.<br />Ink drawings<br />Ceramic sculptures<br />Modern Chinese Art<br />P...
Indian Art<br />Oldest artistic traditions in the world<br />Influenced by Greek art and Buddhism<br />Reflects Hinduism<b...
Japanese Art<br />Influenced international art world<br />Art style<br />Isometric perspective<br />Flat areas of color<br...
AFRICAN AND OCEANIC ART<br />
African Art<br />Northern Africa art considered Western<br />History differs from South Africa<br />Oldest examples of Afr...
African Art<br />Study of many African art limited for a variety of reasons<br />Fiber and wood are perishable<br />Europe...
Oceanic Art<br />Oceania includes Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia<br />Many objects lost<br />Polynesia<br />Tattooin...
ISLAMIC ART<br />
Islamic Art<br />Islam is a major religion<br />Valued art objects include copies of the Quran or containers that hold it<...
Dome of the Rock<br />
THE AMERICAS<br />
The Americas<br />Common art in museums, formerly thought to be simple craftsmanship<br />Great civilizations: Olmec, Tolt...
THE ELEMENTS OF ART<br />FORMAL QUALITIES OF ART<br />
Elements of Art: Line<br />Line- the path of a point moving through space, create a stable and static feeling<br />Length,...
Elements of Art:Shape and Form<br />Shape- defines the two-dimensional area of an object<br />Form- three-dimensional obje...
Elements of Art:Perspective<br />Perspective- illusion of depth, use of space in two-dimensional artworks to create three-...
The Delivery of the Keys by Pietro Perugino<br />
Elements of Art:Color<br />Hue- name of the color<br />Color wheel- organization of hues into a visual scheme, concepts de...
Elements of Art:Color (pt. 2)<br />Intensity- brightness or purity of a color, can be lowered by mixing or adding colors<b...
Elements of Art:Texture<br />Texture- how things feel or how we think they feel if touched<br />Actual texture- ceramics, ...
Elements of Art:Composition<br />Composition- artist’s organization of the elements of art<br />Rhythm- the principle that...
Elements of Art:Composition (pt. 2)<br />Focal point- an element that contrasts with the rest of the composition, more dom...
THE ELEMENTS OF ART<br />PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES<br />
Processes and Techniques<br />Forms of two dimensional art processes<br />-Have height and width, but no significant depth...
Drawing<br />The most basic<br />Variety of drawing media (i.e. pencil, ink, charcoal, etc.) and surfaces (paper, walls, e...
Veronica by Albrecht Durer<br />
Drawing (Continued)<br />Ink can be thinned down with water to whatever  shade value is desired<br />Colored pencils and p...
Printmaking<br />A group of mechanically aided two-dimensional processes that permit the production of multiple original a...
Printmaking (continued)<br />Lithography: The process of drawing an image with a waxy pencil/crayon on a stone, zinc, or a...
Painting<br />Covers a wide variety of media and techniques<br />Composed of three different materials:<br />Pigments: fin...
Painting (continued)<br />Oil paints not widely used until 1440s; tempera was used throughout history<br />Tempera: water-...
Painting (continued)<br />Egyptian grave markers used encausticpaints, wax-based paints fused with the surface by hot iron...
Sculpture<br />Created in four ways: carving, modeling, casting, and construction<br />Can be freestanding, (Michelangelo’...
Michelangelo’s Pieta<br />
Structures (continued)<br />Unfired clay. Wax sculptures can be used for a basis for a cast. They are molded by plaster; t...
Mixed Media<br />A category of artworks where several art media are used.<br />Sometimes miscellaneous objects (such as fa...
Performance<br />The art in which the artists engage themselves in some kind of performance; sometimes involves an audienc...
Craft and Folk Art<br />Terms used to discuss art forms that are largely utilitarian<br />Pottery is a medium based upon t...
Architecture<br />The art and science of designing and constructing buildings<br />Architects<br />Materials that could be...
EUROPEANS IN AFRICA<br />
Early Explorers<br />Textiles and sculptures<br />Portugal’s expansion into Africa caused enormous changes on both contine...
Europe and Slave Trading<br />Began in early 1440s by the Portuguese.<br />Due to the rise of large-scale sugar production...
The Slave Trade by Auguste-Francois Biard<br />
Africa and Slavery<br />Already in Africa<br />African slaves had more rights<br />Asanti, Benin, and Kongo Kingdoms suppl...
African Expansion<br />Began in the 1880s after the decline of slave trade<br />Europeans had control over most of Africa ...
European Changes<br />Assimilation of West African colonies<br />Forced to speak French in official dealings<br />African ...
Nkisi Sculpture<br />
African Changes<br />African countries win independence<br />Ghana, followed by other West African nations including Niger...
Selected Work<br />Lidded Saltcellar – “Sapi-Portuguese”<br />[sierra leone, fifteenth-sixteenth century]<br />
Lidded Saltcellar<br />Appealed to foreign visitors<br />Identified as “Sapi-Portuguese”<br />Sapiproduced a great number ...
Lidded Saltcellar<br />
QUESTIONS<br />
Question #1<br />The perspective that the Japanese art style primarily uses is:<br />A. Isometric perspective<br />B. Line...
Question #1<br />The perspective that the Japanese art style primarily uses is:<br />A. Isometric perspective<br />B. Line...
Question #2<br />True or False: <br />Hue is the name of the color.<br />
Question #2<br />True or False: <br />Hue is the name of the color.<br />True<br />
Question #3<br />Slip is:<br />A. Another term for ink<br />B. A type of art style<br />C. An aspect of printmaking<br />D...
Question #3<br />Slip is:<br />A. Another term for ink<br />B. A type of art style<br />C. An aspect of printmaking<br />D...
Question #4<br />True or False: Lithography is the process in which a photograph or other image is adhered to a silk/synth...
Question #4<br />	True or False: Lithography is the process in which a photographor other image is adhered to a silk/synth...
Question #5<br />The lidded saltcellar is identified as:<br />A. Sapi-French<br />B. Sapi-Portuguese<br />C. Sapi-German<b...
Question #5<br />The lidded saltcellar is identified as:<br />A. Sapi-French<br />B. Sapi-Portuguese<br />C. Sapi-German<b...
END<br />
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Acadec Art Presentation Group 2

  1. 1. Presented by<br />Bren Codie Belen<br />GabryellRicafrente<br />Anthony Tran<br />James Vuong<br />Jay Xiong<br />Art Resource GuidePages 28 – 47<br />
  2. 2. ASIAN ART<br />
  3. 3. Chinese Art<br />Some findings date back to fourth millennium B.C.E<br />Great Wall of China <br />Originally had a utilitarian function<br />Now really just for show<br />Terracotta Army<br />Monument to the first emperor<br />Emperor of Qin<br />Clay buried as part of his tomb<br />
  4. 4. Terracotta Army<br />
  5. 5. Chinese Art<br />Tang Dynasty<br />618 – 907 C.E.<br />Ink drawings<br />Ceramic sculptures<br />Modern Chinese Art<br />Propaganda during communist revolution<br />Less political today<br />
  6. 6. Indian Art<br />Oldest artistic traditions in the world<br />Influenced by Greek art and Buddhism<br />Reflects Hinduism<br />Lovely, lively, and sinuous style<br />
  7. 7. Japanese Art<br />Influenced international art world<br />Art style<br />Isometric perspective<br />Flat areas of color<br />Well-known for printmaking<br />
  8. 8. AFRICAN AND OCEANIC ART<br />
  9. 9. African Art<br />Northern Africa art considered Western<br />History differs from South Africa<br />Oldest examples of African art include cave paintings in present day Namibia from 23000 B.C.E<br />Nok civilization (500 B.C.E.)<br />Lifelike terracotta sculptures<br />Benin Kingdom (900 C.E.)<br />Art associated with a rich life at the royal court<br />Cast bronze portrait heads for ancestral altars<br />Objects that reinforced the oba, or Benin king<br />Treasures destroyed by the British in 1897 raid<br />
  10. 10. African Art<br />Study of many African art limited for a variety of reasons<br />Fiber and wood are perishable<br />European traders and colonial traders<br />Westerners thought African artwork was threatening to colonial pursuit<br />Masks<br />Dan and Bwa cultural groups<br />Used for performances<br />Fang Mask<br />
  11. 11. Oceanic Art<br />Oceania includes Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia<br />Many objects lost<br />Polynesia<br />Tattooing<br />Other body arts<br />Melanesia<br />Asmat cultural group<br />Art related to warfare<br />Carved masks<br />Used in ceremonies for summoning spirits<br />Asmat Shield<br />
  12. 12. ISLAMIC ART<br />
  13. 13. Islamic Art<br />Islam is a major religion<br />Valued art objects include copies of the Quran or containers that hold it<br />Islamic art<br />Non-figurative<br />Abstract or calligraphic decoration on most Islamic art objects<br />Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem<br />687 – 692 C.E.<br />Old example of Islamic architecture<br />
  14. 14. Dome of the Rock<br />
  15. 15. THE AMERICAS<br />
  16. 16. The Americas<br />Common art in museums, formerly thought to be simple craftsmanship<br />Great civilizations: Olmec, Toltec, Maya, Inca, and Aztec<br />Pyramid of the Sun in Mexico<br />Conditions for preservation not present; art from only 2,000 years ago<br />Southwest Native Americans: pueblos – dwelling with over a hundred rooms and multiple stories <br />Pyramid of the Sun<br />
  17. 17. THE ELEMENTS OF ART<br />FORMAL QUALITIES OF ART<br />
  18. 18. Elements of Art: Line<br />Line- the path of a point moving through space, create a stable and static feeling<br />Length, width, and direction / hard or soft / bold or indistinct / uniform or varying / solid or dotted<br />Vertical lines- moves the eyes upward<br /> Ex: Medieval churches with high arched ceilings<br />Horizontal lines- line of the horizon: suggests a feeling of tranquility and peace<br /> jagged lines: creates a sense of activity <br />
  19. 19. Elements of Art:Shape and Form<br />Shape- defines the two-dimensional area of an object<br />Form- three-dimensional object with length, width, and depth<br />Geometric vs. “organic” – precision and stability vs. free form and rhythm<br />Positive space- the space objects, shapes, or forms occupy in an artwork<br />Negative space- the area around the positive space<br />Sculpture: freestanding- fully in the round<br /> relief- projects from a background that is part <br /> of the sculpture<br />High relief- projecting boldly from the surface<br />Low relief- projecting only slightly from the surface<br />
  20. 20. Elements of Art:Perspective<br />Perspective- illusion of depth, use of space in two-dimensional artworks to create three-dimensionality<br />Techniques: shading, highlighting, object placement, size manipulation, overlap<br />Aerial/atmospheric perspective- takes into account the ways fog, smoke, and airborne particles change appearance from a distance<br />Linear perspective- 3-D effect created by lines receding into the distance<br />
  21. 21. The Delivery of the Keys by Pietro Perugino<br />
  22. 22. Elements of Art:Color<br />Hue- name of the color<br />Color wheel- organization of hues into a visual scheme, concepts developed by Sir Isaac Newton<br />Primary colors: red, blue, and yellow<br />Secondary colors: formed from the mixture of two primary colors (orange, green, violet)<br />Tertiary colors: formed from a primary and an adjacent secondary color (yellow-green, red-violet)<br />Value- lightness or darkness of a color, can change by adding white or black<br />Neutrals- black and white<br />
  23. 23. Elements of Art:Color (pt. 2)<br />Intensity- brightness or purity of a color, can be lowered by mixing or adding colors<br />19th century: discovered the use of color schemes (red- brighter or darker depending on surrounding colors)<br />Western art: Warm colors- red, orange, yellow; Cool colors- green, blue, violet<br />Local color- “true” color of an object or area in normal daylight<br />Optical color- the effect special lighting has on colors<br />Arbitrary color- colors chosen for emotional or aesthetic appeal<br />
  24. 24. Elements of Art:Texture<br />Texture- how things feel or how we think they feel if touched<br />Actual texture- ceramics, string, stone, etc.<br />Visual texture- patterns of lines or shape that suggest texture (e.g. contrast of light and dark to make surface look rough)<br />
  25. 25. Elements of Art:Composition<br />Composition- artist’s organization of the elements of art<br />Rhythm- the principle that we associate movement or pattern, uses repeated elements<br />Aspects of repetition: Motif and Pattern<br />Motif- a single element of a pattern (quilt design)<br />Pattern- use of multiple motifs (checkerboard)<br />Balance- the equal distribution of visual weight in a work of art, can use symmetry<br />Approximate symmetry- shapes or objects are slightly varied on either side of the central axis<br />Asymmetrical balance- visual balance achieved through organization of unlike objects<br />
  26. 26. Elements of Art:Composition (pt. 2)<br />Focal point- an element that contrasts with the rest of the composition, more dominant<br />Proportion- the size relationships amongst parts of the composition<br />Scale- the dimensional relation of the parts of a work to the work in its entirety, the overall size of an artwork<br />Attracts attention and creates awe (Sistine Chapel)<br />2500 years ago: Classical Period of Greek sculpture<br />Aimed for accurate proportions for human<br />Had rules: 7 ½ heads high, bottom of the nose falls halfway between the chin and the corner of the eyes, ect.<br />
  27. 27. THE ELEMENTS OF ART<br />PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES<br />
  28. 28. Processes and Techniques<br />Forms of two dimensional art processes<br />-Have height and width, but no significant depth<br />Drawing<br />Printmaking<br />Painting<br />Photography<br />Forms of three dimensional art processes<br />Sculpture<br />Environmental Art<br />-Note: Mixed media falls into both categories<br />
  29. 29. Drawing<br />The most basic<br />Variety of drawing media (i.e. pencil, ink, charcoal, etc.) and surfaces (paper, walls, etc.)<br />Primarily based on the use of line, with each drawing tool having unique qualities<br />Shading: values of light and darkness; can be changed with pressure<br />Hatching/Cross-hatching: line techniques used to shade objects and create the illusion of 3-D<br />Strippling: creating different values with dots (more distance between dots = less shading)<br />
  30. 30. Veronica by Albrecht Durer<br />
  31. 31. Drawing (Continued)<br />Ink can be thinned down with water to whatever shade value is desired<br />Colored pencils and pastels can be used for coloring a drawing, but must consider their effects on an artwork<br />Pastels are popular, as they can be blended to create many delicate tints and shades, but very fragile.<br />
  32. 32. Printmaking<br />A group of mechanically aided two-dimensional processes that permit the production of multiple original artworks<br />All of these processes use a printing plate that applies ink on a surface.<br />Relief printmaking: involves cutting away parts of the wood/linoleum plate’s surface. The remaining part will stand out in relief, ranging from thin lines to broad sections. These parts will be inked and will be pressed/rolled onto the surface.<br />Intaglio printmaking: works oppositely from relief. Lines are incised on the wood/soft metal plate. Carving tools engrave the lines, or cutting into a surface. Etching is also used, which is the process of incising a design through a layer of wax/varnish applied to the surface of a metal plate, which is then immersed in acid to eat away exposed metal. The wax /varnish is removed after, revealing the etched design.<br />
  33. 33. Printmaking (continued)<br />Lithography: The process of drawing an image with a waxy pencil/crayon on a stone, zinc, or aluminum plate. The greasy image hardens and the plate is saturated in water. The ink will adhere to the greasy image, then the plate is moved through a press.<br />Lithography is complex and demanding, but no professional training is needed.<br />Screen prints: a process in which a photograph or other image is adhered to a silk/synthetic fabric stretched onto a frame, serving as a stencil for added on colored ink. Used for printing T-shirts<br />Through printmaking, multiple originals can be made, lessening costs.<br />
  34. 34. Painting<br />Covers a wide variety of media and techniques<br />Composed of three different materials:<br />Pigments: finely ground materials that are natural or synthetic.<br />Binders: the substance that holds the grains together, allowing the paint to adhere to the surface (egg yolk, wax, etc.)<br />Solvents: a substance (water/oil) added to change the consistency of the paint or alter drying time<br />fresco: a technique used to paint on walls/ceilings; pure powdered pigments are mixed with water and are applied to a wet plaster ground. <br />The paint is permanently bound, so careful planning is needed (buon fresco)<br />fresco secco: applying paints to dry plaster instead of wet plaster<br />
  35. 35. Painting (continued)<br />Oil paints not widely used until 1440s; tempera was used throughout history<br />Tempera: water-based paint; traditional tempera use egg yolk as binder<br />Requires great skill<br />Limitations: dries quickly, narrow tonal range, cannot achieve a close imitation of natural effects<br />Oil paints more versatile than tempera<br />Can be easily mixed and thinned to build up layers of glazes: thin transparent/semi-transparent layers applied over another color for alteration<br />Can be applied thickly and heavily for impasto surface<br />Dries very slowly<br />
  36. 36. Painting (continued)<br />Egyptian grave markers used encausticpaints, wax-based paints fused with the surface by hot irons. Very durable.<br />Gouache: water-based opaque paint similar to school-based tempera, but higher quality.<br />Good medium for bright colors and details<br />Watercolor: the most common water-based paint, which is transparent (shows white of paper)<br />Lightest colors applied first, then darker colors<br />Careful planning is needed; cannot make any mistakes<br />Acrylics are alternatives to oil paints. Composed of synthetic material, versatile, but unable to achieve subtleties of oil paints.<br />
  37. 37. Sculpture<br />Created in four ways: carving, modeling, casting, and construction<br />Can be freestanding, (Michelangelo’s Pieta) or attached to surfaces such as doors or walls<br />Carving is the process of removing the original material. Stone or wood can be chiseled or gouged with tools to form a physical figure<br />Modeling is an additive process, using soft material like clay or papier-macheadded on to the surface to shape the strucure<br />
  38. 38. Michelangelo’s Pieta<br />
  39. 39. Structures (continued)<br />Unfired clay. Wax sculptures can be used for a basis for a cast. They are molded by plaster; the mold is then filled in with material.<br />Other methods include metal welding, paper adjoining, and even movement sculptures<br />Environmental art (Earthworks) emerged in 1960s as a newer category of art form<br />Many of its works are classified as sculptures<br />Usually large-scale and constructed on-site; redefines the space installed<br />Not permanent; usually preserved through photography<br />
  40. 40. Mixed Media<br />A category of artworks where several art media are used.<br />Sometimes miscellaneous objects (such as fabric, newspaper, toys, etc.) are used in conjunction<br />Can be either 2-D or 3-D<br />Example: a collage of specific various material<br />Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque credited with introducing this medium<br />Masks, ceremonial costumes, and other cultural objects are other examples.<br />
  41. 41. Performance<br />The art in which the artists engage themselves in some kind of performance; sometimes involves an audience<br />Lacks permanence of more traditional genres<br />Offers a means for recovering unique human experiences<br />Since it cannot be sold as objects, it is often viewed as an escape from the increasing commercialization of art.<br />
  42. 42. Craft and Folk Art<br />Terms used to discuss art forms that are largely utilitarian<br />Pottery is a medium based upon the use of natural materials mainly clay<br />There are different methods to create a pot using clay<br />Slip: liquid clay; used to join the edges of a clay<br />Potter’s wheel<br />This method is known as “thrown”<br />Kiln<br />Fiber arts<br />Glass<br />Wood<br />
  43. 43. Architecture<br />The art and science of designing and constructing buildings<br />Architects<br />Materials that could be found locally were used for building in early times<br />Post-and-lintel construction:<br />Technique in which a long stone or wooden beam is placed horizontally across upright posts<br />Other key developments<br />the arch, the vault, and the dome<br />Skeletal building style<br />Steel and Concrete<br />
  44. 44. EUROPEANS IN AFRICA<br />
  45. 45. Early Explorers<br />Textiles and sculptures<br />Portugal’s expansion into Africa caused enormous changes on both continents<br />Before they arrived on Africa, Europeans had sought to expand Christianity<br />Eager to find the land of Prester John<br />Sought to control markets and resources in Africa, gold that was traded across the Sahara desert, and route to India<br />The Portuguese prince, Henry the Navigator, supported the new exploration<br />Europeans had a passion for goods from Africa, especially ivory and bronzes<br />Declined in importance in comparison to slaves<br />
  46. 46. Europe and Slave Trading<br />Began in early 1440s by the Portuguese.<br />Due to the rise of large-scale sugar production.<br />Holland and Great Britain grew powerful. <br />Key labor force in the Americas<br />British, Dutch, Spanish, and Portuguese grew wealthy.<br />
  47. 47. The Slave Trade by Auguste-Francois Biard<br />
  48. 48. Africa and Slavery<br />Already in Africa<br />African slaves had more rights<br />Asanti, Benin, and Kongo Kingdoms supplied slaves and other things for luxury goods.<br />Slavery was opposed from the beginning<br />1807, Slave Trade Act abolishes trading of slaves<br />1833, slavery abolished throughout the British empire<br />
  49. 49. African Expansion<br />Began in the 1880s after the decline of slave trade<br />Europeans had control over most of Africa resulting in political shift of rule over African colonies<br />Few countries were not under European rule<br />Ethiopia, and Libera both maintained independence. <br />France, England, Belgium, Italy, and Germany.<br />Portugal plays a minor role in this time<br />
  50. 50. European Changes<br />Assimilation of West African colonies<br />Forced to speak French in official dealings<br />African leaders were exiled and status symbols destroyed<br />Art production greatly impacted<br />Nkisi, an empowered sculpture created and used by the Kongo groups<br />
  51. 51. Nkisi Sculpture<br />
  52. 52. African Changes<br />African countries win independence<br />Ghana, followed by other West African nations including Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire, and Sierra Leone<br />Due to educated African leaders from abroad<br />Various barriers in the push for independence<br />African Artist face challenges<br />African Art seen as primitive, tribal and native of outside influence<br />Contemporary artists follow the path of European modernism<br />
  53. 53. Selected Work<br />Lidded Saltcellar – “Sapi-Portuguese”<br />[sierra leone, fifteenth-sixteenth century]<br />
  54. 54. Lidded Saltcellar<br />Appealed to foreign visitors<br />Identified as “Sapi-Portuguese”<br />Sapiproduced a great number of items for the Portuguese<br />Saltcellar is delicately carved in ivory to form a lidded bowl supported by a conical base<br />Saltcellar provides evidence of masterful carving of the Sapi artists <br />
  55. 55. Lidded Saltcellar<br />
  56. 56. QUESTIONS<br />
  57. 57. Question #1<br />The perspective that the Japanese art style primarily uses is:<br />A. Isometric perspective<br />B. Linear perspective<br />C. Aerial perspective<br />D. Parallel perspective<br />
  58. 58. Question #1<br />The perspective that the Japanese art style primarily uses is:<br />A. Isometric perspective<br />B. Linear perspective<br />C. Aerial perspective<br />D. Parallel perspective<br />
  59. 59. Question #2<br />True or False: <br />Hue is the name of the color.<br />
  60. 60. Question #2<br />True or False: <br />Hue is the name of the color.<br />True<br />
  61. 61. Question #3<br />Slip is:<br />A. Another term for ink<br />B. A type of art style<br />C. An aspect of printmaking<br />D. Liquid clay used to join the edges of clay<br />
  62. 62. Question #3<br />Slip is:<br />A. Another term for ink<br />B. A type of art style<br />C. An aspect of printmaking<br />D. Liquid clay used to join the edges of clay<br />
  63. 63. Question #4<br />True or False: Lithography is the process in which a photograph or other image is adhered to a silk/synthetic fabric stretched onto a frame, serving as a stencil for added on colored ink. <br />
  64. 64. Question #4<br /> True or False: Lithography is the process in which a photographor other image is adhered to a silk/synthetic fabric stretched onto a frame, serving as a stencil for added on colored ink. <br /> FALSE<br /> Lithography is the process of drawing an image with a waxy pencil/crayon on a stone, zinc, or aluminum plate. The greasy image hardens and the plate is saturated in water. The ink will adhere to the greasy image, then the plate is moved through a press.<br />
  65. 65. Question #5<br />The lidded saltcellar is identified as:<br />A. Sapi-French<br />B. Sapi-Portuguese<br />C. Sapi-German<br />D. Sapi-British<br />
  66. 66. Question #5<br />The lidded saltcellar is identified as:<br />A. Sapi-French<br />B. Sapi-Portuguese<br />C. Sapi-German<br />D. Sapi-British<br />
  67. 67. END<br />

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