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Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
Napoleon’s rise to power
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Napoleon’s rise to power

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Here is a description of how Napoleon came to power.

Here is a description of how Napoleon came to power.

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  • His father, Carlo Buonaparte, was a lawyer whose family – of ancient Tuscan nobility – had emigrated to Corsica in the 16th Century.Corsica is an island that to this day has a proud and independent tradition. But in the late- 18th Century it sat uneasily in the power of the Bourbon dynasty, headed by the doomed Louis XVI. This led the young Napoleon to have natural leanings towards the revolutionary passion that was sweeping France and its territories at the time.
  • Liberty, equality and brotherhoodJacobin group – The society of the Friends of the constitution, the most extreme of the political clubs in Paris.The French Revolution removed a lot of the barriers to progress that once prevented the lower classes from attainting positions of influence and power in France. For a man of skill, charisma and talent such as young Bonaparte, this allowed a career progression that would not have been previously possible.
  • 1) In particular he became well acquainted with Robsepierre’s brother.
  • 1) This legendary ‘whiff of grapeshot’ further advanced his level of notoriety.
  • Interestingly it didn't worry the locals too much either as they regarded this behaviour as little different to that meted out to them by their old noble masters.Loading field guns in the thick of the fighting was a job usually done by corporals.
  • 1) Napoleon, despite his later reputation, was certainly a progressive force within Europe.
  • Brumaire – Second month in the French Republican Calendar The coup of 18 Brumairewas the coup d'étatby which General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, Year VIII under the French Republican Calendar.
  • 1) Bonaparte therefore completed his coup within a coup by the adoption of a constitution under which the First Consul, a position he was sure to hold, had greater power than the other two. In particular, he appointed the Senate and the Senate interpreted the constitution. The Senate allowed him to rule by decree, so the more independent State Council and Tribunate degenerated into impotence, serving merely as window dressing.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Napoleon’s Rise to Power
      By Kenisha Browning
    • 2. Introduction‘ To do all that one is able to do, is to be a man; to do all that one would like to do, is to be a God’ Napoleon Bonaparte
      Undoubted genius, megalomaniac, general, statesman
      and ruthless dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte is one of the
      most controversial characters in world history. In 20
      years from the base of revolutionary France he
      transformed Europe into a largely personal Empire – but
      his eventual fall was as fast as his meteoric rise to power.
      To the French for a time he was a superstar, to Europe’s
      monarchies he was ‘the enemy of humanity’. His legacy
      is perhaps the foundation of modern Europe. This
      presentation traces the major events in the life of the
      ‘little corporal’ that led him to power in France.
    • 3. The Early Years
      On the 15th August 1769, in Ajaccio, on the
      Mediterranean Island of Corsica, Napoleon
      Bonaparte was born to a middle class family.
      Napoleon was not of French origin as
      Corsica had only just been sold to France by
      the Italian republic of Genoa, therefore
      French was always a second language to
      him. This has led to comparisons with Adolf
      Hitler, who also became the supreme leader
      of a country other than his birth nation. He
      was an avid reader and workaholic, proving
      highly capable in areas such as mathematics
      ( a talent that led to him training as an
      officer in the French artillery). This was the
      platform which he began to rise
      through the military ranks.
    • 4. The French Revolution
      In that latter half of the 18th Century, the
      French become progressively unhappy about
      their treatment at the hands of the rich and
      decadent nobility. In 1789 a National
      Assembly in Paris defied the King,
      representatives of the nobility and the church
      to demand far-reaching reform of an unfair
      administration. That summer, the citizens of
      Paris rose and famously stormed the Bastille
      prison, starting a chain of events that would
      see King Louis imprisoned and eventually
      executed. In 1792 France was declared a
      Republic by a radical revolutionary
      government. Their motto was ‘Liberte,
      egalite et fraternite’ During this turbulent
      period, France was ruled by various
      groupings; most famously, for a time, by a
      bloody regime under the Jacobin group led
      by Maximilien Robespierre.
    • 5. First Coalition
      There was a rise in anti-royalist political factions as the French Revolution sent shockwaves through the constitutional monarchies of Europe. Several countries of Europe, led mainly by the Austrian Empire, Prussia, Russia and Great Britain desired to put down this revolution, so they went to war against the French Republic which a view to restoring the French monarchy.
      The first of these grand coalitions led to the rise of Napoleon as first a general of great skill and tenacity and ultimately to self-styled Emperor. During and after this rise there were several further coalitions against France. The wars against these later coalitions are regarded as the so-called Napoleonic Wars proper.
      In 1779, Napoleon Bonaparte was admitted to the French military academy at Brienne . Napoleon was never truly accepted by his peers but this drove him to throw all his weight into his studies. Napoleon, after a while, managed to upgrade to the military academy in Paris because he did have certain connections to the revolutionary leadership in Paris. Due to his mathematical brilliance he was trained in artillery, even though he initially wanted to be a naval officer.
      When Austria, Great Britain and Prussia declared war on France in 1792, France found herself at a disadvantage. Many of France’s finest generals had been killed or driven away because of the terror that had arisen during France’s post-revolutionary excesses. Therefore, at first things went badly for them with their armies consisting largely of poorly-trained mobs under often unimaginative leadership.
    • 6. First Coalition
      In this climate, Napoleon gained his
      commission as a captain in the artillery
      and was assigned to units trying to
      throw out a British garrison from the
      southern French port of Toulon, where
      it was aiding a Royalist uprising.
      Napoleon’s involvement in the siege
      occurred by chance. When the
      commander of the artillery was
      wounded, Napoleon was offered
      his position on 16th September 1793, by
      one of the representatives on mission
      in the area. Napoleon distinguished
      himself by taking two crucial forts that
      guarded the town and throwing out the
      British fleet from the port. Napoleon
      used his charisma to claim this minor
      victory as his victory alone. He was
      promoted to the rank of Brigadier
      General at the age of just 24; in
      addition he received several plaudits.
    • 7. First Coaliton
      Following this, he joined the campaign in Italy as commandant of the artillery - but this posting was short lived, as the unstable political atmosphere in Paris resulted in a change of regime. The terror in Paris had left the Directory appallingly unpopular, with no one feeling safe from persecution or execution. Robespierre was supplanted and found himself a victim of the Guillotine. Bonaparte, as a known associate of Robespierre, was arrested (on a charge of conspiracy and treason) and imprisoned.
      Fortunately though, he escaped the Guillotine. When his case came to trial, he was cleared. The sitting judges could only find good military distinction in his career, therefore he returned to Paris. Here he famously put down a Royalist uprising by ruthlessly firing on French citizensand his stature with the revolutionary authorities was assured.
    • 8. Napoleon was a Warrior
      By 1796, Austria was alone against
      France as Prussia and England had
      abandoned the coalition. There were
      two main parts of campaign, one in
      Germany and one in Italy under the
      command of Bonaparte. Napoleon was
      not expected to do well as his
      campaign was regarded as the poorer
      of the two, and referred to as a ragtag
      mob. The authorities regarded him with
      wariness as he was a rising star and was
      perceived as a growing threat by those
      in the top ranks of leadership.
      However, they needed a general of his
      quality in charge and this campaign
      saw him roar forth as an unstoppable,
      raging bull.
      His army became far more battle-ready and
      disciplined because of his energy and
      Leadership skills. In addition, during the
      campaigning in northern Italy, he allowed his
      troops free reign to loot, pillage and live off
      the countryside. This made him extremely
      popular with his troops and back in France
      because the war booty was restoring wealth
      back to a county impoverished by revolution
      and war. This aided Napoleon’s rise to power
      as he was now recognised as a general and
      tactician of almost unparalleled brilliance.
      His armies stunned the Austrians with
      victory after victory and soon he had thrown
      them out of Italy altogether - bringing it
      under French control. He was never far from
      the action himself, earning his nickname 'the
      little corporal'. All this had been achieved
      with a smaller army than their enemy, by a
      combination of inventive tactics, swift
      manoeuvring, daring and not a little hard
      fighting.
    • 9. Napoleon was a Warrior
      The Austrians demanded peace
      because of the campaigning of
      Napoleon in northern Italy, and he
      acted without consulting Paris. He
      signed a treaty with Austria (The Treaty
      of Camp Formio 1797) on his
      own authority which established
      several Italian republics to be
      governed by the Italians
      themselves. Due to this Napoleon is
      regarded as being the first person
      to move Italy towards unification.
      He now behaved like a King
      because of his belief in himself as a
      man of destiny. French leadership
      was now on full alert to this
      successful general with a fiercely
      loyal army at his back.
    • 10. Coup d'état of Brumaire
    • 11. Coup d'état of Brumaire
      Despite the many difficulties which he had faced
      during the Egyptian campaign, as far as the French
      public were concerned the numerous dispatches
      which he had sent back to France served only to
      enhance his reputation in the country. With France
      once again in crisis and the Directory largely blamed
      for it, Napoleon’s return was greeted by many as that
      of a saviour. Napoleon left Egypt and abandoned his
      army on 23rd August and set foot once again on
      French soil at Frejus on 9 October 1799. On his way to
      Paris he was welcomed with enthusiasm by crowds
      who gathered everywhere he went. There were
      popular demonstrations at Avignon and Aix as he
      progressed towards Paris. The civilian population
      knew of his past victories in Italy and Egypt and
      greeted him as a hero, while the army hailed him as
      the leader needed to overthrow a weak government
      of which they were tired and that had lost touch with
      its revolutionary roots. He wrote later of his triumphal
      journey to Paris.
    • 12. Coup d'état of Brumaire
      On the morning of 18 Brumaire, members of
      the Council of Ancients sympathetic to the
      coup warned their colleagues of a Jacobin
      conspiracy and persuaded them to remove
      to the Château de Saint-Cloud, west of
      Paris. General Bonaparte was charged with
      the safety of the two Councils. Later that
      morning Sieyès and Roger Ducos resigned
      as Directors. Talleyrand persuaded Barras to
      do the same.
      The resignation of three of the five Directors
      prevented a quorum and thus practically
      abolished the Directory, but the two Jacobin
      Directors, Gohier and Moulin, refused to
      resign. Gohier was taken prisoner and
      Moulin escaped. The two Councils were not
      yet intimidated and continued meeting.
    • 13. Coup d'état of Brumaire
      Napoleon withdrew to the
      chateau's Orangerie, where the
      Council of Five Hundred was
      meeting. His reception here was
      even more hostile. Napoleon and
      his grenadiers entered just as the
      legality of Barras' resignation
      was being challenged by the
      Jacobins in the chamber. Upon
      entering, Napoleon was first
      jostled, and then outright
      assaulted. It was not Napoleon
      himself, but his brother Lucien,
      President of the Council, who called
      upon the grenadiers to defend their
      leader. Napoleon escaped, but
      only through the use of military
      force.
      By the following day, the deputies
      had, for the most part, realized that
      they were facing an attempted coup
      rather than being protected from a
      Jacobin rebellion. Faced with their
      rebellion, Napoleon stormed into the
      chambers, escorted by a small force of
      grenadiers. While perhaps unplanned,
      this proved to be the coup within the
      coup: from this point, this was a military
      affair. Napoleon was immediately
      greeted with cries of ‘outlaw the
      dictator’. This was a dangerous
      development, for if a decree of outlawry
      were agreed, it would mean summary
      execution by a firing squad.
    • 14. Coup d'état of Brumaire
      A motion was raised in the Council of Five Hundred to
      declare Napoleon an outlaw. At this point, Lucien Bonaparte
      apparently slipped out of the chamber and told the soldiers
      guarding the Councils that the majority of the Five Hundred
      were being terrorized by a group of deputies brandishing
      daggers. Then, according to Michael Rapport, "He pointed to
      Napoleon's bloody, pallid face as proof. Then, in a theatrical
      gesture, he seized a sword and promised to plunge it
      through his own brother's heart if he were a traitor." Lucien
      ordered the troops to expel the violent deputies from the
      chamber. Grenadiers under the command of General Murat
      marched into the Orangerie and dispersed the Council. This
      was effectively the end of the Directory.
    • 15. Coup d'état of Brumaire
      The Ancients passed a decree
      which adjourned the Councils for
      three months, appointed
      Napoleon, Sieyès, and Ducos
      provisional consuls, and named
      the Legislative Commission.
      Some tractable members of the
      Five Hundred, rounded up
      afterwards, served to give these
      measures the confirmation of
      their House. Thus the Directory
      and the Councils came to an
      end.
    • 16. Coup d'état of Brumaire
      The Directory was crushed, but the coup within the coup was
      not yet complete. The use of military force had certainly
      strengthened Napoleon's hand. With the Council routed, the
      potters convened two commissions, each consisting of
      twenty-five deputies from the two Councils. The plotters
      essentially intimidated the commissions into declaring a
      provisional government, the first form of the Consulate
      with Napoleon, Sieyès, and Ducos as Consuls. The lack of
      reaction from the streets proved that the revolution was,
      indeed, over. Resistance by Jacobin officeholders in the
      provinces was quickly crushed. Twenty Jacobin deputies were
      exiled, and others were arrested. The commissions then drew
      up the "short and obscure Constitution of the Year VIII", the
      first of the constitutions since the Revolution without a
      Declaration of Rights.
    • 17. Statesman and Emperor – ‘The revolution is over. I am the revolution’ Napoleon Bonaparte
      By the year 1801, Napoleon was,
      within Europe, to all intents and
      purposes invincible. The treaty of
      Amiens in 1802 ended 10 years of
      war and in a national plebiscite
      Napoleon was elected First Consul of
      France for life. In 1804 Napoleon
      declared himself Emperor of France
      taking the title Napoleon the 1st and
      is said to have grabbed the crown
      out of the Pope’s hand and put it on
      his head himself during his
      coronation at Notre Dame. His
      wife Josephine was proclaimed
      Empress.
    • 18. I can no longer obey; I have tasted command, and I cannot give it up.
      Napoleon Bonaparte

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