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Relaxation and Feedback in Clusters of Galaxies. Defense slides for dissertation presentation.

Relaxation and Feedback in Clusters of Galaxies. Defense slides for dissertation presentation.

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Relaxation and Feedback in Clusters of Galaxies Relaxation and Feedback in Clusters of Galaxies Presentation Transcript

  • Relaxation andFeedback in Clusters ofGalaxiesKenneth W. CavagnoloThesis DefenseSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • CollaboratorsMegan DonahueMark VoitMing SunDavid VentimigliaGus EvrardSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • What is a cluster ofgalaxies?Saturday, June 8, 2013 View slide
  • NASA / TRACESaturday, June 8, 2013 View slide
  • Robert Gendler (robgendlerastropixs.com)Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • NASA / ESA / STScI / AURASaturday, June 8, 2013
  • NASA / ACS Team / Benitez et al.Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Virgo Consortium / Volker Springel / Klaus Dolag / SplotchSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Virgo Consortium / Volker Springel / Klaus Dolag / SplotchSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • 100’s to 1000’s ofgalaxiesFew Mpc in size1013-1015 Msolar85%-90% dark matter15%-10% baryonsMost baryons not ingalaxies...CFHT / Coelum Astronomia / Hawaiian StarlightPerseus ClusterCluster StatsNB: Mpc ~ 1019 km or ~3 million light yearsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Intracluster MediumMACS J1423Optical: NAOJ / Subaru / H. EbelingX-ray: NASA / CXC / IoA / S.Allen et al.Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Intracluster MediumMACS J1423Optical: NAOJ / Subaru / H. EbelingX-ray: NASA / CXC / IoA / S.Allen et al.Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Intracluster Medium(ICM)ICM accounts for 75%-90% ofbaryonsHot: ≥ 10 million KDiffuse: ≤ 10-1 cm-3Luminous: 1042-1045 ergs s-1> 1 billion times LsolarLQuasars > 1046 ergs s-1Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • How does ICM emitX-rays?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Thermal BremsstrahlungNASA / CXC / D. BerrySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Thermal BremsstrahlungNASA / CXC / D. Berry23 million K (2 keV) bremsstrahlung spectrumFlux[keV/cm2skeV]Energy [keV]Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Atomic Line EmissionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Atomic Line EmissionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Atomic Line EmissionGalacticAbsorptionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Atomic Line EmissionFe L-shellGalacticAbsorptionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Atomic Line EmissionFe L-shellFe K-shellGalacticAbsorptionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Observing X-raysChandra X-rayObservatoryAngular res. 0.492″Energy res. ~100 eVSensitivity peak ∼1.3 keVNASA / CXC / D. BerrySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Observing X-raysSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • “Tale of Two CoolingTimescales”Long cooling time (atmospheres)CosmologyRelaxationShort cooling time (cores)Galaxy FormationFeedbackSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • “Tale of Two CoolingTimescales”Long cooling time (atmospheres)CosmologyRelaxationShort cooling time (cores)Galaxy FormationFeedbackSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Why study clusters?Cosmology:Structure growth as tracerCluster number densityDark matter & dark energyComplications:“Weighing” clustersCluster dynamic stateAbell 1185CFHT / Coelum Astronomia / Hawaiian StarlightSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Reiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Good news:Reiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Good news:Cluster observables relateddirectly to mass (assumingequilibrium)Relations are wellunderstood & well modeledReiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Good news:Cluster observables relateddirectly to mass (assumingequilibrium)Relations are wellunderstood & well modeledBad news:Reiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Good news:Cluster observables relateddirectly to mass (assumingequilibrium)Relations are wellunderstood & well modeledBad news:Many clusters are not inequilibrium/relaxedPrecision cosmologyrequires knowledge ofcluster dynamic stateReiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationLarge dispersionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Importance of RelaxationMathiesen & Evrard, 2001Hotter hard-bandtemperaturesLineof equalityMathiesen & Evrard2001 suggested metricfor measuring clusterdynamic stateSpectroscopicallyunresolved, cool,merging subclustersalter best-fit cluster“temperature”Use bandpassdependent temperaturesas measure of dynamicstateSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • ME01 prediction is quite simple to testBroad-band temperature: 0.7-7.0 keV bandHard-band temperature: 2.0-7.0 keV band2.0 keV is in cluster rest frameDefine Hard-band to Broadband Ratio:THBR =T2.0−7.0T0.7−7.0Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneityCollected clustersfrom Chandra DataArchive6.5 Msec;225 observations;+190 clustersTwo aperturesselected:R5000R2500Central 70 kpcexcisedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneitySingle-componentthermal plasmaFixed absorbing NHMetal abundance is freeSoft background fit andincluded during fittingBroadbandkTX = 7.4 ± 0.2 keVSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneitySingle-componentthermal plasmaFixed absorbing NHMetal abundance is freeSoft background fit andincluded during fittingCut Spectrum at2.0rest keV and re-fitSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneitySingle-componentthermal plasmaFixed absorbing NHMetal abundance is freeSoft background fit andincluded during fittingHard-bandkTX = 9.1 ± 0.5 keVSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneitySingle-componentthermal plasmaFixed absorbing NHMetal abundance is freeSoft background fit andincluded during fittingHard-bandkTX = 9.1 ± 0.5 keVRepeat 190+ times...Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneitySIGNIFICANTNET SKEWINGSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneitySIGNIFICANTNET SKEWINGInteresting, but is thisrelated to cluster dynamicstate?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Relaxed and UnrelaxedDistinguish between relaxed and unrelaxedclusters using complementary indicators(A) Presence of cool core: quantifiableusing data(B) Mergers: individual study too timeconsuming, consult literatureSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Assume presenceof cool core (CC)relates to relaxationDefine a cool corecluster:If Tdec < 1 @ 2σ,cool coreOtherwise, non-coolT50 kpc~TclusterTdec =T50TclusterRelaxed and UnrelaxedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • CC CLUSTERS“PREFER”LOWER THBRRelaxed and UnrelaxedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • What about mergersystems?Cull out THBR > 1.1@ 1σ clustersAre these mergers?What of thoseunstudied systems?Yepes / Hoeft / UAMRelaxed and UnrelaxedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • MOSTLY NCC MERGERS;BUT NOT 1:1CORRESPONDENCERelaxed and UnrelaxedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneityTemperature inhomogeneity is detected &quantifiableTHBR “knows” about state of cluster coreHighest THBR values associated with mergersCalibrate between THBR and relaxation usingsimulations?Is THBR useful tool for quantifying scatter inmass-observables?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Temperature InhomogeneityTemperature inhomogeneity is detected &quantifiableTHBR “knows” about state of cluster coreHighest THBR values associated with mergersCalibrate between THBR and relaxation usingsimulations?Is THBR useful tool for quantifying scatter inmass-observables?ASK DAVID VENTIMIGLIA AT HIS DEFENSE?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • “Tale of Two CoolingTimescales”Long cooling time (atmospheres)CosmologyRelaxationShort cooling time (cores)Galaxy FormationFeedbackSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • “Tale of Two CoolingTimescales”Long cooling time (atmospheres)CosmologyRelaxationShort cooling time (cores)Galaxy FormationFeedbackSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Galaxy Labs, Inc.:ICM “records” feedbackFunction of black holes /AGNStar formation in big galaxiesComplications:Theory & observation don’tagree on massive galaxypropertiesDetails of feedback poorlyunderstoodX-ray: NASA / CXC / UVic. / A.Mahdavi et al.Optical / Lensing: CFHT / UVic. / A.Mahdavi et alAbell 520Why study clusters?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Importance of FeedbackZwicky 3146“The Most Massive Cooling Flow”Edge et al., 1994˙M > 1200 M⊙ yr−1Edge et al., 1994Let us consider simplecluster model...Without heating, modelspredict large deposition ofcool gas into coreBCG propertiesinconsistent with thismodelAND...Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Importance of FeedbackTX <13TvirialPeterson et al., 2001, 2003X-ray spectroscopydisproves simplecooling-flow modelNogasAlso, not enoughmass in cooled by-productsMolecular gasEmission line nebulaeYoung starsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Galaxy population alsosays there is more tostoryTheory & observationdo not fully agree ongalaxy propertiesMassive galaxies tooblue & too brightAll factors point tohalted coolingLearn about high-zprocesses via low-zfeedback in coresImportance of FeedbackCroton et al., 2006NOFEEDBACKWITHFEEDBACKSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • What could possibly beheating the cores ofclusters?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Importance of FeedbackX-ray: NASA / CXC / BlantonAbell 2052Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Importance of FeedbackX-ray: NASA / CXC / BlantonX-ray: NASA / CXC / Wilson & YoungRadio: NRAOAbell 2052Cygnus ASaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Importance of FeedbackX-ray: NASA / CXC / BlantonX-ray: NASA / CXC / Wilson & YoungRadio: NRAOX-ray: NASA / CXC / SAORadio: NRAO / Greg TaylorAbell 2052Cygnus AHydra ASaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Importance of FeedbackX-ray: NASA / CXC / BlantonX-ray: NASA / CXC / Wilson & YoungRadio: NRAOX-ray: NASA / CXC / SAORadio: NRAO / Greg TaylorX-ray: NASA / CXC / IoA / Fabian et al.Abell 2052Cygnus AHydra AAbell 426Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Importance of FeedbackTake a “close to the data” approach:Study cooling ICM & cluster coresBetter understand feedbackCreate broad, varied cluster sample fromChandra archiveConduct study of ICM entropy... entropy?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • ICM EntropyNature.Wallpaperme.comSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTNature.Wallpaperme.comSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTIdeal gas equation of state:P = Kρ5/3Nature.Wallpaperme.comSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTRecast using observables:K =TXn2/3elecIdeal gas equation of state:P = Kρ5/3Nature.Wallpaperme.comSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTRecast using observables:K =TXn2/3elecIdeal gas equation of state:P = Kρ5/3Nature.Wallpaperme.comTrue thermo entropy:s =32k ln K + s0Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTRecast using observables:K =TXn2/3elecIdeal gas equation of state:P = Kρ5/3dKdr≥ 0Nature.Wallpaperme.comTrue thermo entropy:s =32k ln K + s0Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • DM halo properties and entropystructure dictate X-ray observablesShock heating and cooling will alterentropy distributionEntropy will retain information aboutfeedbackEntropy may also hold clues abouthow feedback operatesStudy entropy in cluster cores…ICM EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • ICM EntropyMined ChandraData Archive (CDA)Inspected oranalyzed *every*cluster obs in CDA8.2 Msec;302 observations;233 “clusters”Make full-body ofwork publiclyavailableThe ACCEPT CollectionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Deriving ICM EntropyExtract surfacebrightnessEmergent X-raysindicative of gas density:Assume sphericalsymmetryDeproject emissionConvert surfacebrightness to density￿ff ∝ ρ2T1/2Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Deriving ICM EntropyExtract surfacebrightnessEmergent X-raysindicative of gas density:Assume sphericalsymmetryDeproject emissionConvert surfacebrightness to density￿ff ∝ ρ2T1/2Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Deriving ICM EntropyExtract surfacebrightnessEmergent X-raysindicative of gas density:Assume sphericalsymmetryDeproject emissionConvert surfacebrightness to density￿ff ∝ ρ2T1/2Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Deriving ICM EntropyExtract temperatureprofileMinimum three annuliwith 2500 counts eachFit spectra with single-component, absorbed,thermal modelNo spectraldeprojection: timeconsuming, notsignificantSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Deriving ICM EntropyExtract temperatureprofileMinimum three annuliwith 2500 counts eachFit spectra with single-component, absorbed,thermal modelNo spectraldeprojection: timeconsuming, notsignificantSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • 2D Maps from Schuecker et al., 2004Coma ClusterTX nelecDeriving ICM EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • 2D Maps from Schuecker et al., 2004Coma ClusterK =TXn2/3elecDeriving ICM EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • 2D Maps from Schuecker et al., 2004Coma ClusterK =TXn2/3elecDeriving ICM EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Deriving ICM EntropyFit models to K(r):K(r) = K0 + K100￿r100 kpc￿αK(r) = K100￿r100 kpc￿αSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Deriving ICM EntropyFit models to K(r):K(r) = K0 + K100￿r100 kpc￿αK(r) = K100￿r100 kpc￿αRepeat 230+ times...Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • ACCEPT EntropyProfilesSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Non-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Entropy profiles deviatefrom power-lawNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Entropy profiles deviatefrom power-lawConverge to purecooling model at largeradiiNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Entropy profiles deviatefrom power-lawConverge to purecooling model at largeradiiNon-zero core entropyconsistent withepisodic heatingNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Entropy profiles deviatefrom power-lawConverge to purecooling model at largeradiiNon-zero core entropyconsistent withepisodic heatingIs there more here thanmeets the eye?Non-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • K0 distribution isbimodalNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Central coolingtime < 1 GyrNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Does star formation “know”about K0?Select robust tracer like Hα:UV ionizing radiation from Oand B starsTurbulent mixing layers?Conduction interfaces?Regardless, Hα indicates T ~104 K gasScour the literature…InstituteforAstronomy/L.Cowieetal.Feedback-K0 RelationsAbell 1795Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Hα loves lowentropyFeedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Entropythreshold?Feedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Do AGN “know” about K0?Select robust tracer like radioemission:Assumed to be sign of AGNRadio relics/ghosts, halos,lobes… mostly AGN relatedQuery NVSS and SUMSSSidestep resolution issueswith redshift cutNASA / CXC / D. BerryFeedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Do AGN “know” about K0?Select robust tracer like radioemission:Assumed to be sign of AGNRadio relics/ghosts, halos,lobes… mostly AGN relatedQuery NVSS and SUMSSSidestep resolution issueswith redshift cutNRAO / AUI / Taylor3C 353Feedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Radio loves lowentropy too!Feedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Entropy thresholdis backFeedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Entropy thresholdis backFeedback-K0 RelationsCommon threshold suggestscommon mechanism, like thermalelectron conduction(Voit et al., 2008)Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • So where does thatleave us…Entropy Lifecycle(speculative)Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • 1045 AGNSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • NASA / CXC / NRAO / Kraft et al.Centaurus A1045 AGNSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • NASA / CXC / NRAO / McNamara et al.MS 0735ConductiveStabilityE > 1061 AGNSaturday, June 8, 2013
  • Mergers1E0657NASA / CXC / Markevitch et al.Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • ConclusionsHard-band to broadband temperature ratiocorrelates with cluster dynamic stateICM entropy properties consistent with AGNfeedback modelsCharacteristic entropy threshold for feedbackactivitySaturday, June 8, 2013
  • FinSaturday, June 8, 2013
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  • Saturday, June 8, 2013
  • Saturday, June 8, 2013